How did Saudi Arabia become a unified state? Historians divide the Saudi history into three reigns each one being called a State. The first one started with the historic homage between Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab and Prince Mohamed bin Saud in 1745. The second reign began in 1824 and ended with Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal leaving Riyadh. During this period chaos and conflicts between tribes prevailed until the banner of unification was held by King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Faisal Al-Saud and thus began the unification and foundation process of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The third and final stage was the foundation reign. It began in 1902’ the date when King Abdul Aziz entered Riyadh and the return of Al-Saud rule after the kingdom was officially unified under the name of: the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A Royal Order giving the Kingdom that name was issued in September 1932. The Royal Order came into effect on the 22nd of that month and the title of King Abdul Aziz became (King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) What is the geographical location of Saudi Arabia? Saudi Arabia lies at the crossroads of three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. It extends from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba on the west to the Arabian Gulf in the east. To the north it borders Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and to the south, it borders Yemen and the Sultanate of man. To the east lie the Arabian Gulf, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain.
Riyadh is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the most densely populated city as its population exceeds four million a matter that makes it a huge commercial and industrial city. It includes a number of historical centers, museums, archeological sites as well as Qasr Al-Hukm (The government palace), the ministries and diplomatic missions. The name Riyadh is derived from the Arabic word meaning a place of gardens and trees (“rawdah”). In pre- Islamic times, the settlement at the site was called “Hajar” after a famous Arab tribe and since the 12th century Hijra it has come to be known as Riyadh.
Independence: Following Ottoman dominance, Egypt controlled Arabia from 1818 to 1824. For the remainder of the nineteenth century, Egypt, Britain, and the Ottomans vied for control of the region. On September 23, 1932, Abd al Aziz ibn Abd ar-Rahman Al Saud established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Unification brought together competing tribes into a modern state, covering an area approximating present boundaries. Public Holidays: In accordance with Wahhabi theology, Eid al Fitr and Eid al Adha are Saudi Arabia's only national holidays. Both holidays are dependent on the Islamic lunar calendar, and thus the dates of celebration vary from year to year. In recent years, Shia Muslims have been allowed to celebrate the holiday of Ashura in select cities of Eastern Province and in the south. Ashura is not, however, a national holiday. Saudis commemorate September 23 as their Independence Day. Flag: The flag of Saudi Arabia is green, rectangular with its width equal to two thirds of its length. The green color symbolizes prosperity and development. In the middle of the flag is the shahada “ There is no god but Allah and Mohammed is His Messenger”. Under it is a sword placed horizontally. The flag is never flown at half-mast as it bears the Islamic profession of faith. Saudi Arabia is the land of Islam, advocates Islam and extends services to pilgrims. The inscription of the profession of faith is in white as is the sword which is a symbol of honor, dignity and justice for Arabs and Muslims.
Legal system: T he Quran is the Constitution of Saudi Arabia. However, because its precepts are not specific in the day-to-day conduct of governmental matters, Saudi rulers have promulgated regulations to apply them to administration. King Fahd compiled these regulations in 1992 for the first time into a single document called the Basic Law (Nizam). As a series of royal decrees, the Nizam codifies bureaucratic procedures and functions. political system: The government is headed by the King, Abdullah ibn Abdul Aziz, who acceded to the throne in 2005 and who is also the commander in chief of the military. The King combines the legislative, executive, and judicial functions and issues the royal decrees that form the basis of the country's legislation. He appoints a Crown Prince who is second in line to the throne. The King is also the Prime Minister, and he presides over the Council of Ministers, or Cabinet, which is made up of 22 government ministers.
