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The Situation of Geographic Base Data in Different Parts of the World

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Gottfried Konecny
Leibniz University Hannover
Germany

Published in: Technology, Travel
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The Situation of Geographic Base Data in Different Parts of the World

  1. 1. The Situation of Geographic Base Data in Different Parts of the World Interexpo GeoSiberia Novosibirsk, Russian Federation 17 April , 2014 Presentation by Gottfried Konecny Leibniz University Hannover Germany
  2. 2. Content 1. Historical switch from paper maps (until 1970) to digital data files (from 1970 to 2000) to digital data bases (after 2000) 2. The predominantly graphic approach has introduced the photogrammetric data acquisition to graphic data file operations, while the transition to data base orientation was rather slow 3. This has led to CAD applications, not suitable for updating due to an abundance of feature codes, while an object oriented approach in data bases with topological relations is required 4. But various national approaches show, that still not all ideal opportunities have been followed in the design of data bases due to mandate restrictions of the organizations involved in mapping or data base creation
  3. 3. 1976 Asia Air Surveys Topo Map 1:2000
  4. 4. Examples are: I. CAD Mapping of Kuwait (1980) II: Urban Mapping in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1990-2010) both I. and II. are difficult to update, new approaches are: III: ZABAGED of Czech Republic, a hybrid system IV: The Ordnance Survey Master Map predominance on topography at large scales (1:1000) excellent for interface with utilities, but no link to cadastre V: The German AAA-System predominance on cadastre (and buildings as part) in 1:1000 but weak on topography (scale 1:10 000) VI: Fast approaches (Google Maps, Bingmaps, Yandex) (Google´s geometry weakness can be overcome by Google Ground Truth Program or by Yandex approach with geocoding via high resolition satellite imagery)
  5. 5. Reduction of Feature Codes to aid UpdatingI. Kuwait
  6. 6. II. MOMRA, Saudi Arabia
  7. 7. II. MOMRA Saudi Arabia
  8. 8. II. MOMRA Saudi Arabia
  9. 9. II. MOMRA Saudi Arabia
  10. 10. II. MOMRA Saudi Arabia
  11. 11. From CAD to GeodatabaseII. MOMRA Saudi Arabia
  12. 12. 1:1,000 Scale Orthophoto with Vector OverlayII. MOMRA Saudi Arabia
  13. 13. III. a hybrid approach: In the Czech Republic the open access geoportal has made it possible to download from the web: 1. topographic vector data 2. superimposed orthoimages with cadastral vector data 3. CAD data with graphic annotations for cadastral survey records
  14. 14. III. ZABAGED example of the Czech Republic Topography
  15. 15. III. Web Portal Orthoimagery and Cadastre
  16. 16. III. Cadastral Information superimposed on Orthophoto
  17. 17. III. Cadastral Information
  18. 18. Examples for object oriented systems are from: IV. The Ordnance Survey of Great Brítain V. The German State Survey and Cadastral Administrations led by the ADV
  19. 19. IV. Changing models of geographic information in the U.K. Paper maps 1791-1971 Digital data files 1971-2001 Spatial database 2001-
  20. 20. IV. Geographical Information is going mobile
  21. 21. IV. Digital maps to a geospatial database Land-Line OS MasterMap • Digitised maps are insufficient for our customers’ needs today • Connecting information between databases is a key requirement • A referencing framework is needed • 2000-2001: re-engineered Land-Line so that all 230,000 digital maps were integrated into one vast database of 423 million objects.
  22. 22. Polygonised IV: Intelligent data
  23. 23. TOIDs IV. Intelligent data
  24. 24. Rich object attribution IV. Definitive map database
  25. 25. TITLE: 364TR/23 TOID_COUNT: 3 TOID: 1652783983768334 TOID: 1652783983768335 TOID: 1652783983768336 TITLE: 364TR/23 No: 2 Street: Bystock Close Town: Farnborough TOID: 1652783983768334 TOID: 1652783983768335 TOID: 1652783983768336 Data Association IV. Definitive map database
  26. 26. IV. Layers of OS MasterMap Topography Address Integrated Transport Network OS MasterMap Environment Imagery 1 Million + features 26 Million + features 400 Million + features
  27. 27. Topography Imagery IV: OS MasterMap - The Future Address Now The Future ITN Boundaries Height Land Use Pre Build
  28. 28. V. In the German AAA-System the main emphasis is on the cadastre: 1. It includes not only property boundaries, but also buildings 2. To the cadastre the topography is tied at a smaller scale 3. Urban topographic features at large scale are only included as a municipal, but not national valiue added option 4. This is a deficit for integration with utility providers 5. But the AAA-System is a strong basis for governmental agencies involved with cadastre and planning operations
  29. 29. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. on ‘Cadastral Standards’ In Germany AAA-System German Automated Integrated System of Control-Net (AFIS), Cadastre (ALKIS) and Topography (ATKIS)
  30. 30. Working Committee of the Surveying Authorities of the States of the Federal Republic of Germany (AdV) V. Documentation on the modeling of Geoinformation of official surveying and mapping in Germany (GeoInfoDok)
  31. 31. V. Motivation Topographic MapNumerical cadastre Land RegisterCadastral Map Current Situation (Germany): • Different data models and databases • Partly redundant information Integrated Model for Geoinformation New Concept: • Integrated data model • No redundancy
