All participants in the system are connected by relationships of accountability (which are triggered by information and autonomy)An education system is a network of power & accountability relationships for delivering learning results
The World Bank will support reforms to strengthen education systems What does it mean to strengthen an education system? To align governance, management and financing rules and incentive mechanisms in order to produce learning for all. To reform the relationships of accountability among actors or participants so they are clear, consistent with functions, measured and monitored. To establish a clear feedback cycle between aid financing and results. Operationally, financial and technical aid from the Bank will be increasingly based on reforms that will help improve learning outcomes and overcome barriers to education for disadvantaged groups.
Step 1: Developing the technical, cognitive and behavioral skills conducive to high productivity and flexibility in the work environment—by starting right through early child development (ECD), emphasizing nutrition, stimulation, and basic cognitive skills. Step 2: Ensuring that all students learn —by building stronger systems with clear learning standards, good teachers, adequate resources, and a proper regulatory environment. Lessons from research and ground experience indicate that successful systems must address key decisions involving how much autonomy to allow and to whom, accountability from whom and for what, and how to assess performance and results.Step 3: Training to build additional job-specific skills that employers demand —by developing the right incentive framework for both pre-employment and on-the-job training programs and institutions (including higher education). Returns to the right kind of training can range from 8% to 17% in Asian and African countries. There is accumulating experience showing how public and private efforts can be combined to achieve more relevant and responsive training systems. Step 4: Encouraging entrepreneurship and creativity —by creating an environment that encourages investments in knowledge and innovation. Emerging evidence shows that addressing the need for creativity, leadership, time management and communication skills requires innovation-specific skills (which can be built early in life), connecting people with ideas (e.g., through collaboration between universities and private companies) and risk management tools, including safety nets.Step 5: Matching the supply of skills with the demand —by moving toward more flexible, efficient, and secure labor markets. None of the first four steps matter if people cannot find jobs that match their skills. There is considerable evidence that avoiding rigid job protection regulations while strengthening income protection systems, complemented by efforts to provide information and intermediation services to workers and firms, provides the final complementary step in the process to transform skills into actual employment and productivity.
Learning For All The World Bank Bfe Mena 2011
World Bank Education Strategy 2020 Learning for All Investing in People’s Knowledge and Skills to Promote DevelopmentEducation Sector BoardThe World Bank November 2010 1
Enrolment does not always mean learning Number of100 grade 8 students as a percent of 14 year-olds Number of grade 8 students with some knowledge of whole 0 numbers and decimals, ope rations, and basic graphs as a percent of 14 year-olds Source: TIMSS 2007 and UIS / EdStats in Macdonald 2011
Learning falls short on even the most basic skills Example of Math Question, Grade 4 and 5 A piece of rope 204 cm long is cut into 4 equal pieces. Which of these gives the length of each piece in centimeters? (A) 204+4 (B) 204*4 (C) 204-4 (D) 204/4 100 90 80 Low IncomePercentage Correct or Low Middle 70 Income 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Italy Armenia Benin Japan Pakistan, Punjab England Lithuania Singapore Ontario (Canada) New Zealand Cyprus Iran, Islamic Rep. of Belgium (Flemish) Russian Federation Chinese Taipei Hungary Yemen Morocco Norway Tunisia Scotland Latvia Australia Moldova, Rep. of Netherlands Hong Kong, SAR, China United States Slovenia Philippines Quebec (Canada)Source: IEA 2008 and Barrera –Osorio & Raju, 2011
What is an Education System? Economy Central (Local, national, and Local global labor markets) Governments Communities, Public households and Private and students Relationships of Accountability SchoolsNote: Adapted from World Bank 2003.
What does it mean to improve an education system?• To align governance, management, financing rules and incentive mechanisms in order to produce learning for all• To reform the relationships of accountability among actors so they are clear, consistent with functions, measured and monitored• To establish a clear feedback cycle between financing and results
Using knowledge tools to illuminate the system and get inside the black box System Education assessment management and and informationbenchmarking system 1. Quality policy-framework 2. Effective implementation and Financing Quality Inputs arrangements Outcomes 3. Successful specific interventions 4. Quality Delivery mechanisms Impact Measurementsevaluations and of learning and research skills evidences
Invest for All Multiple Sources of Disadvantageclockwise: Disabled student in Slovakia; Students in a health class in Sri Lanka; Primary school girls in Mali; Secondary school students in Turkey. Photos: World Bank
The poor are less likely to start school… % of youth ages 15-19 1 Egyp 0.8 t, 20 08 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Highest grade Poorest quintile Quintile 2 completedQuintile 3 Quintile 4 Richest quintileSource: Demographic & Health Household Survey
The poorest students lag the most in learning TIMSS 2007, Grade 8 Mathematics test scores 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 Botswana Turkey Romania Lebanon Thailand Ghana Morocco Georgia Ukraine Bulgaria Iran Serbia Jordan Mongolia Lithuania Indonesia Tunisia Colombia El Salvador Bosnia And Herz. United States Korea, Rep. Of Egypt Syrian Arab Rep. Russian Fed. Algeria Malaysia Armenia Richest quintile of students Poorest quintile of students Average scoreSource: Filmer, based on analysis of TIMSS 2007 database
Invest early, invest smartly, and invest in learning for all Invest in Listen to quality & the marketInvest early equitably 24
From Strategy to Action• Technical and financial support – focus on learning, results-oriented financing, multisectoral approach – $60 B and $5 B in 2010;• Building a high-quality knowledge base – System Assessment and benchmarking Tools (SABER) – Impact evaluation and analytical tools• Strategic partnerships
ARAIEQ: Arab Regional Agenda on Improving Education Quality 27