Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Changes 2011

461 views

Published on

Changes and Trends in 500 Years of History

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Changes 2011

  1. 1. Changes in W. European History<br />
  2. 2. The Evolution of Communication<br />By Monica Mejia and Amanda Eiser<br />
  3. 3. 1500s<br />Mid 1400s: The printing press<br />1490: First paper mill in England<br />1500s: Printing in England, 35,000 books with 10 million copies<br />Spread of education creates demand<br />Also: the pencil, postal systems<br />
  4. 4. 1600s<br />New mediums of print formed: newspapers, etc.<br />1609: First regularly published newspaper appears in Germany<br />1659: Penny post appears in London<br />1696: England has over 100 paper mills<br />Also: mail routes, classifieds, public libraries<br />
  5. 5. 1700s<br />More portability and ease of use desired; introduction of the mass market<br />1710: Three-color printing developed in Germany<br />1714: Henry Mill receives patent for typewriter<br />1790: In England, hydraulic press invented<br />Also: the eraser, steel pen points, signaling systems, and transcontinental mail<br />
  6. 6. 1800s<br />Huge wave in advancements, especially during industrial revolution<br />1810: Electro-chemical telegraph constructed in Germany<br />1837: Electric telegraph patented in England<br />1839: Electricity runs a printing press<br />1841: The advertising agency<br />1851: Cable laid across the English Channel<br />1873: Theory of radio waves<br />1888: Public telephones<br />Also: Photography, movies, x-ray photography<br />
  7. 7. 1900s<br />Waves and other innovations create new verbal forms of communication, and later global communication<br />Known as the Age of Technology<br />1906: Voice and music broadcast in U.S.<br />1924: Radio sets widespread<br />1954: Regular color TV broadcasts<br />1969: Videotape on cassette<br />1981: The IBM PC<br />1996: Widespread internet use<br />
  8. 8. Architecture<br />By: Alexis Rubin and Cara Hutter<br />
  9. 9. 1500<br />As the Renaissance revived Classical art, more Classical architecture was also restored. <br />Renaissance architecture involved classical columns, and rounded arches, as well as use of the dome, a Renaissance staple.<br />
  10. 10. 1600<br />After the religious revival of the 16th century Baroque architects desired to add spiritual accents to classical Renaissance architecture. <br />St. Peter’s Basilica was completed in the Baroque style.<br />
  11. 11. 1700<br />During the 1700’s the Rococo art style transferred to decorative architecture that worked well when paired with standing Baroque structures<br />
  12. 12. 1800<br />Neoclassicism continued throughout the 1800s. This later phase is called Greek Revival<br />Popular in Northern Europe and the United States<br />Showed a rediscovery of Greek architecture.<br />
  13. 13. 1900<br />Modernism reflected the rapid modernization and technological advancement of society.<br />Functionalism was the idea that there was to be no unnecessary ornamentation<br />Postmodernism mixed modernism with traditional architecture of the past.<br />
  14. 14. Clothing Styles for Men, Women, and Children<br />By: Lauren Finley and Kimberly Shankwitz, yo<br />
  15. 15. 1500's - Renaissance<br />The Italian city-states grew wealthy from commerce on the Mediterranean.  They could afford better fabrics and fancier clothes to wear to the parties they held to show off said wealth.<br /> <br />Trade on the Mediterranean brought Italy into contact with many more cultures, leading to different, foreign-inspired variations on dress.  Arab styles were popular (though the Arabs themselves were not).<br /> <br />A renewed interest in realistic beauty and classical art led to many people viewing fashion as an elaborate art form.<br /> <br />The prevalence of Catholicism decreed that women's fashions would still be modest and unrevealing.<br /> <br />
  16. 16. 1600's - Time of Ch-ch-ch-change<br />Nation-states started to grow, with the settling of colonies in full swing.  People started dressing more uniquely to show off their national pride.<br /> <br />The religious conflicts had also become a way of life.  Dress became a way to signify what religion someone was.  For example, a Protestant might dress more soberly than a Catholic.<br /> <br />The Scientific Revolution led to many uncertainties about the world.  Fashion became more outlandish as people tried to deal with the new perception of the universe.<br /> <br />
  17. 17. 1700's - Enlightenment<br /><ul><li> The Enlightenment was an international and cosmopolitan movement that was strongly influenced by the French. This included fashion styles, as both ladies and men began to dress "comme les Français".
