Farmers as Artificial Inseminators: Experience from Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

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Presentation by Hizikias Ketema at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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Farmers as Artificial Inseminators: Experience from Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

  1. 1. Farmers as Artificial Inseminators: Experience from Arsi Zone, Ethiopia FAO-Crop Diversification and Marketing Development Project By Hizikias Ketema, Livestock Development National Consultant 25-28 October,2010, Addis Ababa , Ethiopia
  2. 2. FAO- CROP DIVERSIFICATION AND MARKETING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
  3. 3. The General Objectives of the project  Promote economic growth in rural areas through strengthening commercialization of small farms in areas with recognized market potential.  Tap new market opportunities by providing technology that has a potential to increase production and productivity as well as quality standards so as to increase income,  Minimize price volatility and promote a sustainable use of natural resources
  4. 4. Project Components 1. Farm Technology Development 2. Improved Market Infrastructure 3. Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening
  5. 5. The Livestock Activities of the Project Dairy Development Milk Marketing Forage Development. Fattening
  6. 6.  Opportunities  The climatic condition of the zone is conducive for dairy production  Large number of cattle  Access to market (Major cities and towns)
  7. 7.  The main challenges are  The low productivity of the local cattle  Shortage and poor quality of feed  Prevalence of animal disease
  8. 8. The Livestock Activities of the Project  To alleviate these problems, -  Distribution of crossbred heifers  Development backyard feed production  Strengthening and establishment of Milk Collection, Processing and Marketing Units  Strengthening of dairy cooperative union.
  9. 9. Distribution of heifers  The Number of crossbred heifers planned to be distributed throughout the project life is 105  So far 40 heifers are distributed to the farmers  The main challenge to achieve the project target was shortage supply of crossbred heifers.
  10. 10. Artificial Insemination. • To alleviate the shortage of crossbred , the only means is to encourage farmers to produce crossbred heifers by their own • To facilitate this it is important to make the artificial insemination service available near to the farmers’ village. • For this purpose it was necessary to train farmers’ as artificial insemination technicians (FAIT), who are selected from farmers’ community for, one month
  11. 11. Training  The training was conducted in Adama University in Asella Model Agriculture Enterprise .  The project assisted the enterprise in designing the training curriculum.
  12. 12. The training curriculum was designed to have 32.84 % theory and the rest 61.6 % practical and for the practical session a cow was allocated for each trainee Activity Hrs % Theoretical 58 32.8 Group Discussion 10 5.6 Practical 109 61.6 Total 177 100
  13. 13. Item Quantity Liquid nitrogen container (35lt) 15 Liquid nitrogen container (2 lt) 15 Insemination gun with ring 15 Scissors 15 Forceps 15 Universal Sheath 15 Sheath Container (Case tube) 15 Insemination glove Thermometer 15 Thermo flask 15 Leather back bag 15 Funnel 15
  14. 14. Field Operation  Before the inseminators commence their services the district/woreda offices informed the communities about the service.  The communities were advised to construct insemination crushes in the places which is convenient to them.
  15. 15. Field cont.  The inseminators also constructed their own crushes at their residential compounds.  The farmers, when they need the service they bring their animals to the inseminators’ compound, or to the crush constructed by the community.
  16. 16. Field cont. Supply of LN  Initially it was agreed that the inseminators to refill liquid nitrogen from the district/woreda LDHM Offices.  Finally it was agreed to take the 35 litres capacity liquid nitrogen nearer to the inseminators and to be kept either in the animal health clinics or in the office of development agents in FTC
  17. 17. Field cont. Payment arrangements  Total 12 ETB birr  Six ETB birr to government  Six ETB birr as labour cost to the AI
  18. 18. Efficiency of FAITs. The inseminators began their work at the beginning of October 2009. All the 15 inseminators have performed 2031 inseminations for 1838 cows until August, 2010  First inseminations, 1878  Second inseminations 144  Third inseminations 9  There was no fourth insemination
