CRANIAL NERVES

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memorize and understand all the cranial nerves! Easier with photos that may guide you upon your ladder to your success :)

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CRANIAL NERVES

  1. 1. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves HEAD/NECK IV: Cranial Nerves • Special Sense Nerves –I,II,VIII • Somatic Motor Nerves –Eye—III,IV,VI –Tongue--XII • “Rest of body” nerves –IX,X,XI • Face and jaws –VII, V
  2. 2. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves Overview Head/Neck I-IV • Head I: Skull—a framework to hang on – Overall organization of skull – Base of the skull—the hard part • Developmental view • Cranial nerves out (to “targets”) • Head II: Throat targets • Head III: Special Sense targets • Head IV: Cranial nerves in depth
  3. 3. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves Nerve “targets” in head • SENSORY Special General Smell skin Vision teeth Hearing eye tongue oral cavity nasal cavity middle ear throat meninges • MOTOR Muscles Glands eyes salivary extrinsic sweat intrinsic lacrimal jaws mucous facial expression larynx tongue throat ear
  4. 4. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves Base of the skull—cranial nerves out • Ethmoid (olfactory) I. Olfactory • Sphenoid (optic) II. Optic III. Oculomotor IV. Trochlear VI. Abducens • Temporal (otic) VII. Acoustic/Auditory/ Vestibulocochlear • Face/Jaws V. Trigeminal VII. Facial • Throat (rest of body) IX Glossopharyngeal X. Vagus XI. Spinal Accessory XII. Hypoglosal
  5. 5. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves Special Sense Nerves Internal auditory meatus (temporal) Inner earVIII. Auditory Optic canal (sphenoid) RetinaII. Optic Cribiform plate (ethmoid) Olfactory epithelium I. Olfactory EXIT FROM CRANIAL CAVITY TARGETNERVE
  6. 6. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves M&M, Table 14.3
  7. 7. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves Somatic Motor Nerves (eye muscles and tongue) EXIT CR. CAVITYTARGETNERVE Hypoglossal canal (occipital) Intrinsic, extrinsic mm. of tongue XII. Hypoglossal “•Sup.,med.,inf.rectus • Inferior Oblique •Levator palpebrae superioris III. Oculomotor (Also parasympathetic to ciliary mm, constrictor pupillae) “Lateral rectusVI. Abducens Sup. Orbital fissure (sphenoid) Superior oblique m. (with trochlea) IV. Trochlear
  8. 8. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  9. 9. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  10. 10. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  11. 11. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves “Rest of body” nerves (all exit from jugular foramen) NERVE TARGET X: Vagus •Somatic motor to larynx/pharynx •Parasympathetic to most of gut •Taste to back posterior pharynx XI: (Spinal) Accesory •Motor to traps, sternocleidomastoid IX: Glosso- pharyngeal •Sensory to carotid body/sinus •Taste to posterior tongue •Sensory to ear opening/middle ear •Parotid salivary gland
  12. 12. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  13. 13. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  14. 14. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves VII: Facial Nerve (exits cranial cavity with VIII--internal auditory meatus) • Facial muscles (five branches fan out over face from stylomastoid foramen) – Temporal – Zygomatic – Buccal – Mandibular – Cervical • “chorda tympani” (crosses interior ear drum to join V3 ) – Taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue – Submandibular, sublingual salivary glands • Lacrimal glands
  15. 15. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  16. 16. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves V: Trigeminal (3 nerves in 1!) • V1. Ophthalmic – Exits with eye muscle group (superior orbital fissure, through orbit to superior orbital notch/foramina) – Sensory to forehead, nasal cavity • V2. Maxillary – Exits foramen rotundum through wall of maxillary sinus to inferior orbital foramina) – Sensory to cheek, upper lip, teeth, nasal cavity • V3. Mandibular – Exits foramen ovale to mandibular foramen to mental foramen – Motor to jaw muscles--Masseter, temporalis, pterygoids, digastric – Sensory to chin – Sensory to tongue
  17. 17. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves
  18. 18. Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves Clinical tests for cranial nerv (New York U) Cranial Nerve Web Sites NIce review of cranial nerves--includes (Washington U) More detail cranial nerves, b (Yale Medical)

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