Histology

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Histology

  1. 1. Introduction to Histology • Four basic tissue types: Epithelial connective muscle nervous • All animals are composed of ONLY these four tissue types • Tissue types are organized to form organs, which form the functional systems of the body
  2. 2. Epithelial tissueEpithelial tissue • Function: covers the internal andFunction: covers the internal and external surfaces of the bodyexternal surfaces of the body • Four types: Squamous, cuboidal,Four types: Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, and transitionalcolumnar, and transitional • Organized in layers: simple or stratifiedOrganized in layers: simple or stratified
  3. 3. Examples: Epithelial • TransitionalTransitional epithelial: found inepithelial: found in the bladderthe bladder • Stretches as theStretches as the bladder becomesbladder becomes fullfull p. 158 F draw above
  4. 4. Examples: Epithelial • Simple squamous:Simple squamous: lines blood vesselslines blood vessels and lungsand lungs • Allows forAllows for increased bloodincreased blood flow and increasedflow and increased oxygen diffusionoxygen diffusion p. 157 A
  5. 5. Examples: Epithelial • Stratified squamous: lines the mouth, esophagus, cervix and skin • Several layers offers protection to outer layers and membranes of body. p. 157 B
  6. 6. Examples: Epithelial • Simple columnar: digestive tracts • Cells mixed with goblet cells that secrete mucous to aid in digestion p. 158 D
  7. 7. Example Location Shape (form) Function Transitional epithelium Bladder Layer with no specific shape, Cells can stretch Allow bladder to stretch as it fills Simple squamous Lungs, blood vessels Flat and thin layer Increase flow and absorption rate through tubes Stratified squamous Skin, esophagus, mouth cervix Several layers of thin flat cells Provide protection from abrasions Simple columnar Digestive tract One cell layer of rectangular cells mixed with goblet (mucous – producing) cells Aid in digestion with mucous production
  8. 8. Connective • Function: Bind and support otherFunction: Bind and support other tissuestissues • Several types:Several types: – BoneBone – BloodBlood – CT proper: dense and looseCT proper: dense and loose – AdiposeAdipose – CartilageCartilage
  9. 9. Examples: Connective • CT proper: • Collagen fibers (vitamin C) – Loose: ECM – Dense: tendons and ligaments p. 159 A
  10. 10. Examples: Connective • BoneBone – Dense, hardDense, hard mineral matrixmineral matrix – Replaced everyReplaced every 9 months.9 months. p. 161 E
  11. 11. Examples: Connective • Blood – To circulate materials throughout the organism – RBC’s: contain hemoglobin to allow for oxygen to be carried to the tissues. p. 160 C
  12. 12. Examples: ConnectiveExamples: Connective • Cartilage: vary in # of fibers and blood supply – Hyaline: ribs, trachea, joints – Elastic: ears, larynx – Fibro: spinal chord p. 160 D
  13. 13. Examples: Connective • Adipose tissue: – Insulation – Energy Storage p. 159 A
  14. 14. Muscle tissueMuscle tissue • Function: Able to contract forFunction: Able to contract for locomotion.locomotion. • Three types: skeletal, cardiac andThree types: skeletal, cardiac and smoothsmooth
  15. 15. Muscle tissueMuscle tissue • Skeletal: voluntary, striated, multinucleate cells • Muscles attached to bones for voluntary movement p. 161 A
  16. 16. Muscle tissue • Smooth: – Non-striated, spindle-shaped, uni- nucleate involuntary cells • Muscles found in digestive tract, respiratory tract, etc. p. 161 B
  17. 17. Muscle tissue • Cardiac:involuntary, striated, branched, uni-nucleate cells • Only found in the heart p. 161 D
  18. 18. Nervous tissueNervous tissue • Function: Respond toFunction: Respond to stimuli and transmit impulses.stimuli and transmit impulses. • Cells are called neuronsCells are called neurons • Composed of cell body, axon andComposed of cell body, axon and dendrites.dendrites. • Single cell may run up to several feetSingle cell may run up to several feet long.long. p. 161 IV
  19. 19. Life Processes • Respiration • Circulation • Responsiveness • Boundary Maintenance • Movement • Adaptation • Digestion • Absorption • Assimilation • Excretion • Reproduction 1 3 4 5 6 11 10 9 8 7 2
  20. 20. • Blocked coronary artery
  21. 21. • Alveoli of lungs with pneumonia
  22. 22. • Emphysema in alveoli of lungs
  23. 23. • Sickle cell anemia
  24. 24. • Parkinson’s disease
  25. 25. • Cervical Human papillomavirus
  26. 26. • Esophageal Cancer
  27. 27. • Normal Bone *Diseased • Osteoporosis
  28. 28. • Infected mammary gland from silicone leak
  29. 29. » Stomach ulcer
  30. 30. • Cardiac tissue after cocaine use
  31. 31. • Cardiac tissue following myocardial infarction

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