  19. 19. Efficiency of FAITs. S.N Woreda/d istrict Number of Insemin ators Number of Insemination Total 1st 2nd 3rd  4th 1 D/Tijo 4 697 41 0 0 738 2 Hetossa 1 70 12 4 0 86 3 H/Wabe 1 214 16 0 0 230 4 L/Bilibilo 4 193 24 0 0 217 5 Munessa 1 98 15 1 0 114 6 Tiyo 4 606 36 4 0 646   Total 15 1878 144 9 0 2031 Table 2:-. Number of Inseminations by Woredas
  20. 20. Comparison of the Number of Service per Conceptions (NSPC) by Different Institutions. Institutions Year NSPC Source At Stations          Gobe 1992-1994 2.68 Kalay*          Holleta Agriculture Research          Center 2002-2006 1.6 NAIC*         Asella Model Agricultural          Enterprise Farm  2001-2004 2.5 NAIC*  Holleta Bull Dam Farm 2001-2005 1.9 NAIC* At Field Level     FINIDA 1984-1994 1.5 Kalay*     Project woreda/district 2005-2009 2.1 CDMDP*     FAO-FAITs End of 2009-August  2010 1.5 CDMDP*
  21. 21. Efficiency of FAITs. Non return rate = 86 % Return rate = 14 % Pregnancy = 71 %
  22. 22. Other Activities Performed by FAITs  Pregnancy diagnosis service to the community  When cows are going to be slaughtered, or  When farmers are buying or selling cows  Advice
  23. 23. Reporting and Recording  Daily AI recording book  Monthly AI report  Monthly PD report  Calving report
  24. 24. Reporting and Recording Content of AI recording book and monthly AI reporting format Name Kebe le Co w ID Br eed No. of insemination B ul l N u m b er 1 st 2nd 3 rd 4 T h Total
  25. 25. Farmers’ Artificial Insemination Pregnancy Diagnosis Report Name Kebele ID Breed Date of AI Date of PD ± 15 days PD Result* E.B.D ± 15 days Maseresha  Teferi Ada Daweta Meteke Local 25/1/ 2002 25/4/2002 + 25/10/ 2002 Tuna Kedir Kelesa Bule Cross 27/1/ 2002 27/4/2002 - 27/10/ 2002 Turunesh  Degefa Ada Daweta Dema Local 28/1/ 2002 28/4/2002 + 28/10/ 2002 Teshome  Bejega Jengo  Keleyesa Bure Cross 1/2/ 2002 1/5/2002 + 1/11/ 2002 Manyazewal  Lema Kulumessa Bure Local 3/3/ 2002 3/2/2002 + 3/11/ 2002
  26. 26. Tiyo Woreda Calves Record Cows’ Information Calves’ Information S.N Name Kebele ID Breed Date of AI Bre e d ID Birth D at e Birth Wt. Kg Sex Bull No M F 1 Kuma Abe A. Daweta Meteke Local 25/1/02 F1 TY-0001 6/11/02 24 1 10-165 2 Bire Alem Gonde Bure Local 3/2/02 F1 TY-0002 8/11/02 16 1 10-165 3 Aman Ali Gonde Bule Cross 5/2/02 F2 TY-0003 9/11/02 24 1 10-165 4  Grum H/G D.Koncha Bure Exotic 30/1/02 F1 TY-0004 30/10/02 1 10-165 5 Adam Biru D.Koncha Gare Local  8//2/02 F1 TY-0005 19/11/02 16 1 10-165
  27. 27. Calves recording and registration
  28. 28. CALF’s BIRTH CERITIFICATE The Name of the Owner——————————————— Region ———————————— Zone ———————————–— Woreda ——————————- Kebele —————————- Calf ID ———————— Sex ———— Date of birth ————— Breed/Type ——————————- Birth Wt —————— Dam ID —————- Breed —————— Sire ID ————— Breed ————— This certificate is issued to certify that the calf is born by artificial insemination from known bull. Signature of the Zonal Livestock, Health and Marketing Office Name and Signature of the inseminator Date
  29. 29. Constraints Associated with Artificial Insemination Service.  Continues Supply of Liquid Nitrogen  Distribution of LN  Inadequate follow up by some woredas
  30. 30. Field cont. Some of expected results of FAIT’s service :-  The pilot program shows that if the necessary training and support is provided to the farmers they can be able to participate in AI  The program will alleviate the shortage of crossbred heifers within short period.  In long term the area will be the source of crossbred heifers to other areas.  The milk production of the area will be improved  Other will learn the experience to scale up the service
  31. 31. NumberofInseminationsPerWoreda 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 D/Tijo Hetossa H/Wabe L/Bilibilo Munessa Tiyo Woredas Numberof Inseminations 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Lesson Learned  It is possible to train AIT in one month  The AI service can be managed by farmers  Maximum attention Should be given to the selection of farmers for the training  In woredas where there is strong follow up and support there is better performance
  32. 32. EffectofMonthsonthePerformanceofArtificial Insemination 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 SeptemberOctober November DecemberJanuary FebruwaryMarch AprilMayJune JulyAugust Month NumberofInseminations Series1 Series2 Series3 Series4 Cont. Lesson Learned  The high time, when the majority of the cows are coming to heat is between October and December  Therefore, all the necessary effort has to be done
  33. 33. Skilled AI technician Regularsupplyofinputs FarmersAwareness Adequate budget
  34. 34. Thank You

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