Successfully reported this slideshow.

Volare information kit English


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Volare information kit English

  1. 1. 1 volare mission → LUCA PARMITANO flying high
  2. 2. 2 European Space Agency From the beginnings of the ‘space age’, Europe has been actively involved in spaceflight. Today it launches satellites for Earth observation, navigation, telecommunications and astronomy, sends probes to the far reaches of the Solar System, and cooperates in the human exploration of space. Space is a key asset for Europe, providing essential information needed by decision-makers to respond to global challenges. Space provides indispensable technologies and services, and increases our understanding of our planet and the Universe. Since 1975, the European Space Agency (ESA) has been shaping the development of this space capability. By pooling the resources of 20 Member States, ESA undertakes programmes and activities far beyond the scope of any single European country, developing the launchers, spacecraft and ground facilities needed to keep Europe at the forefront of global space activities. Coverimage:ESA–S.Corvaja The Member States are: 18 states of the EU (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) plus Norway and Switzerland. Eight other EU states have Cooperation Agreements with ESA: Estonia, Slovenia, Hungary, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and the Slovak Republic. Bulgaria is negotiating a Cooperation Agreement. Canada takes part in some programmes under a Cooperation Agreement.
  3. 3. 4 Six months on the International Space Station Mission overview 8 Luca Parmitano The first of ESA’s new generation of astronauts 14 Crewmates Sharing the mission 18 All the space you can use The International Space Station 22 Research for the benefit of humankind European science in space 28 Voyage with Soyuz The longest-serving route to space 34 Traffic at the Station Visiting vehicles 38 Space for education Inspiring the next generation Published by the Promotion Office of the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations. ESTEC, PO Box 299 2200 AG Noordwijk The Netherlands email: ESA and the ESA logo are trademarks of the European Space Agency. Permission to reproduce or distribute material identified as copyright of a third party must be obtained from the copyright owner concerned. Issue date: February 2013 Copyright © 2013 European Space Agency @esa @astro_luca
  4. 4. 4 → SIX MONTHS ON THE International Space Station Mission overview NASA
  5. 5. 5 A new generation of European astronauts is ready to travel to space. Luca Parmitano will be the first of ESA’s new astronauts to live and work on a fully operational International Space Station (ISS) for almost half a year. The Italian astronaut will be launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 29 May 2013 on a Soyuz rocket with Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg. Luca will serve as flight engineer on the Station for Expeditions 36 and 37. He recently qualified as a European astronaut and was proposed by Italy’s space agency ASI for this mission, named Volare. Luca will be the fourth Italian citizen to fly to the Space Station and Volare will be ESA’s fifth long-duration Space Station mission. During the 166-day mission he will take part in around 20 ESA experiments covering a range of disciplines: human physiology, fluid physics, materials science, biology, radiation and solar research, as well as technology demonstrations. Luca’s research activities will encompass areas as diverse as understanding how our biological clock ticks to casting light-weight metals. Most of the experiments are carried out in Europe’s Columbus laboratory, a world-class research platform that produces valuable scientific results for Earth-bound citizens. Luca will not only perform experiments for ESA, but also more than 20 experiments for the US, Canadian and Japanese space agencies which require using almost 30 research facilities in space. We have different roles according to the task of the day − we are the plumbers, the engineers, the scientists, the cooks and the pilots aboard. Luca ParmitanoStars taken with a long exposure from the International Space Station in 2012
  6. 6. 6 One of the highlights of the Volare mission is Luca’s involvement in robotic operations to receive unmanned vehicles. Commanding the Station’s principal robotic arm, he will participate in docking of the fourth Japanese HTV. He will also support the complex berthing operations of the Dragon (SpaceX) and Cygnus (Orbital Sciences) cargo vehicles as part of NASA’s commercial resupply programme. Luca will have several assignments in his role as flight engineer on the Station. He will be in charge of logistics operations on Europe’s cargo ferry ATV Albert Einstein, including system monitoring and commanding the European spacecraft. ATV is the largest servicing vehicle for the Station. Apart from delivering more than six tonnes of essential cargo, it will regularly reboost Volare evokes Italy, my background as a pilot, and my trip to the Station. It is part of my lifestyle. Luca Parmitano “ „ Volare key data Launch site Baikonur, Kazakhstan Launch date 29 May 2013 Docking 6 hours after launch Landing 10 November 2013 Launch/landing vehicle Soyuz TMA-09M Launcher Soyuz FG Mission duration 166 days (Status as of February 2013) Mission name and logo The mission name and its logo were selected after two competitions were held for Italian citizens, organised by ASI. Volare means ‘to fly’ in Italian, a word made famous by the song ‘Nel blu dipinto di blu’ by Domenico Modugno. The winning name, proposed by 32 year-old engineer Norberto Cioffi, symbolises the search for new frontiers and opportunities for discovery. The logo shows many elements of Luca’s mission: the Soyuz spacecraft that will fly him to the orbital outpost, the Space Station itself and the colours of the Italian flag. The orbits represent human desire to travel beyond Earth as well as our curiosity for knowledge. The winning logo was designed by 28-year-old student Ilaria Sardella. ESA–S.Corvaja
  7. 7. 7 Italian ticket to space Luca Parmitano will fly to the Space Station on a flight provided by the Italian space agency (ASI) in agreement with NASA. In exchange for producing US-owned modules for the Station, ASI received six flight opportunities for its national astronauts. Volare will be the first European long- duration mission to the Station under agreement with ASI. Ground support Day and night, a worldwide network of control centres supports the astronauts living and working on the International Space Station. In Europe, experts at the Columbus Control Centre in Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich, Germany, are the direct link to Luca in orbit. They are there to help him 24/7 − they know where everything in the Station is located and how everything works. Researchers on ground can control and monitor experiments performed in the European Columbus laboratory from their offices. Dedicated connections with seven User Support and Operations Centres (USOCs) across Europe make this possible. and perform attitude control manoeuvres for the International Space Station. Luca will be the first European astronaut to reach the Station in record time – his Soyuz will dock after just four orbits in less than six hours, eight times faster than a standard Soyuz approach. This same-day rendezvous and docking means that he gains two working days on the Station. Volare’s educational activities will revolve around robotics. Building a robot to help him fetch items in the Station, talking to pupils via radio and taking part in an international challenge to be as fit as an astronaut are some of the engaging events addressed to primary, secondary and University students. ESA–S.Corvaja DLR
