X-Ray Astronomy: The Future
                     J. Wilms
Remeis-Observatory & ECAP, Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg
X-Ray Astronomy: The Present




    XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10
X-Ray Astronomy: The Present




XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10   INTEGRAL (ESA): launched 2002 Oct 17
X-Ray Astronomy: The Present




XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10            INTEGRAL (ESA): launched 2002 Oct 17

 ...
X-Ray Astronomy: The Present




XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10            INTEGRAL (ESA): launched 2002 Oct 17

 ...
orbital phase of the binary system
                         0          0.04          0.08                           0.12  ...
Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great
   scientific results (see previous talk).

A perso...
Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great
   scientific results (see previous talk).

A perso...
Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great
   scientific results (see previous talk).

A perso...
Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great
   scientific results (see previous talk).

A perso...
Science Vision for European Astronomy (ASTRONET, 2007):
1. Do we understand the extremes of the Universe?
    • Can we obs...
Science Vision for European Astronomy (ASTRONET, 2007):
1. Do we understand the extremes of the Universe?
    • Can we obs...
NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array): Imaging above 10 keV




                                                 ...
NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array): Imaging above 10 keV




                                                 ...
Astro-H: High-Resolution Spectroscopy




 • Launch: 2013, JAXA/NASA
 • multi layers, wide energy range (2–800 keV)
most important instrument on Astro-H:
calorimeter (∆E ∼7 eV)
A. Read, XMM-Newton Slew Survey
To observe X-ray sources, we need to know that they exist
    =⇒ All Sky Surveys
To observe X-ray sources, we need to know that they exist
     =⇒ All Sky Surveys
There is only one complete X-ray sky sur...
eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) on
Spectrum-XG
 • Launch: Fall 2012, 4 year survey + po...
Major driver cosmology.
Black Hole Feedback:
Early Universe: gas merges
to form galaxies
 1. gas flows inwards onto
    sma...
Current observations allow real diagnostics only for objects close to us
=⇒ International X-ray Observatory (ESA/NASA/JAXA)
• Launch: ∼2021
• L2-Orbit (800 000 km radius)
• Highly nested grating incidence optics:
  3 m2 at 1.25 keV, 5′′ resolutio...
Collecting Area: tremendous improvement on existing missions (∼30 wrt
XMM).
5•105
                                                                                HTRS
                               ...
a) determine z from X-rays alone
b) determine temperatures of hot gas out to high z
c) make spin measurements of Black Hol...
Measure black hole
spin for ∼200 AGN
=⇒ spin up history
of black holes
chaotic accretion vs. simple
accretion
Time variation of Fe line
=⇒ measure properties of metric, BH
=⇒ test general relativity & accretion models
The future of X-ray astronomy looks good!
XMM-Newton - 10 Years - X-Ray Astronomy: The Future
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XMM-Newton - 10 Years - X-Ray Astronomy: The Future

