Chile November 2006 Teresa Valdés (coordinator )
Introduction - context <ul><li>Institutional changes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissing of project coordinator from FLACSO and transfer of activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New home: CEDEM (Center for the Study and Development of Women) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in research team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modification in work schedule </li></ul></ul></ul>
This investigation has a research-intervention focus on: A state of the art of research and teaching on gender and sexualities in universities . To establish, with a certain historical depth, the quality and/or precariousness of courses on gender and sexuality/ies, through an electronic survey and semi-structured interviews to key informants To elaborate a curriculum proposal to influence the teaching of gender and sexuality/ies in Chile
Conceptual framework <ul><li>Sexuality’s social construction is related to multiple and complicated ways in which our emotions, desires and relationships are shaped by the society in which we live. </li></ul><ul><li>If sexuality is constituent of humans, it not only refers to a physical interaction nor to the specie’s reproduction. It would be defined also as a way to find pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of human sexuality will determine people’s behavior, which means, for example, sexual relations, the establishment of a monogamous or polygamous family, fecundity, reproductive behavior, etc. This is, what is permitted, prohibited, desired or real. </li></ul>
Internet Research <ul><li>The criteria used in the Internet research on gender and sexuality/ies courses were: </li></ul><ul><li>The research focused on all compulsory and optional courses in careers, specialization courses, diplomas, masters and Ph.Ds. Graduate courses with the key words in their subjects were also accounted for. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary key words: sexuality, gender, masculinity, reproductive health, sex education. Secondary key words: feminism, participation, sex, health, intimacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the list of traditional (members of the Rectors Council) and private universities, a first scanning was made using internal seekers and with the review of each School and career. </li></ul><ul><li>It focused on finding the curriculum or study plans of each career in order to identify optional and compulsory subjects that include gender and/or sexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>University research centres and extension activities were excluded, as well as e-learning courses and seminars on gender issues. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In summary, the following information was found regarding courses on gender and sexuality/ies in Chilean universities: </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate compulsory courses: 53 </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate optional courses: 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomas or courses in Diplomas: 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Masters or courses in Masters: 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Courses in Ph.D: 4 </li></ul>Findings
Table 1. SERNAM Figures (2000) Universities in the Rectors Council (n=25) With courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =11 (44%) Without courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =14 (56%) Universities outside the Rectors Council (n=36) With courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =3 (8.3%) Without courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =33 (91.6%) Total number of Chilean universities with courses on Gender and/or Sexuality: 22.9% (source: http://www.sernam.cl/basemujer/ ) General comparison gender and sexuality/ies courses
<ul><li>Universities in the Rectors Council (traditional universities) (n=25) </li></ul><ul><li>With courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =15 (60%) </li></ul><ul><li>Without courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =10 (40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Universities outside the Rectors Council )private, new universities) (n=36) </li></ul><ul><li>With courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =17 (47.2 %) </li></ul><ul><li>Without courses and/or programs on Gender and Sexuality =19 (52.7 %) </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of Chilean universities with courses on </li></ul><ul><li>Gender and/or Sexuality: 51.2 % </li></ul>Courses on gender and sexuality/ies in Chilean Universities
Electronic survey <ul><li>Main list of teachers/researchers: 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Electronically self applied survey. </li></ul><ul><li>16 responded. </li></ul><ul><li>Some important teachers/researchers didn't answer but have been contacted and will be interviewed in December. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a bias in the survey results </li></ul>
Electronic survey Areas of expertise of the researchers/teachers -Gender, subjectivities, sexuality -Gender studies, masculinities and public policy -Human sexuality -Sexualities and sexual diversity -Sex education -Sex education and adolescence. Obstetrics and gynecology – Pediatric gynecology -International Law of Human Rights, Health, Reproductive rights and bioethics Almost all teachers are researchers. They teach as a consequence of their research experience
Electronic survey <ul><li>Seniority and age of the teachers </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewed belong to two groups </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 have between 20 and 28 years of work in the area of teaching gender and/or sexuality/ies </li></ul><ul><li>8 have between 11 and 19 years in the field </li></ul><ul><li>(only 12 answered the question) </li></ul><ul><li>The ages range between 29 and 68: </li></ul><ul><li>7 are 40 or younger </li></ul><ul><li>7 are 50 or older </li></ul><ul><li>They represent two different generations and there is a void in the group between 41 and 49, where only two informants were found. </li></ul><ul><li>The first generation was clearly self-taught, and the young generation, was formed abroad and/or by the older one. </li></ul>
Electronic survey Courses dictated by informants in universities in the last 3 years by level Source: Electronic survey (16 answers) COURSE LEVEL nº % Undergraduate 28 68.3 Specialization course 3 7.4 Masters 5 12.2 Diploma 2 4.9 Classroom Specializing Course 1 2.4 Virtual Specializing Course (WebCT Platform) 1 2.4 Virtual Extension (WebCT Platform) 1 2.4 TOTAL 41 100.0
