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Experience the Australian history

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  1. 1. Indian Global & Political Economy (IGPE) By—Eshant Sharma PGCM4—1410
  2. 2. Australia or officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; The Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. Culture Australian culture is as broad and varied as the country’s landscape. Australia is multicultural and multiracial and this is reflected in the country’s food, lifestyle and culture practices and experience. Population Australian population is roughly 22.7 million people. The most populous states are New South Wales and Victo- ria, with their respective capitals Sydney & Melbourne, the largest cities in Aus- tralia
  3. 3. 50,000 BC 300,000 aboriginal people, speaking around 250 languages inhabited Australia. On arrival, finding no obvious political structure, the Europeans took the land as their own. The In- digenous people were driven out of their homes and many killed. 19th Century The great age of exploration. Western & South Austral- ia formed. Gold rushes. Australia achieves government. De- pression gave rise to the Australian Labour Party. South Afri- can War - forces offered by the individual colonies 17th Century The first European sightings of Australia were made. Dutch explorer, Abel Tasman's, first journey to Australia. Australia was made up of four coasts North, West, East and South. The Australian state of Tasmania was named after this famous ex- plorer. 18th Century Captain Cook lands in Botany Bay on the Eastern side of Aus- tralia. The First Fleet arrives at Sydney Cove under Captain Arthur Phillip to establish the first settlement in Australia. Sydney was founded. 26 January, went on to mark Australia Day. 20th Century Australia experiences her first major losses in a war in 1915 .Australian troops part of the United Nations forces. The ASEAN was established Australia celebrates its Bicenten- nial - 200 years since the first European settlement. John Howard replaced Paul Keating as Prime Minister. 21st Century Australia hosts the 2000 Olympic Games. Australia celebrates the Centenary of the Federation of Australia. Liberal-National Coalition lost in the general election to the Australian Labour Party (ALP). Australia's first female Prime Minister Julia Gillard takes charge.
  4. 4. 1967 1971 1974 1991 1985 19841980 1998 19781976 1996 1993 1992 Administration of Aboriginal affairs becomes the responsibil- ity of the federal government. Land rights ac- tivists set up the Aboriginal Tent Embassy oppo- site Parliament House in Can- berra. The Aboriginal Land Fund Act is passed to help in purchasing land. The National Trachoma and Eye Health Pro- gram begins. The Northern Territory passes the Aboriginal Sacred Sites Bill the Western Australian gov- ernment drills for oil Charles Perkins is appointed to the highest gov- ernment posi- tion held by an Aboriginal per- son Bob Hawke's La- bour govern- ment dismantles the National Ab- original Confer- ence following a review. The Council for Aboriginal Rec- onciliation is es- tablished. Prime Minister Paul Keating de- livers the 'Redfern speech' acknowledging past injustices to Aboriginal The Native Title Act is passed. Wik people are successful in a High Court case to establish that native title and pastoral leases could co-exist. The Australian Government suspends the Racial Dis- crimination Act Nova Peris Kneebone be- gins the Olympic torch. Cathy Freeman wins a gold medal in the 400-metres event. Australia Wins ICC Cricket World Cup Indigenous Affairs Minister Amanda Vanstone orders artworks to be removed from ATSIC offices. 200020032005
  5. 5. Population 23,753,200 Unemployment Rate 6.40% CO2 emissions 18.3 metric ton Electricity Consumption 213.5 Kilowatt Hour Literacy Rate 99% Life Expectancy 81.2 Birth Rate 13.8 per 1000 people Fertility Rate 1.969 per women Infant Mortality 4.57 per 1000 live births Death Rate 7.56 per 1000 people Suicide Rate 14.9 per 100,000 people per year HIV/AIDS Rate 0.10% Largest City Sydney (4,350,986)
  6. 6. AUSTRALIA INDIA 23,753,200 1,236,344,631 $ 1.56 trillion $ 1.877 trillion $ 67,458.4 $ 1570 99% 74.04% 13.8 birth/1000 people 20.22 births/1,000 population 7.56 death/1000 people 7.4 deaths/1,000 population 14.9 per 100,000 people in a year 10.3 per 100,000 people in a year 1.8 % Annual Change 1.2% Annual Change 7,692,024 km² 3,287,590 km² 5.2% 9%
  7. 7. BHP Billiton $72.1bn This Anglo-Australian multinational mining and petroleum company, with roots all the way back to the late 1800s, is headquartered in Melbourne. As of 2011, it was the largest min- ing company in the world, with several mines and facilities worldwide Rio Tinto $59.8bn Rio Tinto has operations on six continents and focuses mainly on the extraction of minerals (including aluminium, copper, diamonds, gold and industrial minerals), but also has signifi- cant operations in refining. They’ve been in business for 140 years Woolworths Limited $55.5bn Woolworths is a major retail company in Aus- tralia and New Zealand. With just over 200,000 employees, Woolworths operates in supermar- kets, petrol, liquor . It’s the largest retail com- pany by market capitalisation and sales retailer in Australia. Commonwealth Bank of Australia $47.1bn The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was the second largest Australian listed company on the Australian Securities Ex- change in 2008, and currently operates world- wide with over 44,000 employees Telstra $25.6bn With a focus on voice, mobile, internet access, pay television and other entertainment ser- vices, Telstra has continued to be Australia’s largest telecommunications and media compa- ny since the end of the 20th century. Westpac Bank of Australia $42.3bn With almost 1,200 branches and 2,900 ATMs, Westpac is Australia’s largest branch network
