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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
_______________...
IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
_______________...
IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
_______________...
IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
_______________...
IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
_______________...
IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
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Life cycle cost analysis of overlay for an urban road in bangalore

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Abstract
Pavements are subjected to severe condition of stresses and weathering effects from the day they are constructed and opened to traffic
mainly due to its fatigue behavior and environmental effects. Therefore, pavement rehabilitation is one of the most important
components of entire road systems. This paper highlights the design of concrete pavement with added mono fibers like polypropylene,
steel and hybrid fibres for a widened portion of existing concrete pavement and various overlay alternatives for an existing
bituminous pavement in an urban road in Bangalore. Along with this, Life cycle cost analyses at these sections are done by Net
Present Value (NPV) method to identify the most feasible option. The results show that though the initial cost of construction of
concrete overlay is high, over a period of time it prove to be better than the bituminous overlay considering the whole life cycle cost.
The economic analysis also indicates that, out of the three fibre options, hybrid reinforced concrete would be economical without
compromising the performance of the pavement.
Keywords: - Fatigue, Life cycle cost analysis, Net Present Value method, Overlay, Rehabilitation

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Life cycle cost analysis of overlay for an urban road in bangalore

  1. 1. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 167 LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF OVERLAY FOR AN URBAN ROAD IN BANGALORE Preethi.S1 , Radhakrishna2 , Raghavendra Prasad3 1 PG Student, 2 Associate Professor, 3 Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, R. V. College of Engineering, R. V. Vidyaniketan Post, Mysore Road, Bangalore 560059, India Abstract Pavements are subjected to severe condition of stresses and weathering effects from the day they are constructed and opened to traffic mainly due to its fatigue behavior and environmental effects. Therefore, pavement rehabilitation is one of the most important components of entire road systems. This paper highlights the design of concrete pavement with added mono fibers like polypropylene, steel and hybrid fibres for a widened portion of existing concrete pavement and various overlay alternatives for an existing bituminous pavement in an urban road in Bangalore. Along with this, Life cycle cost analyses at these sections are done by Net Present Value (NPV) method to identify the most feasible option. The results show that though the initial cost of construction of concrete overlay is high, over a period of time it prove to be better than the bituminous overlay considering the whole life cycle cost. The economic analysis also indicates that, out of the three fibre options, hybrid reinforced concrete would be economical without compromising the performance of the pavement. Keywords: - Fatigue, Life cycle cost analysis, Net Present Value method, Overlay, Rehabilitation --------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. INTRODUCTION Road network in India has grown exponentially from 0.4 million km in 1951 to 3.32 million km presently with increase in motor vehicles from 0.3 million in 1951 to 108 million in 2008 [1]. Due to this gigantic increase in traffic load, its intensity, tire