The primary function of the Consultative Council is to advise the king. It holds at least one ordinary session every two weeks. It may initiate legislation and review domestic and international policies. The primary executive office is the Royal Diwan, in which the king also periodically convenes his majlis. The purpose of the majlis is to make the king accessible to Saudi citizens for personal appeals. Plaintiffs generally ask for the king's assistance with bureaucratic problems. The king drafts regulations and issues royal decrees from this office. As the head of government, as well as the head of state, the king holds the post of the prime minister. He is assisted by two deputy prime ministers and the Council of Ministers, all appointed by him. He has the right to convene, dissolve, and reorganize the Consultative Council and the Council of Ministers. The judicial system is composed of a four-tiered hierarchy of Shari’a Courts, which hear cases involving criminal, family, personal injury, and property matters, and numerous commissions and tribunals, both of an ad hoc and permanent nature. At the base of the hierarchy of Shari’a Courts are the Limited Courts, which are empowered to hear civil and criminal cases in which the maximum penalty is limited.
Formerly civil service bureau… The nine-member Civil Service Board, responsible to the Council of Ministers, exercised formal authority over the employees of all ministries, government organizations, and autonomous agencies. It presided over the Civil Service Bureau, which implemented the decisions and directives of the Civil Service Board that pertained to grade classification, pay rates, recruitment and personnel needs, and personnel evaluation.
Royal Decree No. 49 of 1977 to promulgate Civil Service Regulations. Um Al Qura, pp. 1-10 Promulgates the Civil Service Regulations which define the public functions, officials, their functions, duties, allowances, indemnities, awards, compensation, termination of service and general and transitory provisions. A Royal Decree was issued to re-form the Civil Service Commission for a period of three years, on the expiry of its current term on August 16, 2004. Ministerial Council Decree No. 178 of 2009 (1/06/1430 Hijri). Umm Al-Qura, 2009-06-19, No. 4258, pp. 5-7 This Decree regulates the wages of Saudi employees in government health facilities and hospitals. It provides a chart classifying the positions and their respective wages, as well as bonuses, the differences between the specialists, positions in hospitals and academic positions for medical personnel. Date of entry into force: 2009-05-25 Civil Service Council Decree No. 1/1352, 13/9/1429 on the Minimum Age for Specific Groups of Civil Servants. Umm Al-Qura, 2009-01-16, No. 4236, P. 7 This Decree lowers the employment age for the following positions in governmental offices from 30 years to 20 years: reporters; elevator operators; guards; janitors; coffee-makers and their supervisors. Date of entry into force: 2009-01-16 Decree No. 1/1285 of the Council of Civil Service. Umm Al-Qura, 1008-04-18, No. 4197, P. 4 The Decree changes the amount of vacation days from 35 days to 36 days. Date of entry into force: 2008-01-20
RECRUITMENT; Civil servants were classified either as government officials (professionals who comprised three-quarters of total government employees in 1992) and lower-paid employees. Employment Rules and Regulations 1. Saudis are treated as per rules, regulations and instructions of Civil Service Ministry. 2. Contracting employees are treated as per rules, regulations and instructions of Civil Service Ministry to Non Saudi Employment. Performance Evaluation is a periodic formal monitoring of how well personnel have carried out the duties and responsibilities of their assigned job within a specific period of time. Performance appraisal will let you know the level of your job performance as well as any expectations KSMC, more specifically your Department, may have of you. The head of your department is responsible for your performance evaluation. It will include a Probationary Evaluation which is done during the first three to six (3-6) months of your employment which may determine if you are meeting your job expectations. You will also undergo an Annual Evaluation. This Annual Evaluation is completed and sent to Personnel Department through the Head of the Department at least four (4) months prior to the end of the employee’s service year (as per MOH policy). TRAINING: Training was provided within each ministry and at the Institute of Public Administration, an autonomous government agency with its main training center in Riyadh, and at branches in Jiddah and Ad Dammam. Gender: Islam has preserved all rights for women. When she is a child her father is responsible for her providing her with all that she needs and when she reaches the age of womanhood she has the right to choose her husband and is not compelled to marry someone whom she doesn’t like. Her husband is then responsible for her and when she becomes a mother, her children are committed to do all good for her. There are many references in the holy Quran and the sayings and deeds of Prophet Mohammed that preserve the rights of women including her financial independence. The Saudi woman enjoys all these rights. When employed she gets the same salary as that of a man provided that she has the same level of education and experience. She has the same promotion opportunities. In Islam the woman maintains her name and her father’s name even after getting married and she is not obliged to spend for the daily living of the family or for herself even if she is rich.