  8. 8. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia, also referred to as the Australian Government, Commonwealth Govern- ment or the Federal Government is the federal democratic administrative authority of Australia. The Commonwealth of Austral- ia, a federal constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy, was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Con- stitution, which was drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums. The structure of the Australian Government may be examined in light of two distinct concepts, namely federalism and the separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Departments of Australian Government:
  9. 9. The nation straddles the juncture between the halves of the grand Indo-Pacific thea- tre, or the "Indo-Asia-Pacific," to use the unwieldy, not terribly helpful term now oc- casionally heard in defence circles. Australia's position astride the Indo-Pacific seam could impart a horizontal, east-west character to maritime strategy. Forces based here, that is, could swing into action far more readily than could forces based at the extreme ends of the theatre, such as Japan or Bahrain — home to the U.S. Seventh and Fifth fleets, respectively. Australia is an island, a continent and a nation all at once. It bears some re- semblance to the United States in that sense, albeit without even the friend- ly, and far from geopolitically troublesome, neighbours to its north and south. Isolated from external threats by water, Australia, like the United States, has the option — and at times displays a propensity — to turn in- ward, neglecting the sea and the navy. Australia holds an exterior position vis-a-vis Southeast Asia, outside the southern rim of the South China Sea. This makes the South China Sea unique among semi-enclosed seas. It's rather as though a massive island were posi- tioned due east of Puerto Rico, letting the island's inhabitants manoeuvre outside the Caribbean and Gulf while influencing the shipping lanes con- necting those expanses with the broad Atlantic. Australia is something like Cuba was for Mahan. Again, it occupies a blessed geographic position. It's big, and it boasts plentiful resources relative to its modest population. It would be hard if not impossible to blockade. Defend- ers would simply shift resources overland, using overland transport to evade the blockading force. And it's defensible. It lies largely out of reach of poten- tial adversaries' weaponry. Forces could disperse to points around the long coastline or the continental interior to elude bombardment or a blockade. Geo Political Significance of Australia
  10. 10. Australia – India Relation Australia–India relations are the foreign relations between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Republic of India. Before independence, Australia and India were both part of the British Empire and both are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. They also share political, economic, security, lingual and sporting ties. As a result of British colonisa- tion, cricket has emerged as a strong cultural connection between the two nations, as well as the English language. Diplomatic Relations India first established a Trade Office in Sydney, Aus- tralia in 1941. It is currently represented by a High Commissioner in the embassy at Canberra and Consulate generals in Sydney and Melbourne. both nations are founding mem- bers of the United Nations . Australia has tradi- tionally supported India's position on Arunachal Pradesh, which is subject to diplomatic disputes between India and the People's Republic of China. Economic Relations Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled US$18.7 billion, having grown from A$4.3 billion in 2003. This is ex- pected to rise to touch the mark of US$40 billion by end of year 2016. Trade is highly skewed towards Australia. Austral- ia mainly exports Coal, non-monetary Gold and Copper Ore and agricultural goods to India, while India's chief exports are pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, textiles and clothing. Over 97,000 Indian students enrolled in Australia in 2008, representing an education export of A$2 billion. Military Relations India and Australia conducted a joint naval exercise in the Indian Ocean alongside the USA and Japan. In 2007, the Australian government agreed in principle to sell uranium to fuel India's nuclear reactors. Prime Ministers Ab- bott and Modi signed a landmark deal to increase their nations defence rela- tionship in November 2014.
  11. 11. The 2015 Cricket World Cup is the 11th Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand from 14 February to 29 March 2015. 14 teams will play 49 matches in 14 venues, with Australia staging 26 games at grounds in Adelaide, Brisbane,Canberra, Hobart, Melbourn e, Perth and Sydney This month the Reserve Bank of Australia dropped interest rates to 2.25 per cent, a record low. Fig- ures released a week later show that unemploy- ment is now at its highest level in 12-and-a-half years. Australia avoided a recession after the GFC but, as Keri Phillips reports, the economy looks headed for a rough patch. Australia’s interest rates were cut from 7.5 per cent to 3.5 per cent and the country avoided the recession that has crippled many other OECD countries since then. The Australian dollar has risen to its highest level in nearly a month, jumping more than half a cent against the greenback to 78.8 US cents after the re- lease of Chinese manufacturing data. The local share market followed Wall Street higher, with traders soothed by the Congress testimony of US Federal Reserve boss Janet Yellen on the likely timeline to begin raising American interest rates.