  18. 18.  People believed that women were natural mothers. This kept them in their traditional clothes with long skirts and sleeves.
  19. 19. Children began to be considered children, and started wearing clothes that were more comfortable and more appropriate to their age.</li></ul> <br />
  20. 20. Clothing Styles for Men, Women, and Children<br />By: Lauren Finley and Kimberly Shankwitz, yo<br />
  21. 21. 1500's - Renaissance<br />The Italian city-states grew wealthy from commerce on the Mediterranean.  They could afford better fabrics and fancier clothes to wear to the parties they held to show off said wealth.<br /> <br />Trade on the Mediterranean brought Italy into contact with many more cultures, leading to different, foreign-inspired variations on dress.  Arab styles were popular (though the Arabs themselves were not).<br /> <br />A renewed interest in realistic beauty and classical art led to many people viewing fashion as an elaborate art form.<br /> <br />The prevalence of Catholicism decreed that women's fashions would still be modest and unrevealing.<br /> <br />
  22. 22. 1600's - Time of Ch-ch-ch-change<br />Nation-states started to grow, with the settling of colonies in full swing.  People started dressing more uniquely to show off their national pride.<br /> <br />The religious conflicts had also become a way of life.  Dress became a way to signify what religion someone was.  For example, a Protestant might dress more soberly than a Catholic.<br /> <br />The Scientific Revolution led to many uncertainties about the world.  Fashion became more outlandish as people tried to deal with the new perception of the universe.<br /> <br />
  23. 23. 1700's - Enlightenment<br /><ul><li> The Enlightenment was an international and cosmopolitan movement that was strongly influenced by the French. This included fashion styles, as both ladies and men began to dress "comme les Français".
  24. 24.  People believed that women were natural mothers. This kept them in their traditional clothes with long skirts and sleeves.
  25. 25. Children began to be considered children, and started wearing clothes that were more comfortable and more appropriate to their age.</li></ul> <br />
  26. 26. 1800's - Industrial Revolution<br /><ul><li>New inventions caused a boom in the textile industry. Cotton became cheaper, so poorer people could buy it. Cotton became the material of choice for most clothes.
  27. 27. The development of factories meant a new working environment. Workers had to adapt their clothes for the new, physically intensive work.
  28. 28.  New products were soon developed and white collar jobs came with them. For white collar workers, fancy clothes became impractical.</li></ul> <br /> <br />
  29. 29. 1900's - The Modern Era<br /><ul><li>With the rise of the flappers and the Women's Liberation Movement, women wanted to be equal to men. They cut off their skirts, shocking the older generation.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>On the home front of World War II, clothing used less material, because most material went to the war effort.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>The 1960's saw the advent of "peace, love, and happiness", which shaped fashion with the introduction of hippies and their psychedelic vibes, man.</li></ul> <br /> <br />
  30. 30. Educational Changes Throughout European History<br /> <br />By: Carly Hoilman and Mikenzie F.<br />
  31. 31. Renaissance<br /><ul><li>Humanist schools emerged all over Europe.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Main goal:to produce "complete citizens" well-versed in secular subjects.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>VittorinodaFeltre founded the most famous humanist school. </li></li></ul><li>Reformation<br /><ul><li>Education in the Reformation opened to a wider crowd of people, as Protestantism depended on Bible-reading followers.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li> Increase in literacy rates as a result. </li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Secondary schools for humanism opened up and schools for religious instruction were established in Germany, following Melancthon's example.</li></li></ul><li>Scientific Revolution<br /><ul><li>The Scientific Revolution brought about a new logical way of thinking based on observation and experimentation.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Christian views of the Reformation were challenged as Copernicus's heliocentric theory opposed Ptolemy's geocentric theory and finite universe. </li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Scientific societies emerged as ways to organize research, but became government-promoted ways to better the state.</li></li></ul><li>Enlightenment<br /><ul><li>Literacy rate among women and men differed greatly by men having a higher percentage of literacy than women.
  32. 32.  Greek, Latin, Math, Sciences, and languages were all part of education during the Enlightenment period.
  33. 33.  Chapter Books and brochures came about during this time. The material that was included in them was both spiritual and secular.</li></ul> <br />
  34. 34. Romanticism and Age of Progress<br /><ul><li>Mass education developed during this time. People had little interest and attendance was not required.