pressure, inadequate design of pavement thickness and ill-drained effects, highway engineers are finding themselves at a great disadvantage in keeping pavements in a traffic- worthy state. The scarcity of resources for the road sector in the past has lead to the adoption of stage wise construction strategies with a short design period [2]. Therefore road construction in our country will be a never ending process, with pavement strengthening to be a major activity for many years to come. An overlay is a layer of suitable thickness provided on top of an existing pavement to improve its structural adequacy and riding quality. The two principal options for overlay in terms of specification of binder are [3]: • Flexible overlay, consisting of granular layers and bituminous layers • Cement concrete overlay Cement concrete overlay on top of an existing bituminous surface is commonly known as white-topping. White-topping based on thickness and bonding conditions are again classified as: Conventional white-topping : thickness range : 200-300 mm, Thin white-topping : thickness range : 100-200 mm and Ultra thin white-topping : thickness range : 50-100 mm. Overlay practice in India: In India, the most common strategy for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation was to provide bituminous overlays on existing black topped surface. This was mainly due to abundant supply of bitumen, in addition to the comfort levels of construction methods among engineers. In recent times all these advantages are reversed and petroleum industry is using refined processing technology leading to reduction in the production of bitumen thereby increasing imports [4, 5]. The rapid developments in concrete material technology and mechanization are favoring concrete overlays as a sustainable option. A typical mix proportion of concrete overlays by taking into consideration polypropylene fiber, mineral admixtures like fly-ash, granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume have shown increase in density of concrete due to particle packing theory [6]. 2. OBJECTIVES & SCOPE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the research is to study the structural adequacy of existing pavement and to design the overlay alternatives along with cost evaluation of each alternative. 3. DATA ACQUISITION 3.1 Stretch Selected The stretch selected is located in eastern part of Bangalore city and acts as a link between NH-4 (Old Madras road) on north western side and Old Airport road on south western side as shown in Figure 1. This is one of the busiest stretches in the city. The traffic in the area chosen was moderately dispersed
  2. 2. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 168 at all times of the day, since the either side of corridor is populated with establishments like HAL, BEML limited, Bagmane Tech park, HAL engine division etc. The road is 2 lane with a total length of about 3.8 km in which 2.7 km is rigid pavement and the remaining 1.1 km is flexible pavement as shown in Figure 2. 3.2 Benkelman Beam Deflection Study Surface deflections of existing flexible pavements are usually measured by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Benkelman Beam Deflection test (BBD). A good correlation strength was obtained between FWD and BBD values in a study done by Jundhare.D.R [9] on conventional white- topping of 320 mm thickness. Benkelman beam deflection study was done on the stretch, and the characteristic deflection obtained was 1.67 mm. 3.3 Traffic Data For the design purpose, analysis is being made on the number of commercial vehicles of laden weight having 3 Tons or more. From traffic analysis, the commercial vehicles per day obtained for section 1 and section 2 was 1146 cvpd and 982 cpvd respectively. Fig 1: Map showing the selected stretch Fig2: Different pavement sections in the selected stretch 4. DESIGN OF SECTIONS Design of flexible overlay has been done as per IRC:81-1997 using Benkelman Beam Deflection value and traffic in msa [6]. Rigid overlay design has been done as the same procedure for new pavement given in IRC: 58-2002 [7]. White-topping design is done as per IRC: SP: 76-2008 [8]. 