  1. 1. X-Ray Astronomy: The Future J. Wilms Remeis-Observatory & ECAP, Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg
  2. 2. X-Ray Astronomy: The Present XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10
  3. 3. X-Ray Astronomy: The Present XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10 INTEGRAL (ESA): launched 2002 Oct 17
  4. 4. X-Ray Astronomy: The Present XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10 INTEGRAL (ESA): launched 2002 Oct 17 Currently Active Missions: X-ray Multiple-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton; ESA), International Gamma-Ray Laboratory (INTEGRAL; ESA), Chandra (USA), Swift (USA), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) (USA), High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-2; USA), Fermi (USA), High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager Spacecraft (RHESSI; USA), Suzaku (Japan, USA), AGILE (Italy), MAXI (Japan).
  5. 5. X-Ray Astronomy: The Present XMM-Newton (ESA): launched 1999 Dec 10 INTEGRAL (ESA): launched 2002 Oct 17 Currently Active Missions: X-ray Multiple-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton; ESA), International Gamma-Ray Laboratory (INTEGRAL; ESA), Chandra (USA), Swift (USA), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) (USA), High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-2; USA), Fermi (USA), High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager Spacecraft (RHESSI; USA), Suzaku (Japan, USA), AGILE (Italy), MAXI (Japan). We are living in the “golden age” of X-ray and Gamma-Ray Astronomy
  6. 6. orbital phase of the binary system 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2 0.3−10 keV 0.1−10 keV 60 Suzaku XIS 40 20 150 Swift XRT 100 50 0.5−7 keV Chandra HETGS 100 50 0.5−10 keV 50 EPIC−pn XMM 40 30 20 1000 4−20 keV RXTE PCA 800 600 250 INTEGRAL 20−40 keV 200 IBIS 150 100 50 12−60 keV Suzaku 40 PIN 30 18.6 18.8 19 19.2 19.4 19.6 19.8 day of 2008 April
  7. 7. Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great scientific results (see previous talk). A personal list of selected highlights: • Relativistic Fe Kα lines =⇒ Black Holes are not SciFi but real astrophysical laboratories!
  8. 8. Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great scientific results (see previous talk). A personal list of selected highlights: • Relativistic Fe Kα lines =⇒ Black Holes are not SciFi but real astrophysical laboratories! • Deep Field Cosmology =⇒ Evolution of Black Holes in the Universe
  9. 9. Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great scientific results (see previous talk). A personal list of selected highlights: • Relativistic Fe Kα lines =⇒ Black Holes are not SciFi but real astrophysical laboratories! • Deep Field Cosmology =⇒ Evolution of Black Holes in the Universe • Physics of highly ionized gases =⇒ Stellar coronae, supernova rem- nants
  10. 10. Current X-ray instruments have provided us with a large number of great scientific results (see previous talk). A personal list of selected highlights: • Relativistic Fe Kα lines =⇒ Black Holes are not SciFi but real astrophysical laboratories! • Deep Field Cosmology =⇒ Evolution of Black Holes in the Universe • Physics of highly ionized gases =⇒ Stellar coronae, supernova rem- nants Need to see all this in multi-wavelength context – ESO-VLT, HST, Herschel, Spitzer, VLBA,. . .
  11. 11. Science Vision for European Astronomy (ASTRONET, 2007): 1. Do we understand the extremes of the Universe? • Can we observe strong gravity in action? • How do black hole accretion, jets and outflows operate? • What do we learn from energetic radiation and particles? 2. How do galaxies form and evolve? • How did the structure of the cosmic web evolve? • How were galaxies assembled? 3. What is the origin and evolution of stars and planets? • Do we understand stellar structure and evolution? 4. How do we fit in? Similar questions also in US Decadal Reports, ESA Cosmic Vision, Denkschrift Astronomie, etc.
  12. 12. Science Vision for European Astronomy (ASTRONET, 2007): 1. Do we understand the extremes of the Universe? • Can we observe strong gravity in action? • How do black hole accretion, jets and outflows operate? • What do we learn from energetic radiation and particles? 2. How do galaxies form and evolve? • How did the structure of the cosmic web evolve? • How were galaxies assembled? 3. What is the origin and evolution of stars and planets? • Do we understand stellar structure and evolution? 4. How do we fit in? Similar questions also in US Decadal Reports, ESA Cosmic Vision, Denkschrift Astronomie, etc. To answer these questions, we need new facilities: NuSTAR, eROSITA, ASTRO-H, and IXO
  13. 13. NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array): Imaging above 10 keV • Launch: August 2011 (Pegasus) • Caltech, NASA, Columbia, DTU-Space, . . . • grazing incidence optics, multilayers (2× 120 shells), 10 m focal length • 8 32 × 32 CZT detectors
  14. 14. NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array): Imaging above 10 keV • Launch: August 2011 (Pegasus) • Caltech, NASA, Columbia, DTU-Space, . . . • grazing incidence optics, multilayers (2× 120 shells), 10 m focal length • 8 32 × 32 CZT detectors
  15. 15. Astro-H: High-Resolution Spectroscopy • Launch: 2013, JAXA/NASA • multi layers, wide energy range (2–800 keV)
  16. 16. most important instrument on Astro-H: calorimeter (∆E ∼7 eV)
  17. 17. A. Read, XMM-Newton Slew Survey To observe X-ray sources, we need to know that they exist =⇒ All Sky Surveys
  18. 18. To observe X-ray sources, we need to know that they exist =⇒ All Sky Surveys There is only one complete X-ray sky survey: ROSAT All Sky Survey • limited to soft X-rays =⇒ misses absorbed sources! • “shallow” =⇒ contains only the brightest sources A large fraction of X-ray sky accessible to XMM-Newton is unknown!
  19. 19. eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) on Spectrum-XG • Launch: Fall 2012, 4 year survey + pointed phase. • Collaboration: Germany (MPE, IAAT, AIP, FAU, Hamburg)+Russia • Extends ROSAT survey to 10 keV, 30× deeper • 3 000 000 supermassive black holes • 100 000 galaxy clusters =⇒ Λ, w
  20. 20. Major driver cosmology. Black Hole Feedback: Early Universe: gas merges to form galaxies 1. gas flows inwards onto small black hole 2. X-rays are produced, heating gas 3. gas swept away 4. star formation and black hole X-ray emission quenched 5. gas flow starts again 6. goto 1 =⇒ X-rays are ideal probe to study evolution of universe.
  21. 21. Current observations allow real diagnostics only for objects close to us =⇒ International X-ray Observatory (ESA/NASA/JAXA)
  22. 22. • Launch: ∼2021 • L2-Orbit (800 000 km radius) • Highly nested grating incidence optics: 3 m2 at 1.25 keV, 5′′ resolution • Instruments – Wide Field Imager & Hard X-ray Imager CCDs, 18′ FoV, 0.3–40 keV – X-ray Grating Spectrometer R = 3000 with 1000 cm2 – X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer 2.5 eV with 5′ FoV – High Time Resolution Spectrometer 1 Crab = 300000 counts/sec – X-ray Polarimeter
  23. 23. Collecting Area: tremendous improvement on existing missions (∼30 wrt XMM).
  24. 24. 5•105 HTRS WFI 16x16 WFI 4•105 3•105 Rate [cps] 2•105 1 Crab 1•105 binsize: 1.000 ms 0 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 Time [s] 1 Crab = 180 000 counts/sec
  25. 25. a) determine z from X-rays alone b) determine temperatures of hot gas out to high z c) make spin measurements of Black Holes out to z = 1 d) detect faint, strongly absorbed Black Holes
  26. 26. Measure black hole spin for ∼200 AGN =⇒ spin up history of black holes chaotic accretion vs. simple accretion
  27. 27. Time variation of Fe line =⇒ measure properties of metric, BH =⇒ test general relativity & accretion models
  28. 28. The future of X-ray astronomy looks good!

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