Clinical Sciences III
Aortic Stenosis <ul><li>obstruction to flow between left ventricle and aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Aortic Stenosis
Treatment for Aortic Stenosis <ul><li>Palliative & depends on type of valve abnormality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balloon dila...
Atrial Septal Defect <ul><li>Hole in septum that divides the chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated…may cause p...
Atrial Septal Defect  <ul><li>Often no symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Large defect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOB </li></ul></ul><u...
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome <ul><li>Complex cardiac defect seen in newborn </li></ul><ul><li>All structures on left si...
Treatment <ul><li>Cardiac transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>Staged Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norwood Procedure ...
Patent Ductus Arteriosus  <ul><li>Ductus arteriosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BV present in babies while in womb </li></ul></u...
Tetralogy of Fallot <ul><li>Pulmonary stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricular septal defect </li></ul><ul><li>Overriding ao...
Transposition of Great Arteries <ul><li>Aorta and Pulmonary Artery arise from wrong structures </li></ul><ul><li>May have ...
VATER or VACTERL Association <ul><li>V = vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>A = anal atresia </li></ul><ul><li>C = cardiac abnorma...
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Pediatric%20 cardiac%20abnormalities[1]

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Pediatric%20 cardiac%20abnormalities[1]

  1. 1. Clinical Sciences III
  2. 2. Aortic Stenosis <ul><li>obstruction to flow between left ventricle and aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular obstruction below aortic valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstruction at valve itself **(BAV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic narrowing above the valve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild to moderate: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detectable heart murmur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often no symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newborn = heart failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older child = </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chest pain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightheadedness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fainting spells with exercise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Aortic Stenosis
  4. 4. Treatment for Aortic Stenosis <ul><li>Palliative & depends on type of valve abnormality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balloon dilation valvuloplasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valvotomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ross procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Konno procedure </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Atrial Septal Defect <ul><li>Hole in septum that divides the chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated…may cause problems in adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artial arrhythmias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc risk of stroke </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Atrial Septal Defect <ul><li>Often no symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Large defect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy fatigability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart murmur </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closes on its own (to age 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open heart surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close with sutures/patch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amplatzer Septal Occluder </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome <ul><li>Complex cardiac defect seen in newborn </li></ul><ul><li>All structures on left side of heart underdeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>S & S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O2 saturations, cyanosis, respir distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak pulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethargy, poor feeding – ultimately severe shock </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment <ul><li>Cardiac transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>Staged Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norwood Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glenn Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fontan </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus <ul><li>Ductus arteriosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BV present in babies while in womb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should close within hours after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not in patent ductus arteriosus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More common in preemies, but can happen in term infants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meds to promote closure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical ligation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Tetralogy of Fallot <ul><li>Pulmonary stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricular septal defect </li></ul><ul><li>Overriding aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Right ventricular hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Signs & symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loud murmur / cyanosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical correction </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Transposition of Great Arteries <ul><li>Aorta and Pulmonary Artery arise from wrong structures </li></ul><ul><li>May have other defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal branching pattern of coronary arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowing below pulmonary valve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surgical </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. VATER or VACTERL Association <ul><li>V = vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>A = anal atresia </li></ul><ul><li>C = cardiac abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>TE = tracheoesophogeal fistula </li></ul><ul><li>R = renal abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>L = limb anomalies </li></ul><ul><li>Usually have 3 or more of these abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Many babies born small and have difficulty gaining wt. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to have normal intelligence </li></ul>

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