English as an indo european language

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English as an indo european language

  1. 2. English belongs to a language family But
  2. 3. A “Language family”
  3. 4. A language family contains features of Lexicon ( vocabulary) Phonology (sounds) Morphology (word structure) Syntax (grammar)
  4. 5. belongs And the common ancestor is called
  5. 6. Also belongs whitin a subgroup of Which is GERMANIC
  6. 7. Gaelic Irish Welsh Etc. (Latin) Italian, Spanish French Portuguese Romanian ETC. (Ancient Greek) Greek Latvian Lithuanian Russian Polish Czech Bulgarian, Etc. (Sanskrit) Hindi Bengali Etc. German English Dutch Danish Swedish Norwegian Etc. Persian
  7. 8. About 1000 BCE Were spoken over A large part of Europe Parts of southwestern Southern Asia
  8. 9. The distribution of the Indo-European langauges
  9. 10. contains 140 languages Divided into 11 subgroups
  10. 11. Anatolian Are languages Completely extinct For example
  11. 12. Old Indic Middle Indic Modern Indic The chief Old Avestan Old Persian A western Iranian Language Middle Iranian Middle Persian
  12. 13. Greek Also known as Has Hiad Odyssey Two principal divisions South/East Greek North/west Greek
  13. 14. Latin-Faliscan Osco-Umbrian Known only for inscriptions Modern descendants of latin Italian Catalan Spanish, etc No Modern descendants. Oscan Umbrian South Picene
  14. 15. East Germanic Gothic North Germanic Old Icelandic Norwegian Modern North Germanic 1 Icelandic Faroese Norwegian 2 Danish Swedish West Germanic German Yiddish Dutch Flemish Afrikaans English
  15. 16. Continental Insular Celtiberian Lepontic Gaulish (extinct) Goidelic Brittanic Irish Scots Gaelic Manx (extinct) Welsh Breton Cornish
  16. 17. East Baltic Luthuanian Latvian West Baltic Old Prussian (Extinct)
  17. 18. South Slavic West Slavic East Slavic Bulgarian Macedonian Serbian Croatian Slovenian Old Church Slavic (Extinct) Czech Slovak Polish Kashubian Russian Ukrainian Belarussian
  18. 19. Armenian Attested in Influenced by Greek Arabic Syriac Persian
  19. 20. Albanian Gheg Tosk Greek Slavic Turkish Latin
  20. 21. <ul><li>This languages provide enough information to be classified as IE, but not much beyond that. </li></ul>Examples Ligurian Messapic Venetic Thracian Phrygian Illyrian
  21. 22. Aspects of the structure of PIE Phonology Morphology Verbal Morphology Syntax Phonological correpondences between consonant and vowel segments. Inflectional (fusional) language 8 cases Nominative, genitive, dative, acusative, ablative, locative, instrumental, vocative . 3 numbers Singular Dual Plural 3 genders Masculine Femenine Neuter Adjectives Each depends on gender and number. Pronouns Each is marked by their own more-or-less unique ending. Transitive Intransitive Fusional languages Different syntactic patterns Word order have due to

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