Energy through biogas in rural pakistan- by talha zubair & engr. eshan ahuja


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the power ponit Design, Construction and Operation of 5*20m3 bio-gas plants at ladian, Punjab, Pakistan

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Energy through biogas in rural pakistan- by talha zubair & engr. eshan ahuja

  1. 1. Presented By Talha Zubair & Engr. Eshan Ahuja
  2. 2. The Project Establishment of 5*20m3 Biogas plants for provision of electricity and natural gas for households . The Client : Energy Department, Government of Punjab: Pakistan The Consultant : Sustainable Energy Initiative - SEI Project Location : Ladian, Gujrat District, Pakistan - Population 0.2 Million Design Deenbandhu Bio-gas Model (20m3 each)
  3. 3. Background - Pakistan is suffering from an energy crisis due to: - Rapidly increasing energy demand - A Flat energy production curve - This results in 16-18 hour load shedding in Urban while 20-22 hours in rural areas. - Lack of energy impacts economy, agriculture and everyday activities . - There is a severe deficit in natural gas production in addition to electricity in winter season.
  4. 4. Energy Crisis in Pakistan • Pakistan’s energy demand has grown 80% in the last 15 years. • At present installed power generation capacity in Pakistan is estimated to about 22,500MW , but actual power generation hovers around 15,000MW, due to outdated, inefficient power plants and cash crunch, which often does not permit power plants to operate at optimum capacity because of the inability to buy the required furnace oil. • Hydroelectric plants (6,500MW) dependent on water availability can fall to as low as 2,500MW when water levels drop drastically • Nuclear power and renewable energy sources are too expensive and take long times to setup • IPPs Independent Power Plants (6,500MW), IPP output is limited by money problems. Consequently, the country cannot afford to provide a regular supply of power. 4
  5. 5. Pakistan’s Rapidly Rising Energy Demand Source: 5
  6. 6. Current Energy Mix of Pakistan Installed Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan is approximately 22,500 MW among which 67.2% is generated from thermal sources (oil 37.8 % and gas), 29.4% from hydro, 3.3% from nuclear and 0.1% from coal. 3.38 0.1 0.05 29.4 67.2 Thermal Sources Hydropower Nuclear Coal Renewables Source: Pakistan energy year book 2010-2011 6
  7. 7. Rationale • Pakistan cannot afford to increase its imports of conventional energy sources like oil and gas to meet rising energy demand • Such countries also lack the financial capability to invest in expensive renewables such as wind, solar power etc. • A simple, cheap, easily operable and available energy source is required 7
  8. 8. Why Rural Areas? Agricultural activities in the rural areas of Punjab make significant contribution towards Pakistan’s GDP. With over 20 hours of load shedding per day, they are unable to perform daily activities thus effecting agricultural productivity 8
  9. 9. Energy Demand in Rural and Urban Areas of Pakistan • Developing countries like Pakistan have low per capita energy requirements. • In rural areas of Pakistan, the daily per capita demand of energy equals 10-15 kWh, which could be covered by about 2m³ of biogas . • People in Pakistan generally cut trees for firewood as a source of energy. So a biogas plant, therefore, directly saves forests, assuming that even deadwood is collected for fuel . • Traditionally, rural households are engaged in cattle and crop farming and keep 5 to 10 heads of livestock (mostly buffaloes and cows) for their agro-pastoral livelihood activities. 9
  10. 10. Why Bio-Gas? • Pakistan has an agricultural based economy and therefore, it possesses a huge potential in the form of 10 million livestock for biogas development. Pakistan can produce 150 million m³ of biogas per day, i.e. 54,000 million m³ per annum. • Can serve as a major source of income generation through energy production, organic farming and trading carbon credits • One of cheapest , easily available and relatively clean energy source • Raw material cost is just 1 Cent Per Kg • Does not require skilled labor for construction • Very low operation and maintenance cost • Pakistan possesses 63 million buffaloes and cows that yield 990 million kg of cow-dung per day. About 6 kg of cow-dung can produce 1 m³ of biogas (natural gas). 10