  8. 8. 8 → luca parmitano The first of ESA’s new generation of astronauts ESA–A.Conigli
  9. 9. 9 Luca Parmitano is the first of the new generation of European astronauts to fly on a long-duration mission. He represents the values of a young class of astronauts for the human spaceflight endeavour: professionalism, hard work and team spirit. When ESA called for candidates from its Member States to reinforce the European astronaut corps, more than 8000 people applied. Luca and five others passed a demanding year-long selection process and became proud members of the ‘European astronaut class 2009’. A frequent flyer Luca Parmitano  was born in Paternò, Italy, in 1976. He is a major in the Italian air force so he has extensive experience as a pilot. He has logged more than 2000 flying hours on more than 20 types of military aircraft and helicopters, and has flown over 40 types of aircraft in total. He completed a bachelor’s degree in political science with a thesis on international law. Pursuing his dream to fly, he started to train in top flight-academies across the globe. Luca has followed courses with the United States Air Force in USA and in Germany. He qualified as an electronic warfare officer and trained for tactical leadership in the Italian air force. He was selected to become a test pilot in 2007. Luca also holds a diploma in aeronautical science from the Italian Air Force Academy. After becoming an astronaut, Luca completed a master’s degree in experimental flight-test engineering. He is married and the father of two girls. Luca is an active scuba diver and enjoys snowboarding, skydiving and weight training. He is an avid science-fiction reader and loves music. His colleagues describe Luca as a very focused and straightforward person, always able to give prompt feedback and show strong leadership. Training In less than three years, Luca has travelled between all five international partners’ training sites, gaining the knowledge and skills required for his mission. His tailored training has taken him to Houston, USA, Star City near Moscow, Russia, Tsukuba near Tokyo, Japan, Montreal, Canada, and the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany.
  10. 10. 10 European astronaut class 2009 Roughly half of his training has taken place in Star City. Luca spent approximately the other 40% of his training, around 30 months in the USA, and the remaining 10% divided between the European Astronaut Centre and the Japanese and Canadian space agencies. Critical tasks are trained over and over. As Soyuz flight engineer, Luca requires a great amount of ‘flying hours’ in the Russian spacecraft simulator, so he trained until he felt at home in the cockpit and can operate Soyuz flawlessly in any situation. During simulations, Luca had his hands at the controls of the spacecraft and wore the Russian Sokol flight suit. Specialised tutors trained him in critical launch and landing procedures, as well as how to handle depressurisation, fire or toxic spills. Luca also learnt to speak Russian, a key asset in an emergency. Luca has been taught Space Station systems in full-size mockups, where he familiarised himself with the Station and learnt how everything works. He is trained in all systems and experiment operations scheduled for his mission. He has spent hours getting to know every ↑ ESA astronauts from left: Timothy Peake, Samantha Cristoforetti, Andreas Mogensen, Alexander Gerst, Thomas Pesquet and Luca Parmitano corner of Europe’s Columbus laboratory, where most of the experiments in which he participates in take place. Robotics operations are a highlight of Luca’s mission. The astronaut learnt that there is more than meets the eye when operating robotic arms in space – mental gymnastics are required to understand their motion. He trained to fly the arm smoothly using hand controllers to avoid dangerous oscillations. Dressed in a spacesuit, Luca also trained to perform spacewalks in one of the largest swimming pools in the world on realistic mockups of the Space Station. Luca can interpret electrocardiograms and even pull out a rotten tooth in space if required. He will provide continuous feedback about his health and on the medical experiments in which he is a test subject, taking samples of his blood, checking his heartbeat and monitoring his eyes. He went through survival courses in extreme environments, training to face all kinds of emergency situations under prolonged isolation and psychological stress. ESA–M.Koell
  11. 11. 11 ↑ ESA astronauts Timothy Peake (middle) and Luca Parmitano during basic training of medical procedures and techniques ↖ Basic training included operations such as container installation. Luca practised together with ESA astronauts Thomas Pesquet (middle) and Timothy Peake ← Survival training is an important part of all Soyuz mission training. From left: NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and Luca Parmitano during winter survival training near Star City, Russia ← Building a fire during winter survival training. Luca's Soyuz spacecraft could land in a cold remote area so the crew need survival skills while they wait for rescue ↙ Fitness training at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, USA ↓ When a Soyuz spacecraft returns to Earth there is always the possibility that it could land in water. Luca underwent survival training near Star City, Russia ESA–D.Baumbach ESA–T.BourryGCTCGCTC GCTC ESA–S.Corvaja
  12. 12. 12 ESA–S.Corvaja
  13. 13. 13 What time is it on the Station? Luca plans to treasure every single moment in space without missing his connection to Earth – a dual time-zone watch will tell him the time on the Station, synchronised to Greenwich Mean Time, and Central Standard Time where his family lives in Houston USA. Tasks in space After arriving at the International Space Station Luca will take up his tasks as a crewmember and flight engineer. His duties include: • Performing experiments. He will make extensive use of the science facilities on the Station, and in particular on the European Columbus laboratory. • Supporting complex robotic operations. Proficient in operating the Station’s principal robotic arm, he will participate in docking the fourth Japanese HTV. • Supporting berthing and cargo operations of the Dragon and Cygnus commercial cargo vehicles. • Managing logistics operations for ATV Albert Einstein, such as system monitoring and sending commands. He will perform outfitting operations in the spacecraft, including preparing it to undock. • Acting as crew medical officer to support the flight surgeon and medical team on Earth if medical problems occur. • Supporting maintenance activities for the International Space Station. • Luca is fully trained to perform a possible Extra Vehicular Activity. If needed he could exit the Space Station in a spacesuit to install equipment or conduct repairs. 