  35. 35. Primary School was no available for boys and girls between the ages of six through twelve.
  36. 36. Teachers were female because this was the only job they could hold even though it gave them lower wages.</li></ul> <br />
  37. 37. Ch-<br />Ch-<br />Ch-<br />Ch-<br />Changes<br />in<br />Mike D’Antonio<br />Kyle Schrader<br />JT Hickman<br />Government<br />
  38. 38. Government in the 1500s<br />Divine Right monarchy still in place.<br />Religion was central to politics and the Church was very much intertwined with the state.<br />To weed out potential enemies of the state, governments used a religious inquisition (most famous being the Spanish Inquisition).<br />Colonial governments established small governmental bodies for themselves.<br />Religion was central to many political and diplomatic decisions.<br />
  39. 39. Government in the 1600s<br />As a continuation, the upper class still basically dominated governments. Most countries were still run by a monarchy or some other indirect form of oligarchy, with the most wealthy and lavish citizens running the state. <br />“The bureaucracy is growing to meet the needs of the expanding bureaucracy.” <br />Governments increased centralization, curtailing the power of local authorities and opting for more control over the far-flung reaches of their empires. <br />Countries made a move toward secularization – that is, they stopped focusing so heavily on religion in international affairs and began to focus more on what was best for the state. <br />The Palace of Versailles represents the move towards secularizationby showing the power of the state and king over religion and God.<br />
  40. 40. Government in the 1700s<br />The Enlightenment brought revolutionary ideas to government, including the idea that people had natural rights<br />Enlightened Absolutism- rulers put some of the natural rights into action<br />Enlightened Absolutists were limited by the power of the nobility and old order<br />French Revolution unleashed liberalism and nationalism in governments<br />Catherine the Great was an Enlightened Absolutist but realized the power of the nobility and helped to preserve their positions.<br />
  41. 41. Government in the 1800s<br />Conservatives supported traditional institutions like monarchies<br />Industrialization created a new liberal middle class that wanted representation<br />Revolutions of 1848 caused governments to realize it was time to change<br />Mass Politics-expansion of democracy through reform, prevailed in Britain and France<br />Old order remained in the East<br />The 19th century was a time of vast government change. Revolutions flared up across Europe and demanded representation for lower classes.<br />
  42. 42. Government in the 1900s<br />New government types arose to destroy the remaining proponents of the Old Order.<br />Democracy and legislatures replaced single-person or small group rule, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, by the latter half of the 1900s.<br />Communism, Fascism, and others rose out of the ashes of the old order as ‘viable’ government types.<br />Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union: acted much like the US Congress. This government replaced the Tsarist Regime of Imperial Russia.<br />
  43. 43. Literature Through the Ages<br />Megan Valentine and Margaret Daubert<br />
  44. 44. 16th Century: Religion in Literature<br />Indulgences were catalyst for Martin Luther’s ideals.<br />Publishing switched from Latin to the vernacular.<br />Ninety-Five Theses<br />On the Freedom of a Christian Man<br />Pamphlets became popular:<br />“Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants”<br />
  45. 45. 17th Century: Theater and Science<br />William Shakespeare known for plays, sonnets, dramas<br />“Master of the English language”<br />Spanish and French Theater-<br />Lope de Vega<br /> Jean-Baptiste Racine<br />Galileo’s The Starry Messenger<br />Newton’s Principia<br />
  46. 46. 18th Century: Enlightenment<br />Travel Literature- James Cook<br />Locke vs. Newton<br />Jean-Jacques Rousseau- The Social Contract<br />Denis Diderot- The Encyclopedia <br />Mary Wollstonecraft- The Vindication of the Rights of Women<br />Production of the novel- Pamela by Samuel Richardson<br />Documentation of History<br />
  47. 47. 19th Century: Romanticism and Realism <br />Romanticism: nature, idealism, imagination, individualism<br />Emphasis on emotion and sentiment<br />Sorrows of a Young Werther- Von Goethe<br />Ivanhoe- Walter Scott<br />Gothic Literature<br />Frankenstein- Mary Shelley<br />“The Raven”- Edgar Allen Poe<br />Poetry<br />Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley<br />Realism<br />Madame Bovary- Gustave Flaubert<br />