4.1. Section 1: Widening of Concrete Road Existing single lane concrete road was to be widened on either side. Concrete pavement combined with fibres where used for this. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is mixtures of cement concrete containing short discrete, uniformly dispersed and randomly oriented suitable fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. The amount of fibers added to concrete mix is measured as percentage of the total volume of composites. Aspect ratio (l/d) is calculated by dividing fiber length (l) by its diameter (d).The types of fibres used for the design along with the flexural strength and obtained thickness is given in Table 1. Table 1: Thickness of concrete with different fibers Concrete Flexural strength ,MPa Thickness obtained, mm Plain 4.62 290 Polyproplyene 4.762 280 Steel 5.129 270 Hybrid 5.54 250
  3. 3. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 169 4.2 Section 2: Flexible Pavement The existing flexible pavement has developed distresses like rutting. So overlay has to be provided as a rehabilitation strategy. Flexible or concrete overlay can be provided over the bituminous surface. 4.2.1 Design of Flexible Overlay Based on Benkelman Beam deflection data and commercial vehicles per day using IRC-81, the thickness of flexible overlay has been found out to as 150 mm BM. The thickness deduced is the overlay thickness in terms of BM construction. The equivalent overlay thickness to be provided can b determined using equivalency factors. So the total individual thicknesses obtained are: BC thickness: 40 mm and DBM thickness: 65 mm 4.2.2 Design of Thin White-Topping Thin white-topping design is carried as per IRC; SP: 76-2008 and IRC: 58-2002. The thickness obtained was about 200 mm. The cumulative fatigue life consumed is less than 1. Hence design life is safe from fatigue consideration. Total of temperature warping stress and highest axle load stress = 21.98 kg/cm2, which is less than 45kg/cm2, the flexural strength. 5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION The alternative methods of strengthening or repairing of roads should be based on their durability rather purely by initial cost. The cost comparison for such alternative strengthening/repair methods should be based on the concept of life-cycle cost analysis 5.1 Life Cycle Cost Analysis between Different Types of Fibres in Concrete for Section 1 In Section 1 the existing concrete pavement has to be widened with addition of fibres to enhance its performance. The quantity of work item involved in section 1 per km length is given in Table 2. Table 2: Quantities of work item involved per km length In the present analysis the rates considered are Rs. 5191/ Cum for control concrete, Rs. 376/kg for polypropylene fibre, Rs. 140/kg for concrete with steel fibre. Inorder to obtain flexural strength of 4.762 MPa for polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete, the percentage of recron 3s fibre used was 0.036% (900g/cum of concrete). Therefore its cost will be Rs. 5529/ Cum. Similarly cost of steel and hybrid fibre concrete was found out to be Rs. 8691/ Cum and Rs. 9029.4/ Cum respectively. Traffic volume survey was conducted at stretch 1 and the volume of commercial vehicles obtained is given in Table 3. Table 3: Traffic volume obtained from traffic survey A study made by CRRI, New Delhi on Delhi-Agra (NH-2) found that there will be saving of 14% in fuel on concrete road as compared to bituminous road for commercial vehicles [9]. The parameters considered for life cycle cost analysis by Net Present Value method is given in Table 4. Control concrete (cum) Concrete with polypropylene fibre (cum) Concrete with steel fibre (cum) Concrete with hybrid fibre (cum) Heavy traffic 1160 1120 1080 1000 Type Count Bus 166 HCV 570 MAV 44 LCV 332
