Experiences with breeding structures for genetic improvement of small ruminants

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Presentation by Joaquin Mueller at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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Experiences with breeding structures for genetic improvement of small ruminants

  1. 1. Experiences with breedingExperiences with breeding structures for geneticstructures for genetic improvement of smallimprovement of small ruminantsruminants Joaquin Mueller National Institute for Agricultural Technology, Argentina 25-28 October 2010, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 55thth All Africa Conference on Animal AgricultureAll Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture 1919thth ESAP Annual ConferenceESAP Annual Conference Commercialization of Livestock Agriculture in Africa: Challenges and opportunities
  2. 2. No experience in Africa
  3. 3. Breeding structuresBreeding structures No Conventional Single Open Nucleus Dispersed Open Nucleus ∆G, lag and ∆F, properties and optimization summarized in text “Local” breeds “International” breeds Within flock, group, village Within village
  4. 4. Intervention strategiesIntervention strategies Generate a breeding structure Improve efficacy of breeding structure Some experiences with sheep, alpacas and goats
  5. 5. Improvement of a conventionalImprovement of a conventional structure:structure: Merino sheep in ArgentinaMerino sheep in Argentina • 7 Million Merino sheep • 80% are family flocks • Studs: small, pedigree + visual • Multipliers: insufficient, visual • Base: dissatisfaction with Initial situation (1980s – 1990s)
  6. 6. • Studs: central progeny testing, performance recording (BW, FW, FD), => BLUP evaluation. • Multipliers: “MPR”, performance testing (index), above average + visual get MPR eartags. Top MPR rams can replace conventional pedigree rams. • Base: “MP”, visual inspection + MPR rams => extension The “Pure Merino Program” Farmers pay
  7. 7. Genetic progress at stud level Source: Mueller (2010), n= 25 000 Adjusted to year 2000=0 Body weight (kg) Fiber diameter (mic) Fleece weight (kg)
  8. 8. MPR: Visually accepted Index above 100 MP: Visually accepted More than 80 000 animals involved
  9. 9. Genetic progress at multiplier level: ¿? On station genetic progress as difference from a control line Mueller (2010). Adult females 1984-2009
  10. 10. About 80 000 animals inspected About 100 farmers involved Indicator: MPR’s are sold for much higher prices
  11. 11. Economic evaluation of the MPR Program (wool, expanded) Items Program Breeders Woolgrowers Processors Totals Research -100 000 -100 000 Genetic evaluation 80 000 -80 000 0 Rams 1 390 000 -1 390 000 0 Wool 4 800 000 -4 800 000 0 Tops 16 905 810 16 905 810 Benefit (income- costs) 1 310 000 3 410 000 12 105 810 16 825 810 Return (income/ costs) 17.4 3.5 3.5 169.1 Participation in total benefit 8% 20% 72% 100% Source: Mueller (2010), in USD.
  12. 12. Village based open nucleusVillage based open nucleus systems:systems: South American Camelids inSouth American Camelids in Bolivia and PeruBolivia and Peru • 6 Million in both countries • Important: culturally, meat, fiber, hides, transport, draft power, manure. • No breeding structure • Village organization and cooperatives • Small family flocks, some village flocks
  13. 13. LlamasAlpaca Huacaya Alpaca Suri Alpaca Suri
  14. 14. Alpaca Huacaya
  15. 15. Macusani Cooperative near Puno, Peru
  16. 16. Macusani Cooperative alpaca open nucleus breeding structure • Nucleus was established with best females available (visual) • Replacements selection visual + FD, very good females are bought into nucleus from base farmers. • Nucleus males are classed in 3 • Farmer alpaca females are classed as they come for mating • Mating with equal or superior males. • Mated females return to farmers First class males Second class males Third class males First class females Second class females Third class females Nucleus Males Base Females
  17. 17. Mating at the Macusani nucleus flocks Munay Paq’ocha nucleus Itita nucleus Alpaca males
  18. 18. -Macusani cooperative manager: “We get better price for our fiber” • Organized farmers • Collaboration, support • Fiber measurement facility …Our success is based on:
  19. 19. Pasco alpaca three tier open nucleus structure Multi-communal nucleus Communal flocks Huacahuaganan nucleus Ayaracra nucleus Best females Males Two multi-communal nucleus flocks Individual farmer
  20. 20. Establishment of multi-communal nucleus
  21. 21. 1. Young promising males are selected visually in each household 2. Participants feed and manage young males in turns separate from females 4. Males go for 15 days mating in participants flocks 3. Participants select their preferred males Pool of males Turco (Bolivia) llama breeding structure
  22. 22. Breeding structure drawing at community school
  23. 23. Selecting llama males in Turco -Discussion of breeding objectives
  24. 24. Accuracy of visual breeding value estimation is not zero Measured performance Selection +Family Selection (BLUP) 30% 60% 90% Genomic Selection 100% Visual Selection Random selection 0% Example for FW h2 =0.4 √0.4=0.63 r=0.5 n=40
  25. 25. Within flock open nucleus:Within flock open nucleus: Cashmere goats in IranCashmere goats in Iran • 4 Million Raeini cashmere goats • Nomad extended families or tribes • 600 goats / tribe, managed together summer winter
  26. 26. Breeding objective: meat, fiber Visual traits: size, color, density, staple length Measurements: body weight (growth rate), fleece weight (+ down percentage, fiber diameter)
  27. 27. Breeding system 40+2 • Separate visually best 40 females and 2 bucks • Mate nucleus and base first 20 days separately • During night keep in corral • During day graze or feed separately • After 20 days graze/mate together as usual • At kidding identify nucleus progeny by date of birth • Castrate males in base • Replace worse buck on progeny test with best nucleus born young buck • Use next best bucks in base • Avoid mating with daughters: circulate / exchange
  28. 28. Corral for nucleus mating at night
  29. 29. Sustainability - Results • Cost per tribe: – Fence: once only, local government? – Barley or labor: yearly, decreasing – Fleece samples: yearly, research? • Expected results: – Response as in woolen sheep – Cashmere suitable for yarn making (dehairing issue) – Improved raw cashmere for export (= chinese, 25%)
  30. 30. • We have the tools to estimate progress, lags and inbreeding to design optimum breeding structures. • In practice we usually work with an existing or evolving breeding structure and will need tactical optimization. • The important point is to discuss the logic of a structure with the farmers and analyze options for implementation. • Open nucleus systems are particularly useful when selection objectives are not clearly expressed and when data collection is difficult. • Breeding structures usually lead to other collective actions such as joint marketing of products. Some experiences and commentsSome experiences and comments
  31. 31. Thank you very much jmueller@bariloche.inta.gov.ar

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