12 families – 1211 AUD to construct- 100$ per year and 28c per day
Energy through biogas in rural pakistan- by talha zubair & engr. eshan ahuja
Talha Zubair & Engr. Eshan Ahuja
Establishment of 5*20m3 Biogas plants for provision of electricity and natural gas for households .
The Client : Energy Department, Government of Punjab: Pakistan
The Consultant : Sustainable Energy Initiative - SEI
Project Location : Ladian, Gujrat District, Pakistan
Design Deenbandhu Bio-gas Model (20m3 each)
- Pakistan is suffering from an energy crisis due to:
- Rapidly increasing energy demand
- A Flat energy production curve
- This results in 16-18 hour load shedding in Urban while 20-22 hours in rural areas.
- Lack of energy impacts economy, agriculture and everyday activities .
- There is a severe deficit in natural gas production in addition to electricity in winter season.
Energy Crisis in Pakistan
• Pakistan’s energy demand has grown 80% in the last 15 years.
• At present installed power generation capacity in Pakistan is estimated to about 22,500MW , but
actual power generation hovers around 15,000MW, due to outdated, inefficient power plants and
cash crunch, which often does not permit power plants to operate at optimum capacity because of
the inability to buy the required furnace oil.
• Hydroelectric plants (6,500MW) dependent on water availability can fall to as low as 2,500MW when
water levels drop drastically
• Nuclear power and renewable energy sources are too expensive and take long times to setup
• IPPs Independent Power Plants (6,500MW), IPP output is limited by money problems.
Consequently, the country cannot afford to provide a regular supply of power.
Pakistan’s Rapidly Rising Energy Demand
Current Energy Mix of Pakistan
Installed Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan is approximately 22,500 MW among which
67.2% is generated from thermal sources (oil 37.8 % and gas), 29.4% from hydro, 3.3% from
nuclear and 0.1% from coal.
Source: Pakistan energy year book 2010-2011
• Pakistan cannot afford to increase its imports of conventional energy sources like oil and
gas to meet rising energy demand
• Such countries also lack the financial capability to invest in expensive renewables such as
wind, solar power etc.
• A simple, cheap, easily operable and available energy source is required
Why Rural Areas?
Agricultural activities in the rural areas of Punjab make significant contribution
towards Pakistan’s GDP. With over 20 hours of load shedding per day, they are
unable to perform daily activities thus effecting agricultural productivity
Energy Demand in Rural and Urban Areas of Pakistan
• Developing countries like Pakistan have low per capita energy requirements.
• In rural areas of Pakistan, the daily per capita demand of energy equals 10-15 kWh, which
could be covered by about 2m³ of biogas .
• People in Pakistan generally cut trees for firewood as a source of energy. So a biogas
plant, therefore, directly saves forests, assuming that even deadwood is collected for fuel .
• Traditionally, rural households are engaged in cattle and crop farming and keep 5 to 10
heads of livestock (mostly buffaloes and cows) for their agro-pastoral livelihood activities.
• Pakistan has an agricultural based economy and therefore, it possesses a huge potential in the form
of 10 million livestock for biogas development. Pakistan can produce 150 million m³ of biogas
per day, i.e. 54,000 million m³ per annum.
• Can serve as a major source of income generation through energy production, organic farming and
trading carbon credits
• One of cheapest , easily available and relatively clean energy source
• Raw material cost is just 1 Cent Per Kg
• Does not require skilled labor for construction
• Very low operation and maintenance cost
• Pakistan possesses 63 million buffaloes and cows that yield 990 million kg of cow-dung per day.
About 6 kg of cow-dung can produce 1 m³ of biogas (natural gas).
A 20m3 Plant can provide
• Natural gas for 12-14 households (4-5 people per household) on a daily basis
• Electricity to 10-12 households
• Employment of an approximate 100 people during construction of one plant ( on a rolling
• Enhanced agricultural productivity due fertilizer obtained from bio-gas plants
• Sanitary treatment of wastes
• Efficient and economical recovery of some of the waste carbon as methane for fuel
• Retention of humus matter and nutrients for use as a fertilizer.
• Less organic waste generated
Cost per plant
Description of Item
Rate/hr *3 Weeks
Construction & Installation
1 AUD=106.2 PKR
• Improved quality of life due to
availability of energy
• 12kg of animal waste and 2
kg human excreta reduced in
Solid waste generated per
• Energy Equality in villages
( gap in energy consumption
per capita )
• Improved aesthetics: better
solid waste management
• A cheaper substitute of
• Provision of livelihood to local
• Enhanced agricultural
• 500-600 people employed
( on a rotational basis ) during
construction of project
• Relatively less polluting as
compared to Thermal power,
fuel wood burning etc.
• Less organic waste to
• Less pollution
• 10 tones of free fertilizer in
form of slurry produced per
• The government inspection at the end of Week 7 resulted in their positive feedback and greater
confidence in the services of the Consultants. The Government energy department expressed the
desire to further expand the project to include 2 more villages.
• Villagers just have to pay 5c per day of gas supply .
• An approximate 5kg of cattle dung is produced per household – since we pay 1c per kg of dung so
the cost is: 5c (paid by villagers) = 5kg*1c (paid to villagers for dung) Resulting in Zero net cost
Cost Before Bio-gas Plant
After Bio-Gas Plant
LPG= 2 cylinders
Daily Labour Cost
Approx. Total Cost
A 100m3 biogas plant being constructed in Faislabad- Pakistan
In countries with poor economic conditions and rapidly increasing population, it is difficult to
invest in conventional and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power.
With concerns of energy, environment and economy a relatively clean, viable and
sustainable source of energy is needed capable of supplementing demands of small
secluded villages with low population and no access to energy
Bio-gas is a good solution to energy problems in countries like Pakistan as it:
Is cheap to build, operate and maintain
Supplements the energy requirements (Gas or Electricity) of secluded villages at a much lower cost
Has negligible fuel cost and takes little time to establish
Overview of Pakistan's Electricity Crisis, Generation-Mix and Renewable energy
Masud, Jamil, Clean Energy Development in Pakistan, ADB Climate Change and
Energy Workshop, Bangkok (2009)
Biogas in India, Anil Dhussa , Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of
India New Delhi