ATV Johannes Kepler Information Kit


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Detailed information on the mission of ATV-2, ESA's second Automated Transfer Vehicle, Johannes Kepler, and its flight to the ISS.

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ATV Johannes Kepler Information Kit

  1. 1. → INFORMATION KIT ATV Johannes Kepler European Space Agency
  2. 2. human spaceflight → INFORMATION KIT ATV JOHANNES KEPLER 1. Second round for the European space freighter 3 2. The post-Shuttle era 4 3. What makes Johannes Kepler different? 4 4. Key data 5 5. A look at the spacecraft 6 6. Express delivery service 8 7. A space vessel to the ISS 9 8. A matter of propulsion 10 9. More room for the ISS 11 10. Ground support 12 11. Getting better thanks to Jules Verne 13 12. Encounter with the atmosphere 14 13. The future 15 14. Media assistance 16Cover image: ATV-2 will dock to theInternational Space Station usinglaser guidance. ATV technical design. >
  3. 3. European Space AgencySEcONd ROuNd FOR ThE EuROpEAN SpAcE FREIGhTERFlying far above Earth, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) has the characteristic lookof a dragonfly with metallic wings. The European spacecraft starts its second voyage tothe International Space Station (ISS) loaded with 7 tonnes of cargo, ready not only tosupply the astronauts with food, oxygen and more experimental equipment, but also tohelp in adjusting the Space Station’s orbit.Europe’s most challenging spacecraft to date takes thestage to play a vital role in resupplying the Station. NamedJohannes Kepler after the German astronomer andmathematician, ATV-2 serves as a cargo carrier, storagefacility and as a ‘tug’ vehicle. For a hundred days, theengines of the European vessel can perform ISS attitudecontrol, regular orbital reboosts and enable occasionalmanoeuvres to avoid collisions with space debris.For the first time, an ESA astronaut will be onboard theInternational Space Station during an ATV mission. Paolo Nespoli will welcome Johannes Kepler as the prime astronaut to monitor the docking, a role that shouldn’t give him too much work: with its own flight control and propulsion ATV Johannes Kepler’s front end, with docking probe and Integrated Cargo Carrier section, being readied for flight systems, Europe’s most complex at Europe’s Spaceport at Kourou, French Guiana spacecraft has a high level of autonomy allowing it to navigate on its own and Thanks to ATV-2, Europe is contributing in kind controlling its automatic towards its share of the operational costs of the ISS rendezvous capability. and becomes a truly autonomous space power, capable of handling more missions and exploration programmes beyond low orbit. The Automated Transfer Vehicle series is a pillar of ISS logistics and a new step for European space transportation.ATV allows flexibility in the mix of cargoes.This particular vehicle, ATV Johannes Kepler, will carry more than 5000 kgof propellant, 102 kg of oxygen and 1400 kg of dry cargo. 3 European Space Agency
  4. 4. human spaceflight ThE pOST-ShuTTlE ERA The concept of a space tug for moving astronauts and equipment to different Earth orbits has been envisaged for decades by different space agencies. So far, this role has been fulfilled by the American Space Shuttle and the Russian unmanned craft Progress-M. For three decades, the US Space Shuttle has been an enabler for international human spaceflight missions. Now that it is about to retire, ATV will become the largest-capacity supply vehicle available for the ISS. ATV is the only vehicle besides the Russian Progress providing refuelling, attitude control and reboost. All of this makes the arrival of the second ATV at the Station not only a highlight of Paolo Nespoli’s mission, but also of the year. By mid-2011, ATV’s engines will be used to raise the Station’s orbit in steps by a total of 40–50 km. A Shuttle launch. Before the new US commercial resupply service vehicles have taken up their operational services, timely ATV launches are key for the logistic supply of the ISS and for the international partnership. The US Space Shuttle will retire in 2011. WhAT MAKES JOHANNES KEPLER dIFFERENT? ATV Progress Apollo - It is the heaviest spacecraft ever launched by ESA - It has the largest reboost capability, and can carry around 5 tonnes more than the Russian Progress-M, and about one and a half tonnes more than the Japanese HTV. - It can provide water, three types of gas (oxygen, nitrogen or air), refuelling propellant, dry cargo and ISS attitude control and reboost during a single mission. - It is a multifunctional spaceship, combining the fully automatic capabilities of an unmanned vehicle with Comparison of the ATV, human spacecraft safety requirements Progress and Apollo spacecraft.Information Kit ATV Johannes Kepler