  4. 4. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 170 Table 4: Parameters considered for analysis of section 1 Commercial Vehicles Per Day 1146 Traffic growth rate 7.50% Inflation 5.00% Diesel Cost Rs.54.21/l Fuel Savings 14.00% Mileage 4kmpl Annual Fuel Savings (Rs) CVPD*365*FuelSavings*Mileage*DieselCost 5.2 Economic Comparison between Flexible and Concrete Overlay for Section 2: It will be assumed that bituminous overlays need following interventions during the analysis period: 10th, 20th years : 50 mm BC + 75 mm DBM for heavy traffic , 40 mm BC + 75 mm DBM for medium traffic [10]. Surface renewals are provided as per MORTH as 25 mm BC once in 5 years. The cost of ordinary repairs as per 2011 price is 2,10,000 Rs/ Km. Quantity of work item involved per km length of road is given in Table 5. Road User Cost: The user cost comprises of vehicle operating costs (VOC), time cost of passengers and commodities in transit and accident costs. In present analysis, only VOC is considered, it being assumed that time costs and accident costs on both types of surfaces are the same [11]. The parameters considered for the analysis is given in Table 6. Table 5: Quantities of work item involved per km length Periodic renewal once in 5 years Heavy traffic 7000 - 175 - - Overlay once in 10 years Heavy traffic 7000 455 280 - - Table 6: Parameters considered for analysis Parameter Value CVPD 982 Traffic growth rate 7.5% Inflation 5.00% Diesel cost Rs.54.21/liter Fuel savings 14.00% Mileage 4 kmpl Annual fuel savings (Rs) (cvpd x 365 x fuel savings x mileage x diesel cost) Analysis period 30 years Flexible overlay Tack Coat (sqm) DBM (cum) BC (cum) Concrete M-40 (cum) Thin white topping Heavy traffic 7000 455 280 1400
  5. 5. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 171 The rates for calculation of initial cost of flexible and white topping are taken from schedule of rates Bangalore 2011- 2012. In the present analysis the rates considered are Rs. 6975/ Cum for DBM, Rs. 8632/Cum for BC, Rs.12/Sqm for tack coat and Rs. 5,191/Cum for M-40 cement concrete. From traffic volume survey the count obtained was as given in Table 7. Table 7: Traffic count at section 2 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION From the analysis for section 1, the thickness of widened portion of concrete was less when hybrid fibres are used. The initial cost of hybrid fibres when used in concrete pavement was less compared to steel fibres. In case of section 2, the initial cost of concrete overlay is more compared to flexible overlay. But in view of availability of cement in plenty within the country and scarcity and rising prices of bitumen, as crude oil prices in the International market are rising and bulk of crude oil has to be imported from other countries it will be prudent to consider rigid pavements. Initial cost of concrete after addition of fibers at section 1 and cost of flexible and rigid overlay at section 2 is given in Table 8 and 9 respectively. Life cycle cost analysis by net present value method for two sections are given in Table 10 and 11. Table 8: Initial cost of concrete at section 1per km length Control concrete PFRC(recron-3s) SFRC HFRC 60.22 lakhs 61.92 lakhs 93.86 lakhs 90.29 lakhs Table 9: Intial cost of overlay for section 2 per km length Table 10: Net present analysis of concrete with different type of fibre for section 1 Roug hness 2000 mm/km 2000 mm/km 2000 mm/km 2000 mm/km Concrete Overlay Rs- Lakhs Concrete Overlay with Polyproplyene fiber Rs- Lakhs Concrete Overlay with steel fiber Rs-Lakhs Concrete Overlay with hybrid fiberRs-Lakhs