Electronic survey Permanence of the courses The courses with more permanence in Undergraduate programs are: - Sociology of Gender, University of Concepción - 1997 - Sociology of Gender, Alberto Hurtado University 2000. Both are compulsory for the Sociology Undegraduate Degree. Most of the courses were taught after 2000. This may show a growing interest by university students to include gender and/or sexuality/ies issues as part of their academic formation. The exceptions are the course on sex education taught since 1987 to these day as faculty training in the School of Medicine (U. of Chile) and the Sociology of Gender course taught at the University of Concepción since 1997
Electronic survey <ul><li>Courses on gender and/or sexuality taught by the informers in Chilean universities concentrate in social sciences schools: Psychology School (12 references); Sociology (7 references) y Law (2 references). </li></ul> It relates to Medicine and Obstetrics and Childcare Undergraduate programs that include gender and/or sexualities nº % Schools linked to Social Sciences 21 75 Medicine Schools  2 7.2 Mainstream and/or compulsory for every university student 5 17.9 TOTAL 28 100
<ul><li>Both, the scanning performed through the Internet and the electronic survey reveal a concentration of gender and sexualities courses at the undergraduate level. </li></ul><ul><li>The internet scanning shows that Chilean universities –public, private, traditional and recently created– have 53 undergraduate courses, 25 of them optional and 29 courses at the specialization level. </li></ul><ul><li>The sum of these to the 26 courses found by the electronic survey that were not found in Internet, make up 133 courses on gender and/or sexualities offered by Chilean universities. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet research does not show the still shy and poor inclusion of sub-module courses on gender and/or sexualities in some of the specialization courses and in some of the Ph.Ds. </li></ul>
Electronic survey <ul><li>Most of the courses taught by the informers are compulsory (68.4% among those with information). </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of the courses on gender and/or sexualities taught at Chilean universities according to their Internet sites  , which add up to 123 courses, the great majority is also at the undergraduate level, with 64 compulsory courses, followed by the optional ones with 37 and finally by specialization courses with 32. The latter are in many cases courses within thematic modules that include other topics. </li></ul><ul><li> These are basically courses that have been or are being taught in any of the three categories: undergraduate compulsory, optional and IFC (Integral Formation Courses) and specialization courses (courses within diplomas, masters and Ph.D. or full programs). </li></ul>
Electronic survey <ul><li>When asked if the conceptual perspective used in their respective teaching and/or research activities, (“how do you define sexuality/ies?), t he answers can be grouped in three large orientations: </li></ul><ul><li>sexuality as a social-identitarian construction related to desire </li></ul><ul><li>This orientation acknowledges the construction of a plurality of identities, that is complex and related to the immediate socio-cultural environment, where the allocation of meaning is performed in society, and the gender rule is constantly re-created and strained. </li></ul><ul><li>as a component of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Health professionals are in the second group, where there is no elaboration of the concept, but where sexuality stands out as an integral element of human beings. These definitions contrast the previous ones and are part of a more bio medic approach where the body has a particular status, conceived as healthy, and where the tensions and complexities of the subjectivities present in gender identities, are not explicitly included. </li></ul><ul><li>a perspective that emphasises power relations </li></ul><ul><li>These appreciations fundamentally aim to gender relations and sexuality as a power dimension, which begins with the symbolic construction of sexual difference. </li></ul>
Electronic survey When asked if their concept of sexuality includes a gender perspective, which and how it is included, all the informers pointed out that to talk about sexuality implies the notion of gender. A first emphasis is made in the domination of women. Other point out gender as just another variable within a more complex definition of identity/ies because this is also linked to ethnicity, age, socio-economic status, etc. Others put more emphasis in sexuality/ies as an inherent component of the gender concept and experience.
Electronic survey When asked if they include a rights perspective, most of the professionals answer affirmatively and described it from each professional background. Finally, some of the professors interviewed incorporate a vision of the historical process of rights and citizenship construction.
Electronic survey Bibliography The survey included the question: “If you had to choose 5 authors that cannot be absent in the course, which ones would they be?” This was asked in order to visualize whether there is a theoretical conceptual body shared by Chilean academics or, if there is instead a dispersion of authors from different areas. This enables us to see the most commonly used conceptual perspectives and the limitations there are from the view point of the interests of this research.
Bibliography AUTHOR (REFERENCES) BOOK OR ARTICLE TITLE Michel Foucault (9) Historia de la sexualidad (Tomo 1,2 y3) Microfísica del Poder Marta Lamas (8) El género, la construcción social de la diferencia sexual Género: los conflictos y desafíos del nuevo paradigma La antropología feminista y el género Usos, dificultades y posibilidades de la categoría de género Cuerpo e identidad Jeffrey Weeks(8) Sexualidad El malestar de la sexualidad La construcción de las identidades genéricas y sexuales. La naturaleza problemática de las identidades Joan Scott (4) El género: una categoría útil para el análisis histórico Marcela Lagarde (4) Los cautiverios de la mujer: madresposas, monjas, putas, presas y locas Gayle Rubin (3) El tráfico de mujeres: notas sobre la “economía política” del sexo Teresita de Barbieri (3) Sobre la categoría de género, una introducción teórico-metodológica Certezas y malos entendidos sobre la categoría de género.
