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  1. 1. Group 3: Reginald Lei Nikki Rodrigo Shanna Janolo Yna Cabrito Nikki GilbuelaAileen Mascarenas Princess Villegas Leaian Palencia
  2. 2.  It is for building and repairing of body structures For building antibodies Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Transporting substances. Providing energy. There are about 20 common kinds of amino acids that are required to form proteins in the body.
  3. 3. These are the 20 common kinds of amino acids:1. Valine*2. Leucine*3. Isoleucine*4. Alanine5. Arginine
  4. 4. 6. Glutamine7. Lysine*8. Aspartic acid9. Glutamate10. Proline11. Cysteine12. Threonine*13. Methionine*14. Histidine*15. Phenylalanine*
  5. 5. 16. Tyrosine17. Tryptophan*18. Asparagine19. Glycine20. Serine
  6. 6.  Protein is vital to allow growth, repair and maintenance of the body. The need for consuming proteins is especially more for infants, young children, pregnant women and recovering patients. Protein functions most effectively when enough amounts of carbohydrates and fats are available in the body.
  7. 7. Infants are the ones that require more protein to support their growth and development. A six month old requires about 14 grams of protein daily. It is important in maintaining and building body tissue, therefore it is critical to a growing child. It also supplies part of their daily energy requirements.
  8. 8.  Breast milk supplies baby with the most ideal mix of these building blocks, and formula makers attempt to mimic the composition of breast milk, and do it quite well. Both breast milk and formula supplies protein in a form that is more easily digested than the protein found in straight cows milk.
  9. 9.  Protein need per unit of body weight decreases as your baby gets older, so his need for protein will not increase as fast as you might think. By age two, a baby needs 16 grams of protein, up only 2 grams from his need at six months. Too little protein can result in nutritional inadequacy and suboptimal growth.
  10. 10.  Proteins provide both calories and the amino acid building blocks that are necessary for proper growth. The protein in human milk provides between 10%-15% of an infants daily caloric need. Low fat, or skim milk supplies too much protein per unit and can overload a babys kidneys and their ability to handle the nitrogen found in that protein.
  11. 11.  To try and accommodate this overload, the kidneys will draw on body fluids to try and dilute the nitrogen and this can result in dehydration
  12. 12.  Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy alterations is the reduction in total body protein. A decrease in skeletal muscle is the most noticeable manifestation of this change but there is also a reduction in other physiologic proteins such as organ tissue.
  13. 13.  This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin elasticity, and an inability to fight infection. Adequate dietary intake of protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain.
  14. 14.  The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and longer recuperation from illness.
  15. 15.  Adequate dietary intake of energy and protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain because of the cost of nutrient dense foods, perceived intolerance to certain food groups, difficulty tearing or chewing fibrous foods, or fear of consuming too much fat or cholesterol.
  16. 16.  The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poor healing, and longer recuperation from illness.
  17. 17.  The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Although individuals will adapt to lower dietary protein intake, older adults may adapt by compromising their functional capacity, losing muscle mass, and compromising their immune status.
  18. 18.  Decline in muscle mass, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function occurs with age, and amino acids are reported to enhance both muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial function.
  19. 19.  Protein is needed in our diet, there are certain sickness that can occur when the client takes less than the body requirements of protein.
  20. 20. PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION Especially common in children in underdeveloped nations. Caused by low intake of both protein and calories. Is most likely to affect people who have suffered severe physical trauma that increases protein needs (for example, extensive skin burns)
  21. 21.  There are 2 types of protein-energy malnutrition: 1. Marasmus A state of semi-starvation that can occur in people of all ages who have limited access to food, but is most common in non-breastfed children given diluted infant formula.
  22. 22.  Weight loss, muscle wasting, loss of visible fat stores, weakness and fatigue, and frequent infections are the symptoms of marasmus.
  23. 23. 2. Kwashiorkor A Ghanian word for "the evil spirit that infects the child". Was first described in 1933 and typically occurs in children younger than 4 years old fed diets high in carbohydrates with little or no protein. muscle wasting, edema (fluid retention), and an enlarged and fatty liver, with the preservation of visible fat stores are its symptoms.
