Structures and functions in the evolution of morality       Emanuele Serrelli       University of Milano Bicocca, Italy   ...
Evolutionary explanations
Evolutionary explanations  “Panglossian”         or  “just-so story”    explanation  (Stephen Jay Gould &   Richard C. Lew...
Evolutionary explanations  “Panglossian”         or  “just-so story”    explanation  (Stephen Jay Gould &     A trait T   ...
Evolutionary explanations  “Panglossian”         or  “just-so story”    explanation  (Stephen Jay Gould &     A trait T   ...
Evolutionary explanations  “Panglossian”         or  “just-so story”    explanation  (Stephen Jay Gould &     A trait T   ...
Evolutionary explanations  “Panglossian”         or  “just-so story”    explanation  (Stephen Jay Gould &      A trait T  ...
Evolutionary explanations  “Panglossian”         or  “just-so story”    explanation  (Stephen Jay Gould &      A trait T  ...
Moral traits - what is morality?
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICA...
Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL   VARIATIO...
Moral traits - what is morality?                          The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA                ...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                    The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONAR...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                    The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONAR...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                    The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONAR...
Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL   VARIATIO...
Moral traits - what is morality?                          Genes do not necessarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA                 l...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                   Genes do not necessarily EVOLUTIONARY C...
Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL   VARIATIO...
Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL   VARIATIO...
Moral traits - what is morality?                          We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA            ...
Moral traits - what is morality?                          We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA            ...
Moral traits - what is morality?                          We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA            ...
Moral traits - what is morality?                          We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA            ...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                       Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTI...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                       Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTI...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                       Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTI...
Moral traits - what is morality?                                                       Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTI...
The function of morality In Neodarwinism not    all effects arefunctions. Function is   bound to Natural        Selection ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality                         (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/                         [1−s(1−qT)]               ...
The function of morality   (3) T = f (F, r)      “...the palette of neurochemicals... affecting  neurons and muscles is   ...
The function of morality  (3) T = f (F, r)  oxytocin is found in all       vertebrates    (Churchland 2011, p. 45)        ...
The function of morality  (3) T = f (F, r)“Oxytocin ... is at the hub of  the intricate network ofmammalian adaptations fo...
The function of morality  (3) T = f (F, r)“...modest modifications inexiting neural structures ...can lead to new outcomes”...
The function of morality  (3) T = f (F, r) “a large... range of social  patterns found amongmammals..., but underlyingthem...
The function of morality  (3) ∆T = f (∆F, ∆r)          “Biological evolution does not achieve adaptations by      designin...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, ...
THANK YOU!Picture credits: http://www.azoft.com/spotlight/2011/05/05/15-bizarre-dead-tech-products.html
REFERENCES:• Boehm C (2000), Conflict and the evolution of social control. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7(1-2), “Evolut...
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Serrelli E (2012). Structures and functions in the evolution of morality. The Evolution of Morality: The Biology and Philosophy of Human Conscience, Erice, Sicily, IT, 17-22 June 2012.
http://www.evolutionofmorality.it/
http://www.epistemologia.eu

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  • Emanuele Serrelli - Structures and functions in the evolution of morality

    1. 1. Structures and functions in the evolution of morality Emanuele Serrelli University of Milano Bicocca, Italy Erice, Sicily (IT) 17-22 June 2012
    2. 2. Evolutionary explanations
    3. 3. Evolutionary explanations “Panglossian” or “just-so story” explanation (Stephen Jay Gould & Richard C. Lewontin,“spandrels” paper, 1979)
    4. 4. Evolutionary explanations “Panglossian” or “just-so story” explanation (Stephen Jay Gould & A trait T Richard C. Lewontin,“spandrels” paper, 1979)
    5. 5. Evolutionary explanations “Panglossian” or “just-so story” explanation (Stephen Jay Gould & A trait T A function Richard C. Lewontin,“spandrels” paper, 1979)
    6. 6. Evolutionary explanations “Panglossian” or “just-so story” explanation (Stephen Jay Gould & A trait T A function Richard C. Lewontin,“spandrels” paper, 1979)
    7. 7. Evolutionary explanations “Panglossian” or “just-so story” explanation (Stephen Jay Gould & A trait T A function Richard C. Lewontin,“spandrels” paper, 1979) Morality?
