Skeletal system lab

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Skeletal system lab

  1. 1. SKELETAL SYSTEM The Skeletal System from Various Authors
  2. 2. Dense Regular Connective Tissue e.g. TENDON & LIGAMENTS- large amounts of collagen
  3. 3. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue e.g. DERMIS & CAPSULES of organs
  4. 4. Fibrocartilage
  5. 5. Fibrocartilage
  6. 6. Fibrocartilage
  7. 7. Elastic Cartilage
  8. 8. Bone Cells
  9. 9. 17 Cranium Frontal (1) • forehead • roof of nasal cavity • roofs of orbits • frontal sinuses • supraorbital foramen • coronal suture
  10. 10. 18 Cranium Parietal (2) • side walls of cranium • roof of cranium • sagittal suture
  11. 11. 19 Cranium Occipital (1) • back of skull • base of cranium • foramen magnum • occipital condyles • lambdoid suture
  12. 12. 20 Cranium Temporal (2) • side walls of cranium • floor of cranium • floors and sides of orbits • squamous suture • external acoustic meatus • mandibular fossa • mastoid process • styloid process • zygomatic process
  13. 13. 21 Cranium Sphenoid (1) • base of cranium • sides of skull • floors and sides of orbits • sella turcica • sphenoidal sinuses
  14. 14. 22 Cranium Ethmoid (1) • roof and walls of nasal cavity • floor of cranium • wall of orbits • cribiform plates • perpendicular plate • superior and middle nasal conchae • ethmoidal sinuses • crista galli
  15. 15. 23 Facial Skeleton Maxillary (2) • upper jaw • anterior roof of mouth • floors of orbits • sides of nasal cavity • floors of nasal cavity • alveolar processes • maxillary sinuses • palatine process
  16. 16. 24 Facial Skeleton
  17. 17. 25 Facial Skeleton Palatine (2) • L shaped bones located behind the maxillae • posterior section of hard palate • floor of nasal cavity • lateral walls of nasal cavity
  18. 18. 26 Facial Skeleton Zygomatic (2) • prominences of cheeks • lateral walls of orbits • floors of orbits • temporal process
  19. 19. 27 Facial Skeleton Lacrimal (2) • medial walls of orbits • groove from orbit to nasal cavity Nasal (2) • bridge of nose
  20. 20. 28 Facial Skeleton Vomer (1) • inferior portion of nasal septum
  21. 21. 29 Facial Skeleton Inferior Nasal Conchae (2) • extend from lateral walls of nasal cavity
  22. 22. 30 Facial Skeleton Mandible (1) • lower jaw • body • ramus • mandibular condyle • coronoid process • alveolar process • mandibular foramen • mental foramen
  23. 23. 31 Infantile Skull Fontanels – fibrous membranes
  24. 24. 5. What are the major features of a bone? (anatomy) 6. Describe the main features of the skull as seen from the lateral, frontal, internal, and inferior views.(axial skeleton) 7. What is the importance of the vertebral column? (axial skeleton) a. What are the functions of the vertebral column? b. What are its 4 major curvatures? c. Why are there regional differences in the vertebrae?
  25. 25. 33 Skeletal Organization
  26. 26. 5. What are the major features of a bone? (anatomy) 6. Describe the main features of the skull as seen from the lateral, frontal, internal, and inferior views.(axial skeleton) 7. What is the importance of the vertebral column? (axial skeleton) a. What are the functions of the vertebral column? b. What are its 4 major curvatures? c. Why are there regional differences in the vertebrae?