Vacation: This can be taken all at one time or divided, provided that each vacation is not less than five (5) days. Application for annual leave must be submitted two (2) weeks before the desired/scheduled date Maternity: Saudi female employee who gives birth is entitled to full salary maternity leave. Sick: All employees are entitled to sick leave, the number of days of which depends on the discretion of the attending doctor. Eid: For Saudi employees, each work day is compensated by one day off, except for the first three (3) days of the Feast, in which each day is compensated by two off days. These can be taken as a whole or added to annual leave.
National: National Day for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is celebrated on September 23 every year. This is a non-working holiday in all government and private offices. working on this day should be granted two (2) days off as a benefit for working on a non-working holiday. This can be added to the annual leave. Education: enable them to attend symposia, conferences, workshops, educational or short courses as per conditions defined by Directorate of Training and Scholarships Administration. The number of days needed must be specified on the request. If the employee has to travel to the venue of the study, he/she may be granted days for travel. These days shall be deducted from the educational leave. a) One (1) day prior and one (1) day after if inside the Kingdom. b) Two (2) days prior and two (2) days after if outside the Kingdom Infant care: Motherhood vacation may be granted to a Saudi MOH employee who wants to take vacation for the sake of her baby. The baby's age should not be more than three (3) years during this vacation. She will receive quarter salary, after completing her maternity leave, which must not be less than one thousand five hundred (SR 1500) Saudi Riyals per month. Attendance: provided that: 1. The patient is the Employee’s son, daughter, wife, husband, parent, brother or sister. 2. The patient is treated as an in-patient, i.e. admitted. External: 1. A Saudi MOH employee may participate in Help and Civil Defense works with full salary for a period of not more than forty five (45) days per year. 2. A Saudi MOH employee is allowed to participate in official sports and cultural activities with full salary to a period of not more than thirty (30) days inside the Kingdom, and sixty (60) days outside the Kingdom. In both occasions, the Saudi employee must have been appointed.
Unpaid: This may be granted when all the other leaves has been utilized. It may be granted by KSMC for a maximum of six (6) months. If it will be for more than six (6) months, the request must be forwarded to the Ministry of Health
The Saudi government and the royal family have often, and over many years, been accused of corruption. In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named after it , the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred. The corruption has been described as systemic and endemic, and its existence was acknowledged and defended by Prince Bandar bin Sultan (a senior member of the royal family) in an interview in 2001
Saudi Arabia has no mechanism for national elections and, after the release of some trial balloons on the issue in 2003 and 2004, the topic has again disappeared from public discourse. The kingdom’s Majlis Al-Shura, a consultative council with limited but gradually increasing legislative powers, remains unelected. Its 150 members are appointed by the king every four years; their terms can be renewed once. The Majlis can propose legislation, but cannot overrule the cabinet unless supported by the king. Despite its repeated lobbying efforts, it has no control over the national budget Saudi politics continues to be based on patronage, both formal, through subsidized public services and broad-based state employment, and informal, through individual attachments to princely networks of privilege in business or the administration. The most senior princes in government have all been running large bureaucratic bodies for decades and use them to build up large clienteles. Major bodies under royal control, such as the ministries of defense and interior and the National Guard, are allotted significant shares of the national budget, which are used for the procurement of equipment, the building of housing compounds, and the operation of special hospitals and educational institutions, as well as large-scale employment. The major security institutions in the country have become synonymous with the princes heading them, giving them a position that even the king cannot challenge. Rule of Law: The Saudi judiciary is currently undergoing a phase of reorganization, which has led to the creation of a supreme court and courts of appeal, relegating the previously dominant Supreme Judicial Council to administrative functions within the judicial system. Specialized commercial, labor, and family courts are in the making. Judges are appointed by the king, but officially are accountable only to Allah and the precepts of Sharia. Over the years, the government has created a growing body of positive law, especially on commercial matters, but this is not always recognized by the Sharia courts—a situation that has led the government to create a number of quasi-judicial tribunals within the bureaucracy to attend to specific areas of commercial and administrative law. The judicial reforms, which are still in an early stage, are meant to undo some of this fragmentation and force a stronger recognition of positive law within the judicial system proper. The Supreme Court is supposed to adjudicate on matters of precedence, guiding the rest of the system—a principle heretofore alien to the Islamic Saudi judiciary, which previously has not recognized precedence. The Saudi judiciary is relatively independent from political interference on a day-to-day level. A problematic corollary of this, however, is that judges have vast discretion. There are no juries, and individual judges usually decide on both verdict and punishment. Judgments are brief and officially rely on a limited set of volumes on religious law that have little to say on many aspects of modern life and can be interpreted in very different ways.