    8. 8. Evolutionary explanations “Panglossian” or “just-so story” explanation (Stephen Jay Gould & A trait T A function Richard C. Lewontin,“spandrels” paper, 1979) Morality? “Why do you evolutionists always try to assess the value of anything even before knowing what it is?” (Francis Crick, in Gould 1991)
    9. 9. Moral traits - what is morality?
    10. 10. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE
    11. 11. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”?
    12. 12. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field?
    13. 13. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field? still trying to get a grip?
    14. 14. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field? still trying to get a grip? an explanatory strategy?
    15. 15. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field? still trying to get a grip? an explanatory strategy?• Joyce: INDETERMINATE CONCEPTS
    16. 16. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field? still trying to get a grip? an explanatory strategy?• Joyce: INDETERMINATE CONCEPTS• Churchland: RADIAL STRUCTURE AND FUZZY BOUNDARIES OF CONCEPTS
    17. 17. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field? still trying to get a grip? an explanatory strategy?• Joyce: INDETERMINATE CONCEPTS• Churchland: RADIAL STRUCTURE AND FUZZY BOUNDARIES OF CONCEPTS BUT scientific need for concepts
    18. 18. Moral traits - what is morality?• Joyce: PRECISIFICATION OF MORAL SENSE• Kitcher: “ETHICS” OR “MORALITY”? “JUST A TECHNICAL PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM”? lack of precisifications in the “evolution of morality” field? still trying to get a grip? an explanatory strategy?• Joyce: INDETERMINATE CONCEPTS• Churchland: RADIAL STRUCTURE AND FUZZY BOUNDARIES OF CONCEPTS BUT scientific need for concepts at least, pragmatically, contextualizing results in certain premises
    19. 19. Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION
    20. 20. Moral traits - what is morality? The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA of a trait depends for trait recognition: on its inheritance pattern • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION
    21. 21. Moral traits - what is morality? The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA of a trait depends for trait recognition: on its inheritance pattern • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTIONPicture credits: "Autosomal recessive disorders" http://www.brusselsgenetics.be/p_453.htm // Wright (1931)
    22. 22. Moral traits - what is morality? The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA of a trait depends for trait recognition: on its inheritance pattern • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTIONPicture credits: "Autosomal recessive disorders" http://www.brusselsgenetics.be/p_453.htm // Wright (1931)
    23. 23. Moral traits - what is morality? The evolutionary relevance EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA of a trait depends for trait recognition: on its inheritance pattern • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION Genes are all which is inheritable... (The Modern Synthesis, 1920s-40s)Picture credits: "Autosomal recessive disorders" http://www.brusselsgenetics.be/p_453.htm // Wright (1931)
    24. 24. Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/science-sushi/2011/10/05/a-moral-gene/
    25. 25. Moral traits - what is morality? Genes do not necessarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA lose their importance for trait recognition: (e.g., Churchland 2011) • HERITABILITY (e.g. kin selection models of altruism evolution) • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION
    26. 26. Moral traits - what is morality? Genes do not necessarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA lose their importance for trait recognition: (e.g., Churchland 2011) • HERITABILITY (e.g. kin selection models of altruism evolution) • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION but heritability has a larger scope today: the heritability pattern of a dynamic phenotype Picture credit: Fusco (2011), in Evoluzione Modelli e Processi, ed. by Ferraguti & Castellacci, Pearson, Italy.
    27. 27. Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION Picture credits: Flack & de Waal (2000), Journal of Consciousness Studies, p. 6.
    28. 28. Moral traits - what is morality? EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION “Twin and family studies • FITNESS FUNCTION of suggest a heritability psychopathy in the range of about 70%; childhood conditions such asabuse and neglect may contribute tothose who are genetically disposed” Churchland 2011, p. 41) Picture credits: Flack & de Waal (2000), Journal of Consciousness Studies, p. 6.