  24. 24. Some other effects of protein deficiencies are: Edema Weight loss Thinning or brittle hair, hair loss Ridges or deep lines in finger and toe nails Skin becomes very light, burns easily in the sun
  25. 25.  Reduced pigmentation in the hair on scalp and body Skin rashes, dryness, flakiness General weakness and lethargy Muscle soreness and weakness, cramps Slowness in healing wounds, cuts, scrapes, and bruises Bedsores and other skin ulcers
  26. 26.  Difficulty sleeping Headache Nausea and stomach pain Fainting
  27. 27.  IMPAIRED MENTAL HEALTH Long term protein deficiency can affect your mental health in a number of ways. It can lead to mental retardation (particularly in children) and also cause anxiety, crankiness, depression and moodiness.
  28. 28.  WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM Protein is essential for the production of antibodies which are a key part of the immune system. If you become deficient in protein your body will be unable to manufacture these antibodies. This makes you more susceptible to infection as your body will struggle to fight foreign objects.
  29. 29.  ORGAN FAILURE: Protein is needed for the construction, maintenance and repair of all your body’s cells. Failing to consume enough of this important nutrient means that your body will have nothing to maintain and repair your organ cells with. In the long term this will prevent your organs from functioning properly and cause them to fail.
  30. 30.  If you failed to treat these protein deficiencies there might be some complications that can be developed like: Gallstones Arthritis Heart problems Muscle deterioration Organ failure Death
  31. 31.  Too much protein may also lead to other complications such as: BONE LOSS AND OSTEOPOROSIS Excess proteins may deplete the bones of their chief mineral as calcium in the urine rises as protein intake increases.
  32. 32.  HEART DISEASE Too much protein intake is associated with heart disease. Foods rich in animal protein tend to be rich in saturated fats and cholesterol.
  33. 33.  OBESITY Too much protein have found a link between high-meat diets and colon disease.
  34. 34.  Protein foods of animal origin, such as eggs, milk, fish, poultry, and meats are called “complete proteins”
  35. 35.  Plant protein foods, except soya which are the only plant source that are complete proteins, are “incomplete proteins.”
  36. 36.  Other sources of protein is “tempeh” and Indonesian food obtained by fermenting soybean.
  37. 37.  Food combinations that provide complete proteins:Grains+Legumes• Peanut butter sandwich• Rice and beans• Lentil soup with rye bread• Split pea soup w/croutons
  38. 38. Grains/Legumes+animal protein• Chile w/beans and cornbread• Ready to eat cereal w/slim milk• Rice pudding• Cheese sandwich• Pancakes
  39. 39.  Protein supplements are not needed to meet protein needs. Animal foods should supply 1/3 to ½ of total protein intake in adults, and 2/3 in children, pregnant and lactating women. Protein needs can be also higher for active people
  40. 40.  You cant take too much or too little amount of protein, there is a recommended protein intake. Daily protein allowance may be estimated based on desirable body weight in the absence of tabulated standards such as US RDA.
  41. 41. Group Protein recommendation per kg weightInfants 2.75-3.0gSchildren 1.5-2.0gAdolescent 1.5g(early) 1.25g(Older)Most Adults 1.12g
  42. 42.  Example: A seven year old child with a DBW of 22 kilos has a protein allowance of 33 grams per day22 kilos x 1.5 grams/kilo = 33 g
  43. 43.  MOUTH: Only the mechanical breaking up of the protein foods by chewing occurs. The food particles are mixed with saliva and passed on as a semisolid mass into the stomach.
  44. 44.  STOMACH: Chemical digestion of protein begins in the acid medium of the stomach. Hydrochloric acid activates pepsin and starts to break down protein into smaller chains of amino acids called peptides. Renin- A gastric enzyme present only in infancy and childhood and disappears in adulthood. It is important in the digestion of milk.
  45. 45.  SMALL INTESTINE: Protein digestion is completed in the alkaline medium of the small intestine through a number of specific enzymes producing single amino acids which are then absorbed into the blood.