Bibliography AUTHOR WIT 2 MENTIONS BOOK OR ARTICLE TITLE Bordieu, Pierre La dominación Masculina Bozon, Michel Sociologie de la sexualité Butler, Judith Gender Trouble Mecanismos psíquicos del poder. Teorías sobre la sujeción Preciado, Beatriz Manifiesto Contrasexual Montecino, Sonia. Mujeres, espejos y fragmentos. Antropología de género y salud en Chile del Siglo XXI (con Astro R., De la Parra M. A, comps.) Conceptos de Género y Desarrollo (con Rebolledo, Loreto) Fuller, Norma Masculinidades. Cambios y permanencias Pick de Weiss S. Pl aneando tu vida Programa de educación sexual para adolescentes Rebecca Cook El Feminismo y los Cuatro Principios Éticos y Derechos Humanos de la Mujer.
Bibliography <ul><li>There are 23 authors mentioned by only one informer. Here we can see some of them: </li></ul><ul><li>Toledo V., Luengo, X. y Cols. (Adolescencia. Tiempo de decisiones) </li></ul><ul><li>Molina, Ramiro; Sandoval J., González, E. y cols. (Salud Sexual y Reproductiva en la adolescencia). </li></ul><ul><li>Simone de Beauvoir (El segundo sexo) </li></ul><ul><li>David Le Breton (Antropología del Cuerpo y Modernidad) </li></ul><ul><li>R.W. Connell (Masculinities) </li></ul><ul><li>Conway, Bourque & Scott (El concepto de Género) </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Guzmán (El género en la planificación social) </li></ul><ul><li>Isabel Cristina Jaramillo (Crítica Feminista al Derecho) </li></ul><ul><li>Chandra Mohanty (Feminism without Borders; Feminist Genealogies; Colonial Legacies; Democratic Future) </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia William (La dolorosa prisión del lenguaje de los derechos) </li></ul><ul><li>W. Simon y H. Gagnon (Sexual Scripts: Origin, Influences and Changes) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Such dispersion may have several explanations. One of them is that this reflects the specialization and/or discipline of origin of each informer. But this can be questioned since the majority of the informers come from social sciences and humanities thus turning paradoxical that there is not a common theoretical base shared regarding gender and/or sexualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only are there important absences of authors of the north hemisphere, but also Latin American authors, such as Ivonne Szazs, Mara Viveros, Richard Parker, M. Luiza Heilborn, Carlos Cáceres, Ana Amuchástegui, María Ema Mannarelli, Luz Gabriela Arango, Ondina Fachel Leal, Magdalena León, Sonia Correa or Vera Paiva. </li></ul>Bibliography
Teaching strategies <ul><li>When asked “What teaching strategies do you use when you face possible resistances to gender and sexuality/ies issues?” informers pointed out a range of teaching strategies that may be grouped in 5 great categories: </li></ul><ul><li>- Experience: this strategy seeks the promotion of an understanding from the personal experience, based on the life of the student him/herself, and on an abstract explanatory concept of the social relations inter and intra gender. </li></ul><ul><li>- Practical work: this strategy looks for a practical approach to gender andsexuality, without a direct relation to the student’s life, which allows for the social relevance of the object of study to be highlighted. </li></ul><ul><li>- Participatory Dynamics: This strategy considers the involvement of students in the classroom, beyond the traditional professor-student relationship of speaking and listening. </li></ul><ul><li>- Research results and statistics: This strategy aims to unveil macro-social patterns that show socio-cultural behavior based on gender construction. </li></ul><ul><li>- Audiovisual and literary material: This strategy seeks to encourage students using cultural creations that address the analysed issues by unveiling different social structures and their tensions and their closeness (or not) to the student’s own reality. </li></ul>
Proposal of Masters Degree Program on Gender and Government <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The Masters in Gender and Government aims to contribute to the development of academic and professional competences on the relations between sexuality and gender as fundamental human experiences, creative and generators of new challenges for the exercise of human rights and citizenship, as well as the role of the State and the market in the context of sociocultural, economic and political complex transformations and diversification in the region. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Next steps </li></ul><ul><li>In-depht interviews with a group of senior and junior teachers: humanities, social sciences, health careers and law. (To i dentify schools of thoughts and paradigms used in sexualities and gender research and teaching; to identify factors that inhibit or favor intellectual progress in the research and teaching activities in the fields of gender and sexualities; to e xamine to what extent there is a dialogue between the research and teaching of gender and sexualities, and the public policies and political impact . ) </li></ul><ul><li>To build the map of researchers in the field of gender and sexualities in Chile, as well as of the existing institutional links that enable researching and teaching sexualities-related matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of selected courses syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with university administration’s key informants </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with government officials in charge of sex education in the curricula and public educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Masters program implementation </li></ul>