  32. 32. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. Reasons for Development of AAA • Concept for ALK established during 70ties and 80ties • No harmonization of ALK and ATKIS as far as modeling of the landscape is concerned • No constant object view • No appropriate description of data model (standards!) • No concept for description and integration of metadata • Missing concept for description of quality aspects
  33. 33. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. The German Way ALK Automated Real Estate Map Quite a lot of redundant information ALB Automated Real Estate Register Offical Topographic and Cartographic Information System ATKIS Geodetic Reference Points AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS Application Schema
  34. 34. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. Paradigm Shift Since 1997: Concept of AdV for „Modelling of Geoinformation of the Official Surveying and Mapping“ Main topics: • Integrated maintenance of graphic data and descriptive data • Constant object view • Data maintenance without redundancies • User profile according to data protection legislation • Focus on customers • Economy of the concept • Integration of Cadastre Map and Register (ALK and ALB) • Harmonisation of Cadastre and Topographic Mapping (ALKIS-ATKIS)
  35. 35. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS v. AFIS Official Reference Point Information System – 2D geodetic control network – Height control network – Gravity control network – Reference positioning (SAPOS)  Spatial Reference System
  36. 36. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. ALKIS Authoritative cadastral informationsystem • Real estate map • Real estate book • cadastral points
  37. 37. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS 38 V. ATKIS Authoritative Topographic-Cartographic InformationSystem – Digital landscape models (DLM) – digital topographic maps (DTK) – digital elevation models (DGM) – digital orthophotos (DOP)
  38. 38. 22.05.2008 39 V. Authoritative Topographic-Cartographic Information System Landscape DTK DLM Orthoimage DTM
  39. 39. 22.05.2008 40 V. The ATKIS-Concept land- scape -------- DGK5 -------- DOP cartographic process Symbol Catalogue Rules for cartographic representation of the information in the DTM D Digital T Topographic K Map preparation for output Map E D B S Object Catalogue Rules for depiction of topographic information in the DLM capturing & modelling User of digital data E D B S D Digital L Landscape M Models Uniform Data Base Interface
  40. 40. 22.05.2008 41 V. General Structure of the DLM-Object Catalogue (1) attributes eg: road classification (WDM) road 3.101 path 3.102 square 3.103 road (complex) 3.104 road centre line 3.105 lane 3.106 feature classes groups of feature classes rail traffic 3.200 air traffic 3.300 shipping traffic 3.400 traffic buildings 3.500 road traffic 3.100 domains of the feature classes fundamental points 1.000 settlement 2.000 transpor- tation 3.000 vegetation 4.000 waters 5.000 relief 6.000 districts 7.000
  41. 41. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. Common AFIS/ALKIS/ATKIS- Data Model non-georefe- renced object combined object georeferenced object identifier georeference attributes relations Lifetime interval has lifetime identified by has lifetime has lifetime has attribute is related to identified by is one of georeferenced by is consisting of specific object
  42. 42. AFIS-ALKIS-ATKIS V. Harmonisation of Object Catalogues Only one hierarchical structure for ALKIS, ATKIS and AFIS Identical object view for: Land / current land use Buildings and structural facilities Topography Topographic names Determinings in acc. with public law Administrative units 89 common objects in ALKIS and ATKIS 21 special ATKIS-objects 44 special ALKIS-objects 6 special AFIS-objects
  43. 43. 22.05.2008 44 5112 2111 2111 2111 2113 4107/1 4102 4108/1 4101 4101 4103 V. Modelling the landscape to digitize the Base-DLM r.a. crop land decidious wood residential area garden-plot meadow lake crop land industrial area shrubbery r.a.
  44. 44. 22.05.2008 45 4102 Meadow4102 2114 2114 Area of public use2114 2113 2111 V. Modelling of Area Features 2111 Residential area2111 2113 Area of residential and industrial use 2113 2222 Sports ground2222 4107 Forest4107
  45. 45. example for a value added map
  46. 46. ALK mit Stadttopographie, Delmenhorst A value added map for street furniture
  47. 47. Stromleitungsdokumentation Stadt Han.-Münden a value added map for utilities
  48. 48. VI. In countries with poor mapping infrastructure: 1. Maps at large scale (1:1000) are not available; a topo map has the scale of 1:50 000. 2. A Google Earth image has better information than a small scale map. 3. Yandex has shown the possibility for rapid and precise urban mapping using: a) high resolution satellite images (0.5m GSD) b) RPC data of the satellite image providers for rough geocoding to better than 10m c) GNSS surveys on the ground for a limited number of control points visible in the satellite imagery d) extraction of identified objects (buildings, roads, rivers) via with augmented accuracy GNSS surveys (better than 3m accuracy)
  49. 49. Google Earth Image
  50. 50. Conclusion: 1. Due to different administrative structures in the different countries different data models are used 2. None of the existing systems are ideal systems, which could be provided by modern technology 3. But the optimization in effort and cost leads to different local implementations 4. It is important to design geodata systems not only from the viewpoint of an organization in charge, but for the user community at large 5. The data base design issue is often neglected and not properly discussed

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