12:00 05:00 10:00ISS italy houston When I was young, going back home meant going back to my own house. When I was at the Air Force Academy in Pozzuoli, going back home meant crossing the Strait of Messina. When I became an astronaut, I started to live in Cologne and landing in Rome was already enough to feel back home. The dream of astronauts from my generation is that one day someone seeing Earth and the Moon from space thinks: ‘I am coming back home’. Luca Parmitano Life in space • First two weeks: adapting to microgravity and learning Space Station processes • Weekdays: six working hours with an hour and a half for exercise • Weekends: Housekeeping, voluntary science and spare time • Daily phone calls with family and friends • Weekly medical conferences to check health and fitness • Sleep time: eight hours • Day and night support from the European Control Centre at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  14. 14. 14 → crewmates Sharing the mission The International Space Station has been a home and working environment to a minimum crew of six astronauts continuously since 2009. Rotating shifts are part of the Station’s routine, four times a year like clockwork, three astronauts leave as a new trio arrives. Keeping the Station permanently crewed requires careful planning. Soyuz capsules ferry only three astronauts at a time, with launches and landings generally timed for spring and fall to avoid severe weather conditions at the launch facility in the steppes of Kazakhstan. Crew rotations on the Space Station are called 'expeditions', increasing in number every time a group of six changes. Three-astronaut crews are changed four times a year, so each astronaut stays in space for about six months and serves in two adjoining expeditions. As each new expedition starts, a new commander takes over. The commander is chosen from the most experienced astronauts on the Station, and ensures safety of all crewmembers. Each crew arriving on a Soyuz has a designated engineering number, plus a Space Station mission number and a call sign. For Luca Parmitano’s six- month mission, this gives him several names to choose from: he is part of Expedition 36 for four months, Expedition 37 for two months as well as a crew member for Soyuz TMA-09M/35S under the call sign Olympus. He will share these labels with Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg who fly with him in the Soyuz. Roscosmos
  15. 15. 15 Astronaut facts figures • Over 500 people have been to space, of which 200 went to the International Space Station • Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev has spent a record 803 days in space. He stayed for 318 days on the Space Station in two different expeditions • Astronauts have performed over 160 spacewalks to build and maintain the Station • 6 months: the time an astronaut typically stays on the Station Having six permanent residents on the International Space Station has proven to be an efficient formula. Flying six full-time astronauts is tripling time spent on research compared to former three-person crews. The rotation system allows astronauts to accomplish operational tasks and maintain Station systems. All astronauts train following the ‘single-flow-to-launch’ process so that each crew acts as a backup for the preceding expedition. This process optimises operations: it limits the time each crewmember has to spend in training to less than three years. Pavel Vinogradov Alexander Misurkin Chris Cassidy Fyodor Yurchikhin Karen L. Nyberg Luca Parmitano Oleg Kotov Sergei Ryazansky Michael S. Hopkins Commander ← Flight Engineer 1 ← Flight Engineer 2 ← Flight Engineer 3 ← Flight Engineer 5 ← Flight Engineer 4 ← → Commander → Flight Engineer 1 → Flight Engineer 2 → Flight Engineer 3 → Flight Engineer 4 → Flight Engineer 5 ISS Expedition 36 May 2013 - Sep 2013 ISS Expedition 37 Sep 2013 - Nov 2013 Crew shifting Astronauts or cosmonauts? A person that travels in space can be called an astronaut  or a cosmonaut  – they mean the same thing. Cosmonaut is the Russian word for astronaut, and derives from the Greek words kosmos, meaning ‘universe’, and  nautes,  meaning ‘sailor’. While astronaut is used by English-speaking countries, cosmonaut refers to Russian space travellers and, forexample,Chineseastronautsarecalledtaikonauts. ESA–S.Corvaja
  16. 16. PavelVinogradov Roscosmos Expedition 35/36 Pavel Vinogradov is one of the top 25 astronauts in terms of total time logged in space. Aged 59, he has spent half his life working in the space sector, working on software development for recoverable vehicles to spacecraft launch preparations. Pavel flew in 1997 to the Mir space station. During that mission, he performed five spacewalks and logged nearly 200 days in space. The cosmonaut flew a second time in 2006 to the International Space Station, serving as the Expedition 13 crew commander. Luca’s companions Expedition 36 Fyodor Yurchikhin is a very experienced cosmonaut. 54 years-old, he has flown to the International Space Station three times: once on the Space Shuttle (STS-112) and twice on the Soyuz for long-duration missions (Expeditions 15 and 24/25), performing five spacewalks in total. Fyodor decided to be a cosmonaut when he was a child, and worked on building an extensive career. A mechanical engineer specialised in aeronautics, he worked in the mission control centre in Russia before becoming a cosmonaut in his forties. Fyodor says “The Station demonstrates that we are part of a tremendous team of people from different countries who work well together on the same programme.” Karen Nyberg was the 50th woman to travel in space in 2008. Now 43 years old, she wanted to be an astronaut from a young age and became known as ‘the rocket scientist’ in high school, where a friend wrote in her yearbook ‘Have fun on the Moon.’ Karen flew on NASA’s Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124), on the second of three flights to install the Japanese Kibo laboratory. She led the robotic arm operations to attach Kibo to the Station, becoming the first astronaut ever to operate the Shuttle’s, the Station’s and the Japanese robotic arms. Karen has a doctorate in mechanical engineering. Her research includes human thermoregulation and experimental metabolic testing specifically related to controlling thermal neutrality in space suits. Married to astronaut Douglas Hurley, she likes backpacking and spending time with her dogs. Fyodor Yurchikhin Expedition 36/37 Karen Nyberg Expedition 36/37 ROSCOSMOS 16 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3rd 359 d 2nd 15 da s 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3rd 359 days in space spaceflight 2nd 15 days in space spaceflight 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3rd 359 days in space spaceflight 2nd 15 days in space spaceflight
