skeletal system


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  • OsteoblastsOsteoblasts are responsible for building new bone and lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralisation.
    OsteoclastsOsteoclasts are specialised cells that resorb bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite.
    OsteocytesBone adapts to applied forces by growing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength. Osteocytes are thought to be part of the cellular feed-back mechanism which directs bone to form in the places where it is most needed. They lie within mineralised bone and it is thought that they may detect mechanical deformation and mediate the response of the osteoblasts.
  • skeletal system

    1. 1. • Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs • Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain • Movement- bones act as levers for muscles • Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate • Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis
    2. 2. • Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula • Short Bones- carpals, tarsals • Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum • Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bones • Sesamoid- patella
    3. 3. Distal epiphysis Proximal epiphysis diaphysis yellow marrow epiphyseal line periosteum compact bone spongy bone Endosteum hyaline cartilage Sharpey’s fibers
    4. 4. Posterior View
    5. 5. • Warm and moisten air • Lighten the skull • Enhance voice resonance Frontal Sinus Ethmoid Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Maxillary Sinus
    6. 6. Cervical Vertebrae (7) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertberae (5) Sacrum Coccyx The Vertebral Column
    7. 7. Cervical Vertebrae
    8. 8. Sternum True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2) The Thoracic Cage
    9. 9. Sacrum & Coccyx
    10. 10. Bones of the Pectoral Girdle
    11. 11. Humerus Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 14 Phalanges 5 Metacarpals
    12. 12. Pelvis
    13. 13. Ischium Ilium Acetabulum Pubis Ischium Obturator foramen Pelvis (lateral view)
    14. 14. Male Pelvic Girdle Female Pelvic Girdle
    15. 15. Patella The Lower Limb (Legs) Femur Tibia Fibula 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges 7 Tarsals
    16. 16. metatarsals phelangies tarsals metatarsals phelangies tarsals
    17. 17. Immovable JointsImmovable Joints (synarthrosis)(synarthrosis) suturesuture pubis symphisispubis symphisis
    18. 18. Slightly Movable JointSlightly Movable Joint (ampharthrosis)(ampharthrosis)
    19. 19. femur ligaments pelvis (diarthrosis)- freely moveable
    20. 20. femur pelvis hyaline cartilage synovial cavity joint capsule
    21. 21. Abduction Extension Rotation Flexion Adduction Synovial Joint Movement
    22. 22. 275 bones275 bones 12 weeks (6-912 weeks (6-9 inches long)inches long)
    23. 23. cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyseal plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2o ossification center Fetus: 1st 2 months AdultChildhood Just before birth
    24. 24. Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cell
    25. 25. Bone Repair: 1. Electrical stimulation of the fracture site: • Increases speed and completeness of healing • The e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclasts down from reabsorbing bone 2. Ultrasound treatment: • Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bones by 25-35% 3. Free vascular fibular graft technique: • Transplant fibula in arm • Gives good blood supply not available in other treatments 4. Bone substitutes: • Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV and hepatitis • Sea bone- coral • Artificial bone- ceramic
    26. 26. hematoma callus bony callus bone remodeling
    27. 27. Diseases of the Skeletal System: Osteoporosis- bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit; bones become lighter and fracture easier Factors: • age, gender (more in women) • estrogen and testosterone decrease • insufficient exercise (or too much) • diet poor in Ca++ and protein • abnormal vitamin D receptors • smoking
    28. 28. OsteoporosisOsteoporosis 29 40 84 92
    29. 29. Rickets- vitamin D deficiency Osteomalacia- soft bones, inadequate mineralization in bones, lack of vitamin D Pagets Disease- spotty weakening in the bones, excessive and abnormal bone remodeling Rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune reaction Diseases of the Skeletal System:
    30. 30. INQUIRY 1. What is a fontanel? 2. How many bones in the adult skeleton? 3. What is the difference between the appendicular and axial skeleton? 4. What is a meniscus? 5. Demonstrate adduction. 6. Weight bearing vertebrae are called? 7. What does an osteoclast do? Extra Credit: 1-page reaction paper on bipedalism and problems associated with our human frame. Attach article. Turn in 1-week from today.