  48. 48. 20th Century: Modernism and Postmodernism <br />Psychoanalysis<br />Modernism: Naturalism and Symbolism<br />“stream of consciousness”<br />“Theater of the Absurd”<br />Waiting for Godot- Samuel Beckett<br />Postmodernism<br />Magic realism<br />
  49. 49. -Emphasis on education throughout the middle classes<br />-Art<br />-Many were illiterate <br />Leisure Time<br />
  50. 50. Religious values became a revived interest...<br />-Education <br />-The emergence of protestant schools <br />
  51. 51. In the midst of religious turmoil...<br />-Theater became popular among the wealthy as the patronized playwrights<br />- Many also began to take interest in science as scientists began to redefine the field of science.  <br />
  52. 52. Education continued to be an important factor ...<br />-Spread of literacy<br />-Popular literature <br />-Alcohol and taverns<br />- Grand tours<br />
  53. 53. Due to material prosperity and the hours created by the industrial system....<br />-New technology <br />-Emergence of mass leisure<br />-Music<br />-Dance halls<br />-Team sports<br />-Tourism<br />
  54. 54. Music from the 16th to 20th Centuries<br />Jack Heiger and Gill Hanna<br />
  55. 55. 1500s<br />Madrigals became prevalent<br />Written for five or six voices<br />Used text painting<br />Spread to England<br />Eg: Deck the Halls<br />
  56. 56. 1600s<br />The opera, oratorio, sonata, concerto, and symphony were developed in Italy; spread across Europe<br />Most musicians depended upon patrons<br />Italy and Germany were musical leaders<br />
  57. 57. 1700s<br />Baroque era<br />Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel<br />Classical era started in 1750<br />Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart<br />New instruments appeared, such as the piano; orchestral music became more popular<br />
  58. 58. 1800s<br />Ludwig van Beethoven was the bridge between the classical and romantic styles; used uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifting resolutions<br />Era of Romanticism<br />Hector Berlioz: used music to express emotions, stories, and personal experiences<br />
  59. 59. 1900s<br />Music became pop culture<br />Blues, jazz, impressionism, rock-and-roll, punk, rap, hip-hop, serialism, minimalism<br />Began to include social commentary<br />It was able to spread faster and farther through technology<br />Jazz and rock were based on African American styles; influenced later styles, especially as they crossed to Britain and back<br />
  60. 60. Warfare Throughout The Ages<br />Chadd David Heller and Kyle Alexander Deckman<br />
  61. 61. Warefare in the 1500'S<br /><ul><li>Mainly relied on calvary for distinct advantage over other armies</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Soldiers practiced a code of chivalry, keeping their honor in tact</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Used crude weapons to stab/slice/crush/impale/beheaded
  62. 62. Wars often started because of religious differences or territorial disputes
  63. 63. Ex. Habsburg-Valois War, Netherlands Revolt</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Habsburg- Valois War, 1551 to 1559<br />
  64. 64. Warfare in the 1600's<br /><ul><li>War becomes more important role in determining European affairs
  65. 65. Military power considered essential to a ruler's reputation
  66. 66. A "military revolution occurs"
  67. 67. Introduction of squads and battalions - GustavusAldophis
  68. 68. Ex. Thirty Years War, Wars of Louis XIV, The Great Northern War</li></ul>T<br />Thirty Years War, 1618 to 1648<br />
  69. 69. Warfare in the 1700's<br /><ul><li>Use large armies to create a "Balance of power" among other European Nations
  70. 70. Popularization of firearms, muskets and rifles
  71. 71. Gunpowder based weapons such as cannons 
  72. 72. Ex. War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years War, French and Indian War</li></ul>F<br />French and Indian War, 1754 to 1763<br />
  73. 73. Warfare in the 1800's<br /><ul><li> Focus of war was for political measures rather than religious
  74. 74. Ex. Napoleonic Wars, Crimean War, American Civil War, German Unification Wars (Danish, Austro-Purssian, etc)</li></ul>Crimean War, 1853 to 1856<br />
  75. 75. Warfare in the 1900's<br /><ul><li>Invention of the rapid fire machine-gun causes havoc across "No mans land"
  76. 76. Trench warfare used in WWI
  77. 77. Automatic rifles used in World War II, tactics become even more important
  78. 78. Ex. World War I, World War II, Korean War</li></ul>World War I, 1914 to 1918<br />

×