  17. 17. Michael Hopkins NASA Expedition 37/38 Inspired by the early successes of the Space Shuttle programme, Michael Hopkins pursued his dream of flying to space since high school. He graduated in aerospace engineering and served as a lieutenant colonel in the US Air Force. He lived in Parma, Italy, for nearly two years to study political science. Michael was selected as a special assistant to the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon. He joined NASA’s 20th astronaut class in 2009, the first of the post-Shuttle generation. Oleg Kotov Roscosmos Expedition 37/38 Oleg Kotov is a colonel in the Russian air force and a specialist in space medicine. During his early career as a physician, Oleg Kotov worked on altitude physiology and how spaceflight affects the human body. The 47-year-old cosmonaut was flight engineer for Expedition 15 in 2007, and commander on Expedition 23 in 2010. During his last mission, Oleg had to take manual control of a Progress vehicle and guided the spacecraft to dock with the Station, a first for a Progress docking. Christopher Cassidy NASA Expedition 35/36 Christopher Cassidy has the honour of being the 500th person to go to space. He started his career as a member of the US Navy SEALs. At 43 years old, he still likes to refer to his fellow astronauts as ‘shipmates’. Christopher flew on NASA’s Space Shuttle Endeavour to the Space Station (STS-127), spending more than 18 hours in spacewalks to help install and complete the construction of Kibo, the Japanese Experiment Module. He has also worked as a Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) in mission control for more than two years. Aleksandr Misurkin Roscosmos Expedition 35/36 Aleksandr Misurkin was a major of the Russian Air Force before he was selected in 2006 to become a cosmonaut. Among his duties and accomplishments, he is a first-class instructor-pilot and has logged 1600 hours of flight time in jet trainer-aircraft for the Russian air force. Aleksandr has undergone extreme survival training courses,bothinthedesertandatsea.Inhissparetime,the 35-year-old cosmonaut enjoys alpine skiing and karting. Expedition 37 Sergei Ryazansky Roscosmos Expedition 37/38 Sergei joined the cosmonaut team because of a family tradition − his grandfather was a rocket engineer involved in Yuri Gagarin’s historic first flight into space. After graduating as a biochemist, he began working at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow. There, as researcher and test cosmonaut, he participated in a 105-day mission isolation study in 2009. Sergei, now 38 years old, hopes to contribute to future human missions to Mars. 17 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3rd 359 days in space spaceflight 2nd 15 days in space spaceflight 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3rd 359 days in space spaceflight 2nd 15 days in space spaceflight 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3rd 359 days in space spaceflight 2nd 15 days in space spaceflight 3rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1st spaceflight 3 2 1 3 rd 380 days in space spaceflight 1 st spaceflight 3 rd 359 days in space spaceflight 2 nd 15 days in space spaceflight
  18. 18. 18 → ALL THE SPACE YOU CAN USE The International Space Station ESA/NASA The International Space Station with Europe’s ATV Johannes Kepler and Space Shuttle Endeavour attached taken by ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli from his Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft after undocking in 2011
  19. 19. 19 The International Space Station is a shining example of global cooperation, uniting Europe, USA, Russia, Japan and Canada in one of the largest partnerships in the history of science and is the greatest engineering work ever achieved by mankind. This human outpost in Earth orbit is a stepping stone for further space exploration. The endeavour has brought humanity together to live and work in space uninterrupted for over a decade. The orbiting complex is the size of a football field – enoughroomforthecrewandavastarrayofexperiments. There is no laboratory like it on Earth that has the facilities to conduct research in microgravity. The Space Station is now complete and in full service with a full crew and a full international partnership. Intensive research and effective use of this laboratory lead to new applications and benefits for people on Earth, from space to your doorstep. A free-falling research laboratory in space For decades, experiments in space have answered many scientific questions, inspired technological development and, sometimes, resulted in unexpected outcomes. The International Space Station was completed after nearly 13 years of construction, now the number of scientific activities on the effects of long-duration microgravity on humans has reached a record high. Gravity affects almost everything we do on Earth. In a free fall motion around the planet, the astronauts in the Space Station live in microgravity. Up there, scientists are conducting pioneering investigations, testing theories, and pushing the boundaries of our knowledge. The high-flying international laboratory is packed with technologically sophisticated facilities that support a wide range of research in human physiology, biology, fundamental physics, materials sciences, Earth observation and space science. The Station is a unique vantage point for collecting science data. Observation of features such as glaciers, agricultural areas, cities and coral reefs can complement satellite data to create a comprehensive view of our world. Science in space supports competitive technology developments and fosters scientific research and education. Did you know? • In clear skies around sunset or sunrise, the International Space Station can be seen from Earth with the naked eye as a bright moving star • The space astronauts use on the Space Station is larger than a five-bedroom house, with a 360-degree bay window called Cupola, two toilets and fitness facilities • The Station has been inhabited for 13 years, no other space station has been inhabited for longer or received more visitors • More than 130 space missions have been flown to build and maintain the Station
  20. 20. Columbus The Columbus laboratory is the first permanent European research facility in space. Since it was attached to the Station in 2008, this multifunction lab has been generating scientific data across a range of disciplines. External platforms are supporting experiments and applications in space science, Earth observation and technology. Automated Transfer Vehicle: Resupplies and services the Space Station Harmony and Tranquility Node-2 Harmony is a connecting module between Columbus, Destiny and Kibo laboratories. It also provides three docking ports for visiting vessels. Node-3 Tranquillity, connected to Node-1 Unity, houses life-support and exercise equipment for six crewmembers and accommodates Cupola and more docking ports. European parts of the International Space Station ESA/NASA ESA/NASA 20
  21. 21. Permanent Multipurpose Module: Primarily used for storage of spares, supplies and waste Node-2: Connecting module Cupola The Cupola observatory is the most recent made-in- Europe module on the Station. The seven-window dome is the crew’s panoramic window to Earth, as well as giving astronauts a clear view to control equipment outside the Station remotely. Automated Transfer Vehicle The Automated Transfer Vehicle is Europe’s unmanned single-use ferry that docks and undocks autonomously, delivering food, propellant and other essential supplies to the Station. ATV can reboost the Station to adjust its orbit. The fourth ATV, Albert Einstein, will be launched in April 2013. Columbus: Europe's research module Node-3: Connecting module Cupola: A dome-shaped module with windows for observing and guiding operations outside of the Station ESA/NASA ESA/NASA 21