  27. 27. WHAT ARE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN? • Supports- – the weight of the head and the trunk; • Protects- – the spinal cord; • For exit of - – spinal nerves from the spinal cord; • Site for- – Muscle attachment; • Allows movement of- – Head and trunk;
  28. 28. 36 Vertebral Column • cervical vertebrae (7) • thoracic vertebrae (12) • lumbar vertebrae (5) • sacrum • coccyx
  29. 29. WHAT ARE THE 4 MAJOR CURVATURES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN? • Cervical region – Anterior curvature • Thoracic region – Posterior curvature (abnormal post. curvature-kyphosis; abnormal lateral curvature-scoliosis) • Lumbar region – Anterior curvature (abnormal ant.curvature-lordosis; abnormal lateral curvature-scoliosis ) • Sacral & coccygeal regions – Posterior curvature
  30. 30. 38 Vertebral Column • cervical curvature • thoracic curvature • lumbar curvature • sacral curvature • rib facets • vertebra prominens • intervertebral discs • intervertebral foramina
  31. 31. 39 Cervical Vertebrae • Atlas – 1st ; supports head • Axis – 2nd ; dens pivots to turn head • transverse foramina • bifid spinous processes • vertebral prominens – useful landmark
  32. 32. 40 Thoracic Vertebrae • long spinous processes • rib facets
  33. 33. 41 Lumbar Vertebrae • large bodies • thick, short spinous processes
  34. 34. 42 Sacrum • five fused vertebrae • median sacral crest • posterior sacral foramina • posterior wall of pelvic cavity • sacral promontory
  35. 35. 43 Coccyx • tailbone • four fused vertebrae
  36. 36. 8. What is the thoracic cage? Why is it important? What makes up the thoracic cage? (axial skeleton) 9. What are the bones of the pectoral girdle and the upper limb? Why are these important? (appendicular skeleton) 10.What are the bones of the pelvic girdle and the lower limb? (appendicular skeleton)
  37. 37. 45 Thoracic Cage • Ribs • Sternum • Thoracic vertebrae • Costal cartilages • Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs • Protects viscera • Role in breathing
  38. 38. 46 Ribs • True ribs (7) • False ribs (5) • floating (2)
  39. 39. 47 Rib Structure • Shaft • Head – posterior end; articulates with vertebrae • Tubercle – articulates with vertebrae • Costal cartilage – hyaline cartilage
  40. 40. 48 Sternum • Manubrium • Body • Xiphoid process
  41. 41. 49 Pectoral Girdle • shoulder girdle • clavicles • scapulae • supports upper limbs
  42. 42. 50 Clavicles • articulate with manubrium • articulate with scapulae (acromion process)
  43. 43. 51 Scapulae • spine • supraspinous fossa • infraspinous fossa • acromion process • coracoid process • glenoid cavity
  44. 44. 52 Upper Limb • Humerus • Radius • Ulna • Carpals • Metacarpals • Phalanges
  45. 45. 53 Humerus • head • greater tubercle • lesser tubercle • anatomical neck • surgical neck • deltoid tuberosity • capitulum • trochlea • coronoid fossa • olecranon fossa
  46. 46. 54 Radius • lateral forearm bone • head • radial tuberosity • styloid process
  47. 47. 55 Ulna • medial forearm bone • trochlear notch • olecranon process • coronoid process • styloid process
  48. 48. 56 Wrist and Hand • Carpals (16) • trapezium • trapezoid • capitate • scaphoid • pisiform • triquetrum • hamate • lunate • Metacarpals (10) • Phalanges (28) • proximal phalanx • middle phalanx • distal phalanx
  49. 49. 57 Pelvic Girdle • Coxae (2) • supports trunk of body • protects viscera
  50. 50. 58 Coxae • hip bones •acetabulum • ilium • iliac crest • iliac spines • greater sciatic notch • ischium • ischial spines • lesser sciatic notch • ischial tuberosity • pubis • obturator foramen • symphysis pubis • pubic arch
  51. 51. 59 Greater and Lesser Pelves Greater Pelvis • lumbar vertebrae posteriorly • iliac bones laterally • abdominal wall anteriorly Lesser Pelvis • sacrum and coccyx posteriorly • lower ilium, ischium, and pubis bones laterally and anteriorly
  52. 52. 60 Male and Female Pelves Female • iliac bones more flared • broader hips • pubic arch angle greater • more distance between ischial spines and ischial tuberosities • sacral curvature shorter and flatter • lighter bones
  53. 53. 61 Lower Limb • Femur • Patella • Tibia • Fibula • Tarsals • Metatarsals • Phalanges
  54. 54. 62 Femur • longest bone of body • head • fovea capitis • neck • greater trochanter • lesser trochanter • linea aspera • condyles • epicondyles