Years CVP D Constru ction/M aintena nce VOC Total Cost Constru ction/M aintena nce VOC Total Cost Constru ction/M aintena nce VOC Total Cost Constru ction/M aintena nce VOC Total Cost 0 1146 60.220 0.000 60.220 61.920 0.000 61.920 93.860 0.000 93.860 90.290 0.000 90.290 1 1232 0.776 0.065 0.840 0.776 0.065 0.840 0.776 0.065 0.840 0.776 0.065 0.840 2 1324 0.814 0.070 0.884 0.814 0.070 0.884 0.814 0.070 0.884 0.814 0.070 0.884 3 1424 0.855 0.075 0.930 0.855 0.075 0.930 0.855 0.075 0.930 0.855 0.075 0.930 4 1530 0.898 0.080 0.978 0.898 0.080 0.978 0.898 0.080 0.978 0.898 0.080 0.978 5 1645 0.943 0.086 1.029 0.943 0.086 1.029 0.943 0.086 1.029 0.943 0.086 1.029 6 1769 0.990 0.093 1.083 0.990 0.093 1.083 0.990 0.093 1.083 0.990 0.093 1.083 7 1901 1.039 0.100 1.139 1.039 0.100 1.139 1.039 0.100 1.139 1.039 0.100 1.139 8 2044 1.091 0.107 1.199 1.091 0.107 1.199 1.091 0.107 1.199 1.091 0.107 1.199 9 2197 1.146 0.115 1.261 1.146 0.115 1.261 1.146 0.115 1.261 1.146 0.115 1.261 10 2362 1.203 0.124 1.327 1.203 0.124 1.327 1.203 0.124 1.327 1.203 0.124 1.327 Type Count Bus 154 HCV 416 MAV 38 LCV 374 Flexible overlay Concrete overlay 56.74 Lakhs 72.67 Lakhs
  6. 6. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 172 11 2539 1.263 0.133 1.397 1.263 0.133 1.397 1.263 0.133 1.397 1.263 0.133 1.397 12 2730 1.327 0.143 1.470 1.327 0.143 1.470 1.327 0.143 1.470 1.327 0.143 1.470 13 2934 1.393 0.154 1.547 1.393 0.154 1.547 1.393 0.154 1.547 1.393 0.154 1.547 14 3154 1.463 0.166 1.628 1.463 0.166 1.628 1.463 0.166 1.628 1.463 0.166 1.628 15 3391 1.536 0.178 1.714 1.536 0.178 1.714 1.536 0.178 1.714 1.536 0.178 1.714 16 3645 1.613 0.192 1.804 1.613 0.192 1.804 1.613 0.192 1.804 1.613 0.192 1.804 17 3919 1.693 0.206 1.899 1.693 0.206 1.899 1.693 0.206 1.899 1.693 0.206 1.899 18 4212 1.778 0.221 1.999 1.778 0.221 1.999 1.778 0.221 1.999 1.778 0.221 1.999 19 4528 1.867 0.238 2.105 1.867 0.238 2.105 1.867 0.238 2.105 1.867 0.238 2.105 20 4868 1.960 0.256 2.216 1.960 0.256 2.216 1.960 0.256 2.216 1.960 0.256 2.216 21 5233 2.058 0.275 2.333 2.058 0.275 2.333 2.058 0.275 2.333 2.058 0.275 2.333 22 5626 2.161 0.296 2.457 2.161 0.296 2.457 2.161 0.296 2.457 2.161 0.296 2.457 23 6048 2.269 0.318 2.587 2.269 0.318 2.587 2.269 0.318 2.587 2.269 0.318 2.587 24 6501 2.382 0.342 2.724 2.382 0.342 2.724 2.382 0.342 2.724 2.382 0.342 2.724 25 6989 2.502 0.367 2.869 2.502 0.367 2.869 2.502 0.367 2.869 2.502 0.367 2.869 26 7513 2.627 0.395 3.022 2.627 0.395 3.022 2.627 0.395 3.022 2.627 0.395 3.022 27 8076 2.758 0.425 3.183 2.758 0.425 3.183 2.758 0.425 3.183 2.758 0.425 3.183 28 8682 2.896 0.456 3.352 2.896 0.456 3.352 2.896 0.456 3.352 2.896 0.456 3.352 29 9333 3.041 0.491 3.531 3.041 0.491 3.531 3.041 0.491 3.531 3.041 0.491 3.531 30 1003 3 3.193 0.527 3.720 3.193 0.527 3.720 3.193 0.527 3.720 3.193 0.527 3.720 NPV @ 12.00 % 62.234 0.909 63.144 63.752 0.909 64.662 92.270 0.909 93.179 89.083 0.909 89.992 Table 11: Life cycle cost analysis of section 2 Roughness 3000 mm/km 2000 mm/km Flexible Overlay Rs-Lakhs Concrete Overlay Rs-Lakhs Years CVPD Construction /Maintenanc e VOC Extra Fuel Cost (Rs) Lakhs Total Cost Constructi on/Mainte nance VOC Total Cost 0 982 56.740 0.000 5.27 62.009 72.670 0.000 72.670 1 1056 3.103 0.059 5.66 8.825 0.776 0.057 0.833 2 1135 3.258 0.063 6.09 9.410 0.814 0.061 0.876 3 1220 3.421 0.068 6.55 10.034 0.855 0.066 0.921 4 1311 3.592 0.073 7.04 10.701 0.898 0.071 0.969 5 1410 21.247 0.078 7.56 28.890 0.943 0.076 1.019 6 1516 3.960 0.084 8.13 12.176 0.990 0.082 1.072 7 1629 4.158 0.091 8.74 12.990 1.039 0.088 1.127 8 1751 4.366 0.097 9.40 13.860 1.091 0.094 1.186 9 1883 4.584 0.105 10.10 14.790 1.146 0.102 1.248 10 2024 85.538 0.113 10.86 96.510 1.203 0.109 1.312 11 2176 5.054 0.121 11.67 16.849 1.263 0.117 1.381 12 2339 5.307 0.130 12.55 17.986 1.327 0.126 1.453