  22. 22. 22 → RESEARCH FOR THE BENEFIT OF HUMANKIND European science in space ESA/MIA–G.Pani This microscope image of a human immune cell on the International Space Station was taken for the experiment Motion and Interact
  23. 23. During his six-month mission, Luca and crewmates will perform around 40 experiments on the International Space Station. The results will bring benefits to people on Earth and pave the way for future space exploration missions. The crew devote a lot of time to scientific activities. European experiments cover a wide range of disciplines and are selected on the basis of feasibility and potential benefits. Luca will use scientific facilities on the Space Station and especially those in the European Columbus laboratory. This module provides scientists with a unique opportunity to conduct microgravity research. Columbus is Europe’s entrance ticket to the Space Station and ESA’s largest single contribution to the orbital outpost. During the Volare mission, Luca alone will be involved in more than 20 experiments from US, Canadian and Japanese space agencies. 23
  24. 24. 24 Human Research CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS We have an inner clock – called the circadian timing system – that tells us roughly what time of day it is, and makes us sleepy at night. Normally, our biological clock is in sync with Earth’s 24-hour cycle. That cycle is disrupted in orbit, where Luca will experience 16 sunrises and sunsets every day on the International Space Station. The Circadian Rhythms experiment will look at how long-duration spaceflight affect our biological clock by measuringLuca’stemperatureandmelatonin,ahormone linked to our circadian rhythms. The findings will help work out how to rest effectively and be alert when most needed. This will help future missions but also people working irregular hours on Earth such as doctors and emergency workers. ENERGY Human bodies lose mass in space and this is a concern for astronauts. Knowledge of energy requirements during spaceflight is needed to ensure that the right amount of food is packed on long-duration missions. Changes in Luca’s energy balance and expenditure will be measured to help derive an equation for astronaut’s energy requirements. REVERSIBLE FIGURES Our neuro-vestibular system is very sensitive to gravity. Astronaut’s perception and reaction time deteriorate in space. This can affect the way astronauts perform critical tasks such as operating robotic arms as well as their orientation and navigation skills.This experiment aims to understand the relationship between gravity and depth perception. Reversible symbols can be seen in different ways and this could be influenced by microgravity. Participants in this study will look at 3D images of reversible figures before, during and after long-duration spaceflight. SKIN-B As we grow older our skin becomes more fragile and takes longer to heal from injuries. Astronauts lose more skin cells and age faster during spaceflight. The aim of this experiment is to gain insights on skin physiology in space, and in particular the skin-ageing process. SKIN-B will collect data on Luca’s skin before, during and after his mission to develop a computer model of how skin ages. This model could contribute to help protect people’s skin on Earth as well as in space. SPACE HEADACHES Headaches are not exclusive to humans on Earth. Through regular questionnaires, this experiment studies the number of headaches Luca experiences on the International Space Station. The headaches are classified and analysed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. SARCOLAB Living in microgravity leads to loss of muscle mass, function and motor control. SARCOLAB will help to understand the problem of maintaining muscle mass in space, as well as providing more knowledge to counteract loss of muscle strength on Earth. The experiment will study characteristics of muscles that are particularly affected in space, such as the plantar flexor muscles in the lower leg during static and dynamic contractions. Luca will provide feedback on how his muscles perform before and after his flight. To get a better insight on unused muscles, Luca will also commission MARES, an adjustable chair that can measure and exercise around seven joints in the human body. ↑ Chicken with lemon confit in cans for the Energy experiment ↑ Before flight Luca exercising for SARCOLAB to get information about muscle fibres ESA/NASA ESA
  25. 25. 25 Before and after: ground-based studies CARTILAGE Space is a harsh environment that affects the body in many ways. Defects in cartilage growth occur because astronaut’s bones suffer less stress. CARTILAGE investigates the effects of microgravity on cartilage strength and health. MRI scans of Luca’ knees will be taken before and after his stay in orbit to test the effect of weightlessness on his cartilage thickness and overall volume. The results are expected to help develop and validate medical technologies and plan for long-duration spaceflights. Biology GRAVI-2 Plants are very aware of gravity. When a seedling is turned and placed horizontally its extremities start to bend to continue growing up and away from gravity. The mechanism behind these changes in growth direction is not fully understood. The GRAVI-2 experiment takes lentil seedling roots and places them in a centrifuge. Spinning the roots at different levels of acceleration in microgravity will determine the minimum acceleration required before the roots respond. Researchers will follow the experiment via timelapse video. Calcium in root cells is used as a marker to measure their response to artificial gravity. This experiment will examine the immune response in plants when grown in microgravity. Materials science CETSOL-2/MICAST-2/SETA-2 These experiments examine growth patterns and how microstructures evolve when metallic alloys crystallise in microgravity. The results will complement computer simulations to produce more efficient aluminium alloys for the transport industry. Data from CETSOL-2 could reduce vehicle weight and increase their strength while optimising industrial casting processes. Microgravity on the International Space Station is necessary for the MICAST-2 experiment that magnetically controls fluid- flow at micro-scale levels. The SETA-2 experiment will look into structural patterns formed in aluminium alloys mixed with manganese and silicon as they solidify. ↓ Lentil roots growing in microgravity. Earth’s gravity plays a major role in plant evolution ↑ ESA research has helped to develop an aircraft-grade alloy that is twice as light as conventional nickel superalloys while offering equally good properties ESA/NASA CreativeCommons–Bleuchoi