Kingdom of saudi arabia (civil service system)
KINGDOM OF SAUDI
CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM
Prepared by: MARY ROSE F.
COUNTRY PROFILE: SAUDI ARABIA
Formal Name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Al
Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah).
Short Form: Saudi Arabia.
Term for Citizen(s): Saudi Arabian(s) or Saudi(s).
Capital: Riyadh (estimated population 3.6 million).
Major Cities: Population estimates for 2006 show
continued growth for Saudi Arabia’s major urban
areas: Jeddah (2.9 million), Mecca (1.6 million), Ad
Dammam/Khobar/Dhahran (1.6 million), and Medina
(854,500). Mecca and Medina have religious
significance that far outweighs their respective
Independence: 23 September 1932
(Unification of the Kingdom)
Public Holidays: Eid al Fitr and Eid al Adha
September 23 as their Independence Day.
Flag: The Saudi flag features white lettering on
a green background. Below the letters, also in
white, is a sword.
BACKGROUND AND LEGAL SYSTEM
LEGAL SYSTEM: Islamic Law (Shari’ah).
POLITICAL SYSTEM: Monarchy.
HEAD OF STATE: King. The Saudi Arabian Basic Law
mandates that the the one remain in the
possession of the sons and descendants of the
ENTITIES Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces (mintaqat,
singular mintaqah). Each province is governed by a prince
or member of the royal family. The capital city is Riyadh,
located in the province of Riyadh.
Legislative Branch - Consultative Council or
Majlis al-Shura (120 members and a chairman
appointed by the monarch for four year terms)
Executive Branch - cabinet: Council of
Ministers is appointed by the monarch and
includes many royal family members elections:
none; the monarch is hereditary
Judiciary Branch - Supreme Council of Justice.
MINISTRY OF CIVIL SERVICE
Ministry established in 1999, with Dr
Muhammad bin Ali Al-Fayez as its first Minister.
It is the function of the Ministry to plan the civil
manpower required in the government sector and
to ensure that the competence of civil servants
matches the requirements of the Kingdom as it
implements its various development programs.
Royal Decree No. 49 of 1977 to promulgate Civil
Service Regulations. Um Al Qura, pp. 1-10
Ministerial Council Decree No. 178 of 2009
Umm Al-Qura, 2009-06-19, No. 4258, pp. 5-7
Civil Service Council Decree No. 1/1352,
13/9/1429 on the Minimum Age for Specific
Groups of Civil Servants.
Umm Al-Qura, 2009-01-16, No. 4236, P. 7
Decree No. 1/1285 of the Council of Civil
Umm Al-Qura, 1008-04-18, No. 4197, P. 4
RECRUITMENT: All civil servants were ranked
according to grade, and advancement depended on
merit and seniority.
Promotion/Staff Evaluation Process: Each
employee must aim to attain "excellent" in his/her
Training: The Institute of Public Administration
(IPA) mainly provides short-term in-service training
for civil service employees
Gender: Most formally employed females in the
Kingdom are working in the services sector,
particularly in education, health and social services.