  11. 11. A 20m3 Plant can provide • Natural gas for 12-14 households (4-5 people per household) on a daily basis • Electricity to 10-12 households • Employment of an approximate 100 people during construction of one plant ( on a rolling basis ) • Enhanced agricultural productivity due fertilizer obtained from bio-gas plants • Sanitary treatment of wastes • Efficient and economical recovery of some of the waste carbon as methane for fuel • Retention of humus matter and nutrients for use as a fertilizer. • Less organic waste generated
  12. 12. Our Bio-Gas Model Deenbandhu Bio-gas Model 12
  13. 13. Detailed Engineering Design 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. The Process Source: 15
  16. 16. Cost per plant S.No 1 Quantity /No Description of Item Studies/ Surveys Conducted 4 Amount (AUD) 25,000 Rate/hr *3 Weeks Amount (Pakistan Rupees) 235 21,600 203 2 Labour Cost Unskilled 3 Material Cost 21,000 197 4 Construction & Installation cost 40,000 376 5 Transportation cost 6,000 56 6 Construction Supervision Cost 15,000 141 128,600 1211 18 Total Cost * Note Conversion Rate 1 AUD=106.2 PKR 1200PKR
  17. 17. Project Benefits Social Economic • Improved quality of life due to availability of energy • 12kg of animal waste and 2 kg human excreta reduced in Solid waste generated per day • Energy Equality in villages ( gap in energy consumption per capita ) • Improved aesthetics: better solid waste management • A cheaper substitute of fertilizer • Provision of livelihood to local people • Enhanced agricultural productivity • 500-600 people employed ( on a rotational basis ) during construction of project Environmental • Clean • Renewable • Relatively less polluting as compared to Thermal power, fuel wood burning etc. • Less organic waste to landfills/dumping sites • Less pollution • 10 tones of free fertilizer in form of slurry produced per day 17
  18. 18. Benefits- Quantified • The government inspection at the end of Week 7 resulted in their positive feedback and greater confidence in the services of the Consultants. The Government energy department expressed the desire to further expand the project to include 2 more villages. • Villagers just have to pay 5c per day of gas supply . • An approximate 5kg of cattle dung is produced per household – since we pay 1c per kg of dung so the cost is: 5c (paid by villagers) = 5kg*1c (paid to villagers for dung) Resulting in Zero net cost for villagers Requirements Cost Before Bio-gas Plant After Bio-Gas Plant LPG= 2 cylinders 1800 Nil Fuel Wood 750 Nil Dung Cakes Daily Labour Cost Nil Chemical Fertilizer 600 Nil Approx. Total Cost 3150 Nil 18
  19. 19. Project Timeline Note: 1 Week = 1 Month ( Estimation)
  20. 20. Similar Bio-gas Projects around the World 20
  21. 21. A small bio-gas plant in Kenya 21
  22. 22. An 8m3 biogas plant in Pakistan 22
  23. 23. A 100m3 biogas plant being constructed in Faislabad- Pakistan 23
  24. 24. Conclusion • In countries with poor economic conditions and rapidly increasing population, it is difficult to invest in conventional and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. • With concerns of energy, environment and economy a relatively clean, viable and sustainable source of energy is needed capable of supplementing demands of small secluded villages with low population and no access to energy • Bio-gas is a good solution to energy problems in countries like Pakistan as it: – Is cheap to build, operate and maintain – Supplements the energy requirements (Gas or Electricity) of secluded villages at a much lower cost – Has negligible fuel cost and takes little time to establish
  25. 25. Thank you 25
  26. 26. References • Overview of Pakistan's Electricity Crisis, Generation-Mix and Renewable energy scenarios • Masud, Jamil, Clean Energy Development in Pakistan, ADB Climate Change and Energy Workshop, Bangkok (2009) • Biogas in India, Anil Dhussa , Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India New Delhi • 26