  26. 26. 26 Fluid Physics FASES/FASTER Aprobleminemulsiontechnologyiscontrollingemulsion stability. Many emulsions found in food, cosmetics and pharmacy products need to be highly stable for long periods of time. These experiments examine the link between emulsion stability and physicochemical characteristics of droplets. The goal is to obtain an emulsion dynamics model that can be transferred to industrial applications on Earth. SODI-DCMIX Fluids and gases are never at rest, even if they appear to be when viewed by the naked eye. For example, water molecules when viewed under a microscope, move incessantly and continuously collide with each other. Scientists are interested in observing and measuring these movements because they reveal important, practical information such as how quickly heat spreads in a fluid or how quickly liquids mix. The SODI DCMIX experiment will exploit the fact that fluids in microgravity become ‘quiet’ or inactive − also called quiescence − to measure diffusion in liquid mixtures. Using sensitive optical techniques it will measure mass diffusion to compare results with current theories and improve our understandingofhowmoleculesmoveinliquidmixtures. Staring at the Sun SOLAR/SOLSPEC/SOL-ACES The Sun is our star, our main source of light and energy. The International Space Station provides a precious platform for observing the Sun over a long period of time. Only by analysing solar activity in more detail can we hope to understand the physical mechanisms at work in this gigantic nuclear-fusion reactor. SOLAR measures the Sun’s electromagnetic radiation with unprecedented accuracy across most of its spectral range. The next maximum solar activity, expected in ↓ ESA's study of foams could benefit the food industry ↑ SOLAR will help us learn more about our star NASA/SDO A module for materials science Luca will perform a variety of materials research in weightlessness on ESA’s Materials Science Laboratory. The laboratory can run solidification experiments on high-temperature alloys and also allows experiments to be performed with semi-conducting or glass-forming materials, among others. ↑ ESA Astronaut André Kuipers working with the European Materials Science Laboratory ESA/NASA GRASP–UniversityofLiège–D.Terwagne
  27. 27. 27 2013, will help to build an even more detailed picture of sunspots, flares and our star’s magnetic field. Data from SOLAR will help scientists improve climate models and sharpen future climate forecasts. The same data can aid satellite design to prolong their useable life. The readings will also contribute to more accurate navigation data, as well as more precise satellite and space-debris orbit predictions. SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES operate at a high spectral resolution to measure solar irradiance from the Sun. They are made of spectrometers dedicated to observations in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths. Their primary goal is to measure the solar constant in order to distinguish between solar influence from human influence on Earth’s climate. Radiation dosimetry DOSIS 3D Radiation levels in space are up to 15 times higher than on Earth. The International Space Station offers some protection for astronauts as incoming space rays are partly halted by materials used in its structure. The Station is constructed so that some areas are better shielded than others. This experiment monitors radiation in three-dimensions in all segments of the orbital outpost using active and passive radiation detectors. Radiation detectors provided by ESA, NASA, JAXA and Roscosmos will all contribute to the final results of DOSIS 3D. Technology demonstrations Vessel ID System Placed on the Columbus laboratory, this ESA satellite receiver is the marine equivalent of air traffic control systems. It identifies ships on the open seas within the field of view of the International Space Station from space. On a good day, around 400 000 position reports are received from more than 22 000 ships. The Vessel ID experiment is part of ESA’s roadmap to develop global maritime surveillance safeguarding the security of people and infrastructure at sea, as well as our maritime environments. ↑ World sea traffic tracked from space. ESA’s ship detection system can receive signals from more than 22 000 ships FFI ↑ Astronaut Randolph Bresnik during a spacewalk in 2009 with the Vessel ID satellite receiver attached to the European Columbus laboratory ESA/NASA
  28. 28. 28 NASA
  29. 29. → VOYAGE WITH SOYUZ The longest-serving route to space The Soyuz has been used for human spaceflight missions longer than any other launch system. The Russian workhorse is presently the only means for astronauts to reach and leave the International Space Station. Luca Parmitano will be boosted into space with his crewmates Fyodor Yurchikhin and Karen Nyberg in a Soyuz spacecraft on a Soyuz FG rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Because Luca is 1.84 m tall, he will just fit in the ninth SoyuzTMA-M series.TheTMA-M is the latest upgrade to Russia’s legendary manned vehicle The Soyuz is a wonderful spacecraft, very safe and stable. To master this complex machine, we need three to four months of theory, plus dozens of simulations in different scenarios. Luca Parmitano and it can accommodate a greater height and weight range for the three-astronaut crew. The Soyuz spacecraft shares the same name as its launcher – Soyuz means union – and can manoeuvre, rendezvous and dock in orbit in automated or manual control mode. Conceived in the 1960s as part of the Soviet space programme in the context of the race with the USA to land the first man on the Moon, Soyuz’s main objective remains to ferry astronauts to low-Earth orbit. 29
  30. 30. T +00:00 Lift-off Altitude: Speed: Range: 0 km 0 km/h 0 km 42 km 6100 km/h 39 km 85 km 8300 km/h 109 km T + 01:58 First stage separation T + 02:38 Escape tower and fairing separation Soyuz ascent and orbit insertion Soyuz launcher Soyuz rockets have launched spacecraft and satellites into orbit for 45 years – they are the most-used launch vehicles in the world. They have logged over 1700 manned and unmanned launches, far more than any other rocket. Its design goes back to the Vostok launcher, which was used for the first manned spaceflight in 1961 with Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The basic design of the Soyuz launcher excels in low cost and high reliability. The Soyuz FG rocket for Luca’s mission consists of three stages that provide thrust at various points until the Soyuz capsule settles into orbit around Earth, burning more than 150 tonnes of fuel on its trip. At the top of the 51 m-high Soyuz FG rocket, the Soyuz spacecraft and emergency rescue system can be triggered during the first three minutes of flight to quickly push away cosmonauts in case of rocket failure. Launch On launch day, the vehicle is loaded with propellant and the final countdown sequence starts three hours before lift-off.  Four boosters, eachabout20minlength,providethe main thrust in the first two minutes of flight and are then jettisoned. In less than five minutes, 225 tonnes of RP-1 and liquid oxygen are consumed. RP-1 is a highly refined form of kerosene, similar to jet fuel. Nearly ten minutes into the flight, at an altitude of about 210 km and at speed of about 25 000 km/h, the Soyuz starts to orbit Earth. Some orbital corrections are required before the spacecraft follows the same orbit as the International Space Station flying at an altitude of 400 km and a speed of about 28 000 km/h. While in orbit chasing the Space Station, the Soyuz crew perform systems checks and keep in touch with controllers at the Russian Mission Control Centre. ESA–I.Baroncini 30