    29. 29. Moral traits - what is morality? We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA relevant traits only if we can for trait recognition: assess their reliable • HERITABILITY reappearance • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTION
    30. 30. Moral traits - what is morality? We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA relevant traits only if we can for trait recognition: assess their reliable • HERITABILITY reappearance • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION “Biometrical population genetics” (cf. Serrelli 2010, Lewontin 1980) • FITNESS FUNCTION
    31. 31. Moral traits - what is morality? We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA relevant traits only if we can for trait recognition: assess their reliable • HERITABILITY reappearance • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION “Biometrical population genetics” (cf. Serrelli 2010, Lewontin 1980) • FITNESS FUNCTION QTL - Quantitative Traits Locis (cf. Hartl & Clark 2007, chp. 8)
    32. 32. Moral traits - what is morality? We are studying evolutionarily EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA relevant traits only if we can for trait recognition: assess their reliable • HERITABILITY reappearance • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION “Biometrical population genetics” (cf. Serrelli 2010, Lewontin 1980) • FITNESS FUNCTION QTL - Quantitative Traits Locis (cf. Hartl & Clark 2007, chp. 8) Trait = inheritable pattern
    33. 33. Moral traits - what is morality? Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTIONPicture credits:chimps: http://angelorganic.org/darwin-mis-interpreted/birds: http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/08/cheatin-hearts-get-stuck-with-th.htmlants: http://www.ridelust.com/traffic-congestion-and-social-insects-we-can-learn-how-to-drive-from-ants/V. Bulatov (2011), http://bulatov.org/math/1101/webtalk.html
    34. 34. Moral traits - what is morality? Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: Need for models • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION • FITNESS FUNCTIONPicture credits:chimps: http://angelorganic.org/darwin-mis-interpreted/birds: http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/08/cheatin-hearts-get-stuck-with-th.htmlants: http://www.ridelust.com/traffic-congestion-and-social-insects-we-can-learn-how-to-drive-from-ants/V. Bulatov (2011), http://bulatov.org/math/1101/webtalk.html
    35. 35. Moral traits - what is morality? Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: Need for models • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL Homology: VARIATION pattern shows up • FITNESS FUNCTION in different taxaPicture credits:chimps: http://angelorganic.org/darwin-mis-interpreted/birds: http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/08/cheatin-hearts-get-stuck-with-th.htmlants: http://www.ridelust.com/traffic-congestion-and-social-insects-we-can-learn-how-to-drive-from-ants/V. Bulatov (2011), http://bulatov.org/math/1101/webtalk.html
    36. 36. Moral traits - what is morality? Trait = inheritable pattern EVOLUTIONARY CRITERIA for trait recognition: Need for models • HERITABILITY • INTER-INDIVIDUAL Homology: VARIATION pattern shows up • FITNESS FUNCTION in different taxaPicture credits:chimps: http://angelorganic.org/darwin-mis- Trait of...interpreted/birds: http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/08/cheatin-hearts-get-stuck-with-th.htmlants: http://www.ridelust.com/traffic-congestion-and-social-insects-we-can-learn-how-to-drive-from-ants/V. Bulatov (2011), http://bulatov.org/math/1101/webtalk.html a relevant unit
    37. 37. The function of morality In Neodarwinism not all effects arefunctions. Function is bound to Natural Selection A trait T function? flight? (cf. Williams 1966) effect ... effect e.g. thermoregulation? e.g. mating?