  7. 7. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 __________________________________________________________________________________________ IC-RICE Conference Issue | Nov-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 173 13 2514 5.572 0.140 13.49 19.202 1.393 0.136 1.529 14 2703 5.851 0.150 14.50 20.503 1.463 0.146 1.608 15 2906 34.609 0.162 15.59 50.361 1.536 0.157 1.692 16 3124 6.450 0.174 16.76 23.383 1.613 0.168 1.781 17 3358 6.773 0.187 18.02 24.976 1.693 0.181 1.874 18 3610 7.111 0.201 19.37 26.680 1.778 0.195 1.972 19 3880 7.467 0.216 20.82 28.503 1.867 0.209 2.076 20 4171 139.332 0.232 22.38 161.945 1.960 0.225 2.185 21 4484 8.232 0.249 24.06 32.542 2.058 0.242 2.300 22 4821 8.644 0.268 25.86 34.777 2.161 0.260 2.421 23 5182 9.076 0.288 27.80 37.169 2.269 0.279 2.548 24 5571 9.530 0.310 29.89 39.730 2.382 0.300 2.683 25 5989 56.375 0.333 32.13 88.840 2.502 0.323 2.825 26 6438 10.507 0.358 34.54 45.406 2.627 0.347 2.974 27 6921 11.032 0.385 37.13 48.549 2.758 0.373 3.131 28 7440 11.584 0.414 39.92 51.914 2.896 0.401 3.297 29 7998 12.163 0.445 42.91 55.518 3.041 0.431 3.472 30 8597 226.957 0.478 46.13 273.564 3.193 0.464 3.656 NPV @ 12.00% 142.219 0.824 84.246 227.290 73.350 0.799 74.150 CONCLUSIONS The following broad conclusions can be drawn from the present investigation on mono steel, mono polypropelene and hybrid fibres in concrete pavements: • The thickness of pavement slab with hybrid fibres is less by 40 mm compared to mono steel and polypropylene fibres separately. • From NPV method, the life cycle cost of polypropylene fibres was less than hybrid fiber and steel fibers. • When mono steel and hybrid fibres are considered separately, hybrid fibers are cost effective and perform better than other mono fibers. • The life cycle cost analysis for 12 percent discount rate and 5 percent inflation rate suggests that flexible overlay becomes expensive than rigid overlay due to its heavy maintenance inflow over the life period. REFERENCES [1] Jundhare. D.R, Khare. K. C & R. K. Jain , “Development correlation between BBD and FWD for conventional white-topping overlay” journal of basic and applied scientific research, pg: 8725-8731, 2012 [2] “White-topping of roads- concrete overlay technology”, cement manufactures association, November 2011 [3] Vandana tare, “ Overlay alternatives on flexible pavement- a case study”, Indian highway, December 2006. [4] Sinha. V.K, Satander Kumar and Jain. R.K, “WHITETOPPING - A Cost Effective Rehabiltation Alternative for Preserving Bituminous Pavements on Long term basis, IRC Journal, December, 2007, pp: 538 [5] Mitesh. D.Patel, “ White-topping as a rehabilitation method : A case study of Budhel- Ghogha road”, international journal of Advanced engineering research and studies, vol 1, july-september – 2012, pg: 31-35 [6] Ankit Sharma, “Guidelines for the design and construction of Ultra thin whitetopping”, International Journal of Engineering and Science, vol 2,2013, pp: 269-274 [7] “Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible Road Pavements using Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique”, IRC: 81-1997, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, 1997. [8] Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for Highways, IRC: 58-2002, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, 2002. [9] “Tentative Guidelines for Conventional, Thin and Ultra-Thin White-Topping”, IRC: SP: 76-2008, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, 2008. [10] Bageshwar Prasad, “ life cycle cost analysis of cement concrete roads vs bituminous roads”, Indian highway, september 2007 [11] Manual on economic evaluation of highway projects in India, IRC:SP:30-1993, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, 1993 [12] Kadiyali, L. R., “Traffic Engineering & Transport Planning”, 7th Edition, Khanna Publishers, 2009.

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