  31. 31. 31 176 km 13 500 km/h 500 km 208 km 25 000 km/h 1640 km T + 04:48 Second stage separation T + 08:48 Third stage separation and orbit insertion ESA–I.Baroncini A speedy Soyuz Luca will be the first European astronaut on a Soyuz fast-track flight to the Station. Rather than the standard 34 orbits over the two days that it usually takes to travel to the Space Station, Luca’s Soyuz will execute a same-day rendezvous, docking in record time. He will dock after just four orbits, in less than six hours of flight. During a flight test with the Russian unmanned Progress spacecraft last summer, flight controllers managed to shorten the transit to the Station. As the basic procedures do not change significantly, this new approach did not affect Luca’s training. Final approach and docking Rendezvous and docking are automated, but the Soyuz crew can execute these operations manually in case of anomalies. Soyuz spacecraft complete a series of trajectory corrections and manoeuvres to align itself with one of four available Russian docking ports on the Space Station. Once docked with the Station, the crew equalise air pressure between Soyuz and the orbital outpost. After removing their flight suits, they open the hatches to enter their orbital home for the next six months. ESA–S.CorvajaNASA–B.IngallsNASA–C.Cioffi ↑ The crews launching on a Soyuz spacecraft go through numerous traditions. From a visit to the memorial wall at the Kremlin when their mission is approved, to the last days of quarantine, everything follows a ritual that started half a century ago with Yuri Gagarin’s first flight. Around two weeks before launch, Soyuz crews fly from Star City to Baikonur and take part in a traditional tree-planting ceremony ↑ The Soyuz launcher is rolled out on a special railway carriage about 48 hours before launch when the Sun rises in Kazakhstan. Luca and his crewmates do not see the roll-out and erection of the Soyuz rocket on the launch pad, because this is considered bad luck. Personnel and visitors can put coins on the rails that transport the launcher as a good luck charm ↑ In the last days, the crew get haircuts, watch the popular Russian movie ‘White Sun of the Desert’ and, on launch day, sip a glass of champagne as well as sign the doors of their rooms at the Cosmonaut Hotel
  32. 32. Emergency exit! A Soyuz space capsule ferried the first crew to the International Space Station in November 2000. Since that time, one Soyuz for each group of three astronauts has always been at the Station to serve as a safe house and lifeboat should they have to return to Earth unexpectedly. Although the Space Station is the most heavily-shielded spacecraft ever, even a piece of space debris the size of a grain of sand could cause serious damage and threaten the crew’s lives. When a piece of space debris is on a trajectory towards the Space Station, astronauts can shelter in their Soyuz spacecraft. If an object hits the Station, the astronauts would be safe in their capsules ready to return to Earth if necessary. → The Soyuz final approach and docking to the Space Station is a critical phase of the mission. At a range of 8 km the ‘Soyuz TV’ is activated for monitoring. Docking port alignment becomes crucial in the last 200 metres Soyuz spacecraft Luca Parmitano flies on Soyuz TMA-09M, amodernisedversionofRussia’slegendarymanned transport. It is informally known as the digital Soyuz, referring to its new and advanced flight- control computer and the new-generation devices that make it easier for the crew to manoeuvre. 1 Service module Contains oxygen and propellant tanks, attitude- control thrusters, electronics for communication and the primary guidance and navigation control systems. Astronauts have no access to this module and all functions are controlled remotely. 2 Descent module The only module to return to Earth and designed to resist the aerodynamic stress of reentry into our atmosphere. 3 Orbital module Used only in space and acts as living quarters, with hygiene and sleeping facilities. 1 2 3 ESA–I.Baroncini ESA/NASA
  33. 33. 33 Undocking and reentry After living and working on the Space Station for nearly 170 days, Luca will return to Earth in the Soyuz capsule with his crewmates. Closing the Soyuz hatch will signal the end of his Volare mission, and the astronauts will land on Earth less than four hours later. Less then three hours after undocking, when Soyuz is at a distance of 19 km from the Space Station, the spacecraft’s engines fire for about four minutes. This so-called deorbit burn brakes the spacecraft and decreases its orbit. Shortly afterwards, at an altitude of 140 km and less than 30 minutes before landing, the Soyuz spacecraft separates into three parts. The orbital and service modules burn up on reentry in the denser layers of Earth’s atmosphere.The remaining descent module rotates and places the heat shield towards the direction of travel, so that it can absorb most of the heat caused by friction. Reentry occurs at an altitude of approximately 100 km, when the speed at which the capsule travels is reduced dramatically and the crew is pushed back into their seats by a force of up to 5g, equivalent to five times their own body weight. Landing and rescue Parachutes and the Soyuz shock-absorbing seats soften the landing and in addition retro-rockets fire just before touchdown 80 cm from the ground. The descent module usually touches down on Earth at about 5 km/h. After touchdown, the crew deploy a communication antenna, so that rescue teams can pinpoint their location. The Soyuz descent module is not reusable and is discarded after every reentry. As a pilot I have been subjected to many g-forces, but a return to Earth on the Soyuz is different − the acceleration will strike our chests. I am very curious to know how it will feel like. Luca Parmitano ESA/NASANASA–B.IngallsNASA ↑ The way back to Earth. The separation of Soyuz modules takes place on reentry into the atmosphere, at around 140 km altitude. The orbital and service modules disintegrate and burn up ↑ Three hours after leaving the Station, a system of parachutes is deployed in precise sequence. The reentry capsule enters a stable descent at a speed of around 7 m/s ↑ Once rescued from the landing site, Luca will be taken directly back to Houston from Baikonur for rehabilitation and post-flight data collection. Luca will be the third European astronaut to follow this procedure
  34. 34. 34 → TRAFFIC AT THE STATION Visiting vehicles ESA/NASA ATV Edoardo Amaldi approaches the International Space Station in 2012