  55. 55. 63 Patella • kneecap • anterior surface of knee • flat sesamoid bone located in a tendon
  56. 56. 64 Tibia • shin bone • medial to fibula • condyles • tibial tuberosity • anterior crest • medial malleolus
  57. 57. 65 Fibula • lateral to tibia • long, slender • head • lateral malleolus • does not bear any body weight
  58. 58. 66 Ankle and Foot • Tarsals (14) • calcaneus • talus • navicular • cuboid • lateral cuneiform • intermediate cuneiform • medial cuneiform • Metatarsals (10) • Phalanges (28) • proximal • middle • distal
  59. 59. 67 Ankle and Foot
  60. 60. 68 Life-Span Changes • decrease in height at about age 30 • calcium levels fall • bones become brittle • osteoclasts outnumber osteoblasts • spongy bone weakens before compact bone • bone loss rapid in menopausal women • hip fractures common • vertebral compression fractures common
  61. 61. 69 Clinical Application Types of Fractures • green stick • fissured • comminuted • transverse • oblique • spiral
  62. 62. Human Anatomy and Physiology I Unit 4 Part A: The Skeletal System Oklahoma City Community College
  63. 63. The Bones of the Human Skeleton and Cranium
  64. 64. Bones of the Cranium
  65. 65. Frontal View
  66. 66. Frontal Frontal View
  67. 67. Parietal Frontal View
  68. 68. Temporal Frontal View
  69. 69. Nasal Frontal View
  70. 70. Vomer Frontal View
  71. 71. Zygoma Frontal View
  72. 72. Maxilla Frontal View
  73. 73. Mandible Frontal View
  74. 74. Frontal Parietal Temporal Zygoma Nasal Vomer Maxilla Mandible Frontal View
  75. 75. Bones of the Orbit Nasal
  76. 76. Sphenoid Bones of the Orbit
  77. 77. Ethmoid Bones of the Orbit
  78. 78. Lacrimal Bones of the Orbit
  79. 79. Lacrimal Ethmoid Sphenoid Bones of the Orbit Nasal
  80. 80. Lateral View
  81. 81. Frontal Lateral View
  82. 82. Parietal Lateral View
  83. 83. Temporal Lateral View
  84. 84. Nasal Lateral View
  85. 85. Zygoma Lateral View
  86. 86. Maxilla Lateral View
  87. 87. Mandible Lateral View
  88. 88. Sphenoid Lateral View
  89. 89. Occipital Lateral View
  90. 90. Mastoid Process Lateral View
  91. 91. External Auditory Meatus Lateral View
  92. 92. Frontal Nasal Zygoma Maxilla Mandible Parietal Sphenoid Temporal Occipital External Auditory Meatus Mastoid Process Lateral View
  93. 93. Superior View
  94. 94. Frontal Superior View
  95. 95. Parietal Superior View
  96. 96. Temporal Superior View
  97. 97. Vomer Superior View
  98. 98. Sphenoid Superior View
  99. 99. Occipital Superior View
  100. 100. Foramen Magnum Superior View
  101. 101. VomerFrontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Foramen Magnum Sphenoid Superior View
  102. 102. Inferior View
  103. 103. Inferior View
  104. 104. Inferior View
  105. 105. Inferior View
  106. 106. Inferior View
  107. 107. Occipital Bone Inferior View
  108. 108. Inferior View
  109. 109. Inferior View
  110. 110. Inferior View
  111. 111. Inferior View
  112. 112. Occipital Bone Inferior View
  113. 113. Sutures
  114. 114. Sagittal Sutures
  115. 115. Frontal (Coronal) Sutures
  116. 116. Squamous Sutures
  117. 117. Lambdoid Sutures
  118. 118. Frontal (Coronal) Sagittal Squamous Lambdoid Sutures
  119. 119. Bones of the Skeleton
  120. 120. Clavicle
  121. 121. Scapula
  122. 122. Costals (Ribs)
  123. 123. Sternum
  124. 124. Vertebra
  125. 125. Humerus
  126. 126. Ulna
  127. 127. Radius
  128. 128. Sternum Clavicle Scapula Costals (Ribs) Humerus VertebraUlna Radius
  129. 129. Bones of the Hand
  130. 130. Carpals Bones of the Hand
  131. 131. Metacarpels Carpals Bones of the Hand
  132. 132. Phalanges Metacarpals Carpals Bones of the Hand
  133. 133. 8. What is the thoracic cage? Why is it important? What makes up the thoracic cage? (axial skeleton) 9. What are the bones of the pectoral girdle and the upper limb? Why are these important? (appendicular skeleton) 10.What are the bones of the pelvic girdle and the lower limb? (appendicular skeleton)
  134. 134. Sacrum
  135. 135. Ilium
  136. 136. Ischium
  137. 137. Pubis
  138. 138. Femur
  139. 139. Patella
  140. 140. Tibia
  141. 141. Fibula
  142. 142. Ilium Ischium Femur Fibula Sacrum Pubis Patella Tibia
  143. 143. Bones of the Foot
  144. 144. Bones of the Foot Tarsals
  145. 145. Bones of the Foot Metatarsals Tarsals
  146. 146. Bones of the Foot Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals

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