An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants

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Presentation by E J. Madsen, M. F. Bertelsen, T. Hvelplund, and M. R. Eisbjerg at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants

  1. 1. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 1 AN EASY METHOD TO MEASURE THE METHANE PRODUCTION OF RUMINANTS J. Madsen1, M. F. Bertelsen2, T. Hvelplund3, and M. R. Weisbjerg3 1Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark 3Department of Animal Health and Bioscience, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark 25-28, October 2010, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  2. 2. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 2 Background for the development of the method Respiration chambers measurements: • can only be done on relatively few animals • animals are not in their natural environment SF6 measurements: • are not very reliable • SF6 is a strong greenhouse gass Another option exist based on: • measurement of the ratio between CH4 and CO2 • 3 facts
  3. 3. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 3 1. There is a relation between heat production and CO2 production Nutrient Fat Protein Carbohydrate kJ / l CO2 28 24 21 Fat Protein Carbohydrate kJ / l CO2 Diet 1 5 20 75 21,95 Diet 2 3 18 79 21,75 Diet 3 4 16 80 21,76 Diet 4 1 4 95 21,19
  4. 4. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 4 2. Breath contains much higher concentrations of CH4 and CO2 than air Breath: CO2 = 38000 ppm CH4 = 1800 ppm Air: CO2 = 380 ppm CH4 = 1,8 ppm
  5. 5. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 5 3. The heat production and/or utilization of metabolizable energy by livestock has been intensively studied and described. The heat production can thus be established for different animals with a reasonable accuracy!
  6. 6. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 6 Results from dairy cows
  7. 7. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 7 CO2 as a marker (instead of SF6) for the amount of breath / air from animal Example Wallaby (16 kg live weight) Heat production for maintenance 385 kJ/ kg0,75 (Munn and Dawson (2003) Wallaby: 16 kg0,75 = 8 8 * 385 = 3080 kJ/day 3080/21,75 = 142 l CO2/day If we can measure the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the breath / air from animal then we can calculate the CH4 production
  8. 8. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 8 C.K. Environment A/S 3500 Værløse Denmark www.cke.dk FTIR infrared analyser 250 different gasses
  9. 9. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 9
  10. 10. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 10
  11. 11. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 11
  12. 12. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 12 CO2 as a marker (instead of SF6) for the amount of breath / air from animal Example Wallaby (16 kg live weight) Heat production for maintenance 385 kJ/ kg0,75 (Munn and Dawson (2003) Wallaby: 16 kg0,75 = 8 8 * 385 = 3080 kJ/day 3080/21,75 = 142 l CO2/day CH4 production of the Wallaby= 142 * 0,02 l/day = 2,8 l CH4/day
  13. 13. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 13
  14. 14. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 14
  15. 15. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 15 Results from dairy cows (AMS)
  16. 16. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 16 61 Red Danish cows in AMS. Individual feed intake not known Kg milk / cow / day
  17. 17. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 17 39 Holstein cows in AMS with known individual feed intake
  18. 18. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 18 CH4/CO2 versus CH4E of GE 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 CH4/CO2 CH4energyofGrossenergy Calves ~45 bulls. 117-268 kg LW. Open cirquet. Thorbek 1980" Wallaby. 8. 16 kg LW. Open cirquit. Madsen et al.
  19. 19. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 19 CH4/CO2 versus CH4E of GE 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 CH4/CO2 CH4energyofGrossenergy Calves ~45 bulls. 117-268 kg LW. Open cirquet. Thorbek 1980" Cows 39 Holstein. Spot. Madsen et al. Cows 61 Red Danish. Spot. Madsen et al Cows. 7 farms. Building. Spot. Bjerg et al. Wallaby. 8. 16 kg LW. Open cirquit. Madsen et al.