  35. 35. Cargo ferries are vital to keep the International Space Station and its permanent crew of six working at full capacity. During the Volare mission, Luca will greet all the unmanned spacecraft that supply the Space Station. Since the American Space Shuttle no longer visits the International Space Station there is more demand on other ferries for cargo and last-minute equipment requests. Propellant needed for the attitude control system of the Station, spare parts, new payloads and equipment for microgravity research are on the shipping list. The cramped Soyuz spacecraft has little room for extra deliveries, so crews on the Space Station rely on unmanned cargo vehicles. ESA’s Automated Transfer Vehicle has the largest cargo capacity of all visiting space ferries. The most complex spacecraft ever built in Europe can deliver nearly seven tonnes of cargo, including food, water, various gases as well as research and maintenance equipment. ATV Albert Einstein will be already attached to the Space Station when Luca arrives. During the Volare mission, two Russian Progress spacecraft, traditionally used as the resupply vehicle for the Station, and the fourth  Japanese  Transfer Vehicle (HTV-4) will dock with the Station. Luca will take part in welcoming the first Cygnus resupply vehicle from Orbital Sciences Corporation as well as the third arrival of Dragon, a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX. Both missions are part of NASA’s commercial resupply service programme. This traffic around the Station means a busy agenda of robotic operations for Station crew. Luca’s duties on the orbital outpost include participating in the docking and cargo operations. Capturing vehicles with robotic arms is one of the most critical tasks of his mission. In quick succession Luca will have to capture the free-flying vehicles with large robotic arms and move them into place to attach them to the Station. 35
  36. 36. 36 ATV-4 Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ES Launch site: Kourou, French Guiana Duration of stay: 6 months Progress 52P Launch vehicle: Soyuz FG Launch site: Baikonur Kazakhstan Duration of stay: 6 months ATV: a record-breaker • Heaviest spacecraft ever launched by ESA • Heaviest spacecraft launched on an Ariane rocket • Can carry in total about three times the payload of the Russian and Japanese cargo spacecraft • Most powerful reboost capability of any spacecraft visiting the Station • Can dock automatically with the Station with a precision of better than 6 cm • Most sophisticated flight software ever developed by ESA ATV, the largest space freighter Named after Albert Einstein, the fourth Automated Transfer Vehicle plays a vital role in Station logistics: it serves as cargo carrier, storage facility and space tug. Similar to its predecessors, the objectives of this mission are to deliver 6.6 tonnes of cargo plus support the Station’s orbit for six months. This reliable spacecraft carries more dry cargo than any ATV to date – 2700 kg – including scientific equipment, spare parts, food and clothes for the astronauts. It also delivers gas and more than 500 litres of drinking water that is pumped into the Station’s tanks. ATV can reboost the Space Station: its propulsion system is used to raise the Station to a higher orbit, counteracting atmospheric drag that slowly causes the Station to lose attitude. It can also be used to avoid collisions with space debris. ATV provides attitude control when other spacecraft approach the Station. The Station’s needs change with every mission, and there are always last-minute requests of all kinds. ATV Albert Einstein will feature a newly developed lift – the so called Late Cargo Access Means – to load large and heavy bags during the last weeks prior to launch. After about six months, ATV Albert Einstein will undock from the Station filled with a few tonnes of waste water and unneeded materials and equipment. Its last journey will be a controlled and destructive reentry into Earth’s atmosphere. May JuneApril2013 July Timeline
  37. 37. 37 HTV-4 Launch vehicle: H-IIB Launch site: Tanegashima, Japan Duration of stay: 1 month Dragon 3 Launch vehicle: Falcon 9 Launch site: Florida, USA Duration of stay: 1 month Cygnus 1 Launch vehicle: Antares Launch site: Virginia, USA Duration of stay: 1 month Progress 53P Launch vehicle: Soyuz FG Launch site: Baikonur, Kazakhstan Duration of stay: 6 months HTV The fourth Japanese cargo ship Kounotori, also known as  HTV, carries around 5 tonnes of supplies, science gear and spare parts to the International Space Station. Unlike Russia’s unmanned Progress supply ship and Europe’s ATV, the spacecraft can carry both pressurised and unpressurised cargo. Progress Progress is the longest-serving unmanned cargo spacecraft – it has been carrying fuel and other supplies to all space stations since 1978. Three to four Progress flights go to the Space Station each year carrying over 2 tonnes of supplies each. It is about the same size and shape as a Soyuz and uses the same docking ports. Dragon In May 2012, SpaceX made history when its Dragon spacecraft became the first commercial vehicle to be attached to the International Space Station. The capsule can transport 3.3 tonnes of pressurised cargo. Of all the unmanned vehicles currently visiting the Space Station Dragon is the only ferry that can return to Earth with equipment and scientific samples. Cygnus Cygnus will be the fifth unmanned spacecraft in the history of spaceflight to resupply the Station. Following a demonstration flight earlier in 2012, this Orbital Sciences Corporation mission will deliver around two tonnes of cargo. It has a berthing mechanism similar to the Japanese HTV and the other American vehicle, SpaceX’s Dragon. September NovemberAugust October (Status as of February 2013)
  38. 38. 38 M.Cockerham
  39. 39. 39 → SPACE FOR EDUCATION Inspiring the next generation Luca Parmitano will bring a universe of educational activities down to Earth. From primary school pupils to university students, the astronaut will encourage the study of science, technology, engineering and maths among the next generation of scientists. The focus will be on space robotics. Videos, competitions and live in- flight calls to the Station are part of his didactic journey for Volare. Volare Space Robotics competition Can students manufacture a robot capable of assisting Luca in the International Space Station? Students are challenged to build a robot that fetches items from one module and takes them to another module in a Station mockup. The competition requires schools and pupils to contact ESA experts to develop their projects and to demonstrate their robots in action. Mission-X: space training back to school Mission-X fever is spreading across the planet. Future space explorers will get on their marks and invade gyms to train like astronauts for the 2013 Mission-X challenge. Luca will give schoolchildren tips on having a fit and healthy lifestyle. In the summer, Luca will answer questions from Mission-X participants around the world. ARISS: science on a radio wave Space technology is not all high-tech. Radios operated by amateur enthusiasts can be used to communicate with the International Space Station. Luca will talk to Italian children using handheld-radios over ARISS, the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station. University lectures Aseriesoflecturesonspaceroboticswillbemadeavailable via YouTube and iTunes to students of engineering and related degrees. Educational talks given by prominent university professors will cover robotics topics not only on the Space Station, but also on interplanetary missions. Space in Bytes Europe’s Automated Transfer Vehicle, NASA’s Robonaut and the robotic arms working on the Station are some of the stars of Space-in-bytes, a series of short videos presented by Luca. Rover missions on Mars and telecommunications will also be covered by these movies. ↑ Students built vehicles powered by the spring of a mousetrap ↑ Students can ask questions to ESA astronauts while they are in space ESA–N.Vicente ParquedelasC.C.deGranada
  40. 40. 40 An ESA Human Spaceflight and Operations production Copyright © 2013 European Space Agency CONTACT eSA/eStec Communication office +31 71 565 3009