While no female as yet occupy a ministerial or a
legislative post in Saudi Arabia, many hold sub-
cabinet and senior government positions mainly in the
education, health or social services sectors.
Working Days: Saturday to Thursday
Working Hours: 7:30 AM to 2:30 PM
Official Holidays : Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and
Kingdom National Day
Retirement age: 60 for men and 55 for women
Employee Benefits: Medical insurance
LEAVE BENEFITS (SAUDI LABOR
Vacation/Annual Leave - a yearly fully paid
vacation of thirty-six (36) days
Maternity Leave- period of sixty (60) days minimum
from date of giving birth
Sick Leave - Saudi employees are entitled to full
salary sick leave of six (6) months, half salary for the
second six (6) months, quarter salary for the third six
(6) months and with no salary for another six (6)
months within four years.
Compensatory Vacation (Eid Holiday)
Regular Feast Vacations - “Eid Al Fitr” vacation
usually starts on twenty-fifth (25th) day of Ramadan,
and ends on the fifth (5th) day of Shawal. “Eid Al
Adha” starts on the fifth (5th) of Dhul Hijja and ends
on the fifteenth (15th) of Dhul Hijja.
National Day Vacation – September 23
Educational Leave - (14) days per academic year is given to
Saudi employees and seven (7) days per academic year to
Emergency Leave - entitled to not more than five (5) days
emergency leave in the Fiscal year
Infant Care Vacation - This vacation is for a maximum of
three (3) years during her whole service in the government.
Attendance Vacation - In case a Saudi employee is obliged
to accompany one of his/her relatives for treatment, he/she is
entitled to take vacation if the required period is more than
the due normal vacations. He/She can take extra vacation
period and it will be dealt with as paid Sick Leave
Mourning Leave - In case of death of her husband, a Muslim
female employee, Saudi or non Saudi, may have a fully paid
leave during the whole period of mourning
External Representation Vacation
Accompanying Leave - leave is taken to
accompany spouse (husband or wife) who will
study outside the Kingdom; may be granted
unpaid leave for a maximum of six (6) years
Study Leave - A Saudi employee who wants to
complete his/her studies and his/her application
for leave could not be granted may apply for
study leave without pay and be given for the
whole study period. His/Her job number is kept
until he/she returns
Unpaid Leave - Leave without Pay results in
absence beyond the number of days provided as
legitimate in the employee contract.
Examination Leave - employee who is studying
may be granted fully paid leave during the day/s
of the examination, provided that the
examination is not repeated
EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION AND ALLOWANCES
Salary - the employee monthly salary is according to
the salary scale. The salary of Non Saudis employees
is based on contract. Salary is paid in Saudi Riyals on
the twenty fifth (25th) of each Hegira Month.
Housing Allowance - Housing allowance given is
equal to three (3) months salary per year and is given
all at once. It must not be less than eight thousand
(8,000) Saudi Riyals and not more than fifty thousand
(50,000) Saudi Riyals.
Transportation Allowance - provided to female
employees who are living outside with their husband
or family. Male employees are also provided with
transportation allowance. The amount depends on the
amount of the current basic salary.
Furnishing Allowance - The Ministry of Health
pays furnishing allowance to its expatriate
employees amounting to fifty per cent (50%) of their
initial basic monthly salary and paid at the beginning
of the contract. This allowance is not provided for
employees hired locally
End of Service Reward - In case of non renewal of
contract, the Ministry pays End of Service Reward to
its employees. This is fifty per cent (50%) of the latest
basic salary for each year of service, provided that the
employee spent a minimum of three (3) consecutive
years with KSMC. This reward is to a maximum of
fifty thousand Saudi Riyals (50,000 SR).
Hajj Duty Compensation - The Ministry of Health
pays a reward to those employees, who work during
Hajj period in Holy Places. Payment is based on the
current salary of the employee