  20. 20. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 20 CH4/CO2 61 dairy cows in 5 days (mean +/- 1,96*S.E.) 0,000 0,010 0,020 0,030 0,040 0,050 0,060 0,070 0,080 0,090 0,100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of day 0,000 0,010 0,020 0,030 0,040 0,050 0,060 0,070 0,080 0,090 0,100 New feed New feed
  21. 21. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 21
  22. 22. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 22
  23. 23. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 23 Conclusions It is possible to measure the CH4 production of individual animals or groups of animals if: - the concentration of breath in the air is above ~3% - the heat (and CO2) production of the animals can be calculated - the ratio between CH4 and CO2 can be measured Wallabies produce only 25% of the methane produced by ruminants on the same diet Many things can be investigated by having a fast, reliable and cheap method which produce - many results in a short time span - results from animal in their natural environment The measurements can be done on individual animals for - testing the effect of different feeds - investigating the potential in selection / breeding - investigating the differences between breeds and species or Investigations can be made on whole animal houses (ruminants and other animals) for - testing the effect of different feeds, breeds and species - testing the effect of different production systems
  24. 24. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 24 Thank you for listening
  25. 25. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 25
  26. 26. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 26
  27. 27. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 27
  28. 28. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 28
  29. 29. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 29
  30. 30. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 30 Example of a dairy cow: Intake 18 kg dry matter/day Production 20 kg milk/day Weight loss 500 g/day Undigested carbon 1500 gDigestion and metabolism Milk Weight loss carbon carbon 1300 g 100 g Intake carbon 7500 g CO2 out 4200 g CH4 out 400 g
  31. 31. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 31 Methane production from various animals Champ et al 1990, Jensen, 1996) Weight, kg CH4/day l CH4/kg0,75 Cow 700 600 4,41 Cow 500 230 2,18 Sheep 40 30 1,89 Elephant 1700 110 0,42 Hippopotamus 1000 70 0,39 Rheino 800 60 0,40 Horse 500 80 0,76 Donkey 250 40 0,64 Zebra 200 20 0,38 Pig 100 10 0,32 Man 50 2 0,11 Warthog 45 4 0,23 Wallabe 16 1,8 0,23 Goose 0,4 0,05 0,10 Rat 0,3 0,001 0,00
  32. 32. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 32 ”Bygningsberegninger”
  33. 33. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 33 ”Fysiologi-, fodringsberegninger”
  34. 34. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 34 CH4/CO2 versus CH4E of GE 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 CH4/CO2 CH4energyofGrossenergy Calves ~45 bulls. 117-268 kg LW. Open cirquet. Thorbek 1980" Cows 39 Holstein. Spot. Madsen et al. Wallaby. 8. 16 kg LW. Open cirquit. Madsen et al.
  35. 35. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 35 CH4/CO2 versus CH4E of GE 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 0,12 CH4/CO2 CH4energyofGrossenergy Calves ~45 bulls. 117-268 kg LW. Open cirquet. Thorbek 1980" Cows 39 Holstein. Spot. Madsen et al. Cows. 7 farms. Building. Spot. Bjerg et al. Wallaby. 8. 16 kg LW. Open cirquit. Madsen et al.
  36. 36. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 36 Results from one wallaby Kangaroo "OG" l/CO2 /24 h 0,00 50,00 100,00 150,00 200,00 250,00 300,00 350,00 400,00 450,00 500,00 1 272 543 814 1085 1356 1627 1898 2169 2440 2711 2982 3253 3524 3795 MeasMurement no (24 hours) lCO2/24h
  37. 37. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 37 Measured =88%
  38. 38. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 38 Average figures for 4 and 8 wallabees CH4/CO2 korr Grass ---4--- Hay + Conc -----8------- Hay + Conc --------4-------- Mean ppm CO2 1975,458 1925,827 1858,602 Mean ppm CH4 24,70606 31,47018 31,07481 Mean CH4/CO2 korr 0,01580 0,0207 0,0208
  39. 39. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 39 Results from dairy cows (AMS)
  40. 40. Madsen, et al. AACAA2010. Addis. An easy method to measure the methane production of ruminants Slide 40 Results from dairy cows (AMS)

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