    38. 38. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects arefunctions. Function is bound to Natural Selection (cf. Williams 1966)
    39. 39. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (cf. Williams 1966)
    40. 40. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (cf. Williams 1966) (2) w = f (A, B, … T)
    41. 41. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (cf. Williams 1966) (2) w = f (A, B, … T)
    42. 42. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (cf. Williams 1966) (2) w = f (A, B, … T)
    43. 43. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (cf. Williams 1966) (3) T = f (F, r)
    44. 44. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (cf. Williams 1966) (3) T = f (F, r)
    45. 45. The function of morality (1) ΔqT = [sqT(1−qT)]/ [1−s(1−qT)] (cf. Wright 1931) In Neodarwinism not all effects are Need to specify a “problemfunctions. Function is bound to Natural background” (cf. Kitcher 2011) Selection (3) T = f (F, r) Functioning (cf. Williams 1966) and roles are not causal upon traits and structures
    46. 46. The function of morality (3) T = f (F, r) “...the palette of neurochemicals... affecting neurons and muscles is substantially the same across vertebrates and invertebrates...” (Churchland 2011, p. 45) Picture credit: McPartland et al. (2006), Gene 370:64-74. http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111905007067
    47. 47. The function of morality (3) T = f (F, r) oxytocin is found in all vertebrates (Churchland 2011, p. 45) Picture credit: McPartland et al. (2006), Gene 370:64-74. http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111905007067
    48. 48. The function of morality (3) T = f (F, r)“Oxytocin ... is at the hub of the intricate network ofmammalian adaptations for caring for others” (Churchland 2011, p. 14) Picture credit: McPartland et al. (2006), Gene 370:64-74. http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111905007067
    49. 49. The function of morality (3) T = f (F, r)“...modest modifications inexiting neural structures ...can lead to new outcomes” (Churchland 2011, p. 14) Picture credit: McPartland et al. (2006), Gene 370:64-74. http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111905007067
    50. 50. The function of morality (3) T = f (F, r) “a large... range of social patterns found amongmammals..., but underlyingthem are probably differentarrangements of receptors for oxytocin and other hormones and neurochemicals” (Churchland 2011, p. 14) Picture credit: McPartland et al. (2006), Gene 370:64-74. http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111905007067
    51. 51. The function of morality (3) ∆T = f (∆F, ∆r) “Biological evolution does not achieve adaptations by designing a whole new mechanism from scratch, but modifies what is already in place, little bit by little bit. Social emotions, values, and behavior are not the result of a wholly new engineering plan, but rather an adaptation of existing arrangements and mechanisms that are intimately linked with the self-preserving circuitry for fighting, freezing, and flight, on the one hand, and for rest and digest, on the other” (Churchland 2011, p. 46)
    52. 52. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration
    53. 53. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free
    54. 54. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns
    55. 55. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models
    56. 56. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity
    57. 57. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity units of evolution
    58. 58. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity units of evolution
    59. 59. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity units of evolution• Functions conceptual problems (e.g. Cummins 1975, Wright 1973, Millikan 1984, 1989, Griffiths 1993, Godfrey-Smith 1994, cf. Casebeer 2003) Picture credit: http://www.azoft.com/spotlight/2011/05/05/15-bizarre-dead-tech-products.html
    60. 60. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity units of evolution• Functions conceptual problems (e.g. Cummins 1975, Wright 1973, Millikan 1984, 1989, Griffiths 1993, Godfrey-Smith 1994, cf. Casebeer 2003) sights for identifying traits Picture credit: http://www.azoft.com/spotlight/2011/05/05/15-bizarre-dead-tech-products.html
    61. 61. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity units of evolution• Functions conceptual problems (e.g. Cummins 1975, Wright 1973, Millikan 1984, 1989, Griffiths 1993, Godfrey-Smith 1994, cf. Casebeer 2003) sights for identifying traits crucial for Darwinian explanations Picture credit: http://www.azoft.com/spotlight/2011/05/05/15-bizarre-dead-tech-products.html
    62. 62. Evolutionary explanations of morality• Explanatory diversity and integration• Traits/structures and functions are needed, but don’t come for free• Traits as inheritable patterns models homologies avoiding circularity units of evolution• Functions conceptual problems (e.g. Cummins 1975, Wright 1973, Millikan 1984, 1989, Griffiths 1993, Godfrey-Smith 1994, cf. Casebeer 2003) sights for identifying traits crucial for Darwinian explanations functions / effects Picture credit: http://www.azoft.com/spotlight/2011/05/05/15-bizarre-dead-tech-products.html
    63. 63. THANK YOU!Picture credits: http://www.azoft.com/spotlight/2011/05/05/15-bizarre-dead-tech-products.html
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