  5. 5. European Space Agency ATV-2KEY dATA Largest diameter 4.5 mLaunching site Kourou, French Guiana Length (probe retracted) 9.8 mLaunch date 15 February 2011, 22:06 GMT (23:06 CET) Vehicle mass (with fluids loaded) 20.010 kg (Central European time*)Launch window 15-19 February Deployed solar array 22.3 mLauncher Ariane 5 ES ATV Ariane 5Docking 23 February Height Up to 53 mUndocking 4 June 2011 Diameter Up to 5.4 mMission duration 109 days Liftoff mass 760 tonnes* As of 24 January 2011. Payload mass Up to 20.05 tonnes 4. How ATV is housed under the Ariane 5 fairing. 5. 3. 1. Lift-off from Europe’s Spaceport at Kourou, French Guiana 2. Ascent 6. 3. Separation of solid-propellant boosters 4. Fairing jettison 5. Ignition of Ariane 5 upper stage to achieve orbit 6. Phasing, a set of orbital manoeuvres designed to take ATV 7. from its injection point to a parking orbit, 2000 km ahead of the ISS 7. Rendezvous and docking 8. Attached phase 9. Separation and reentry 8. 10. Burns up in atmosphere 2. 1. 10. 9. 5 European Space Agency
  6. 6. human spaceflight A lOOK AT ThE SpAcEcRAFT • It consists of two sections: - Propulsion Module. It has 4 main engines and 20 smaller thrusters for attitude control. - Integrated Cargo Carrier, which attaches directly to the ISS and can hold up to eight standard payload racks. • Four solar wings provide electrical power to rechargeable batteries for eclipse periods. ATV can fully operate with the 4800 W generated by its solar wings, equivalent to the electricity used by a typical water heater at home.Information Kit ATV Johannes Kepler
  7. 7. European Space Agency The ‘nose’ contains the rendezvous sensors and Russian docking equipment. It also has eight thrusters to complement the propulsion system.7 European Space Agency
  8. 8. human spaceflight ExpRESS dElIVERY SERVIcE The International Space Station has been permanently inhabited since 2000 and it relies on logistic vehicles like ATV to upload all kinds of cargo, as well as propellants to maintain the orbit. ATV is designed to allow flexibility in the fluid and dry For the first time, a cargo access device for last-minute items will be used (cutaway view). cargo mix and this particular vehicle will carry more than seven tonnes of propellant, oxygen and dry goods. The GeoFlow II experiment container is also being delivered by Johannes Kepler. This experiment will observe for the first time liquid movements in microgravity as accurately as possible, and compare them with computer simulations in order to garner clues about Earth’s mantle convection. All the cargo, including food, spare parts, tools, clothing, hygiene articles, computers and other items, is packed into special bags with barcodes that make it easy for crew to unload and also facilitates the planners on the ground to keep track of the various items on the ISS. Several upgrades, such as lighter cargo racks with in 2008 with 4.5 tonnes of cargo to the Station. The more volume, permit Johannes Kepler provide better ATV average cargo mass will be even higher from now uplift capacity than Jules Verne, the first ATV launched on. ATV Johannes Kepler For the first time, ESA will use a special access device gears up for space to load last-minute cargo items. For Johannes Kepler, journey at Europe’s 28 bags with a combined weight of around 430 kg will Spaceport in Kourou. be loaded via the ISS hatch with ATV in the vertical position on top of its Ariane 5 launcher. This late access gives NASA greater flexibility in adapting the cargo to reflect ISS needs and confirms ATV’s role as a critical resupply vehicle for the Space Station. Fluid Cargo Loading 5486 ISS Propulsive Support 4535 Gas (Oxygen) 100 Refuel Propellant 851 Dry Cargo Loading 1170 Late Load Cargo 429 TOTAL CARGO 7085 kgInformation Kit ATV Johannes Kepler
  9. 9. European Space AgencyA SpAcE VESSEl TO ThE ISSWhen ATV-2 departs from Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, it will be theheaviest load ever lofted into space by the Ariane 5 rocket, making the 200th flight ofthis European launcher even more spectacular. The launch window will be open forfour days to meet the busy ISS schedule. Location on the ISS.Johannes Kepler separates from the rocket 70 minutes During the last 250 m, theafter lift-off into a 260 km circular orbit at the same ATV’s state-of-the-art auto-inclination as the International Space Station. Whereas matic rendezvous systemthe first ATV in 2008 performed a series of demonstrations employs a videometer’s eye-on its way to the ISS, ATV-2 will head directly to its like sensors which analysedestination. images of a laser beam. Despite its mass of about 20 tonnes, the ferry can manoeuvre itself to within a fewATV will navigate, fly and dock to the Station automatically, centimetres. After calculating the distance and directionbut it will be monitored and commanded from the ATV to the docking port on the Russian Zvezda module, ATV-2Control Centre (ATV-CC) in Toulouse, France. docks with the International Space Station with a precision of around 8 cm. In total, the rendezvous lasts roughlySailing on its own three and a half hours.After launch, a high-precision navigation system guidesJohannes Kepler on a rendezvous trajectory towards the Docking is fully automatic. If there are any last-minuteSpace Station. While a startracker identifies different problems, either ATV’s computers, ATV-CC or the Spaceconstellations in the sky to calculate the spacecraft’s Station crew can stop the approach and send the vehicleorientation in space, a GPS receiver gives positional away in a safe manner. In the worst-case scenario, it isinformation as the ATV navigates towards the Station possible to trigger a programmed sequence of anti-from a distance of 30 km to 250 m. Together, they are the collision manoeuvres, fully independent of the mainmodern equivalent of centuries-old navigation navigation system.techniques. ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli will stand by ready toATV-2 will need almost eight days to get to a hold point interrupt the approach if necessary. The ISS has no windowsome 30 km behind the ISS. Johannes Kepler can pick up facing the ATV approach path, but he can observe it via aGPS data sent by the Station and use them, together with camera mounted on the aft end of Zvezda.the data from its own GPS receivers, to compute atrajectory with respect to the ISS. Once the hooks are closed and ATV’s docking probe is retracted, it is the turn of the electrical and fluidFrom this point ATV will perform guidance, navigation and connections. And as soon as all interfaces are established,control, piloting itself to the ISS according to the the crew can open the hatch and enter the pressurisedpredefined plan, gradually closing with the Station whilst part of the ATV.both vehicles orbit Earth at around 28 000 km/hr. 9 European Space Agency
  10. 10. human spaceflight A MATTER OF pROpulSION The scale of ATV, together with the complexity of manoeuvres, results in a propulsion subsystem that is one of the largest and most sophisticated ever built. Of all the vessels that deliver cargo to the ISS, ATV can 2. Raising the Station’s orbit by about 40 km in send the largest quantity of fuel. ATV Johannes Kepler is order to reduce the remaining atmospheric indeed focused on delivering propellant: its main payload drag the ISS is exposed to. is more than 5 tonnes of fuel in different forms to restock 3. If necessary, ATV will also perform ISS debris the Station’s reserves. avoidance manoeuvres. Johannes Kepler carries four types of propellant for • Delivery of Russian refuelling propellants (860 kg) different purposes. which will be transferred after docking into the tanks of the Zarya module. This allows the Station to • The ATV propulsion system will use more than perform its own attitude control and reboost when 4 tonnes to fulfil three functions: there is no visiting vehicle. 1. Attitude control. This capability saves critical attitude control propellant for the the ISS. The Station’s orbit suffers a natural decay of 50– 100 m each day. ATV Johannes Kepler will be used to raise the altitude of the ISS.Information Kit ATV Johannes Kepler
  11. 11. European Space AgencyMORE ROOM FOR ThE ISSThe European spacecraft is not only a supply ferry. Each ATV is a vital means for ISShousekeeping, scientific research and astronaut well-being. When the maiden flighttook place in 2008 with Jules Verne, crewmembers were impressed by the space andthe relative quiet compared to the rest of the ISS.Expedition 16 and 17 crewmembers inside Jules Verne, the first Automated Transfer Vehicle. From left to right, Garrett Reisman, Peggy Whitson,Yuri Malenchenko, Sergei Volkov and Oleg Kononenko.Once ATV-2 is securely attached to the orbital complex, The gas system is very simple. Manual valves on theastronauts dressed in their normal clothing can enter gas control panel allow astronauts to release thethe cargo section and begin removing the payload desired quantity of oxygen directly into the Station’sitems. Among them, the astronauts will find atmosphere.maintenance supplies, science hardware, parcels offood and family mail. Johannes Kepler is also equipped with three water tanks, with a total capacity of 840 kg. Currently thereInside, Johannes Kepler is configured to carry storage is enough water on the Station, so ATV-2 will not carrytanks for refuelling propellant for the Station’s own any water up. However, the tanks can be used to storepropulsion system, and oxygen for the ISS. Russian ‘technical water’ (for instance, supplementary feed,controllers can pilot the ATV thrusters in a seamless circulation or cooling water) during the attachedmanner. The refuelling system is connected to the phase and it is also possible to load the tanks withSpace Station’s own propellant system to replenish liquid waste before departure.the Russian tanks. 11 European Space Agency
  12. 12. human spaceflight GROuNd SuppORT The challenge of operating ATV is not just technical. The ATV Control Centre (ATV-CC) in Toulouse, France, has been busy preparing and simulating the operational scenarios over the last several months. This centre, located in the facilities of the French space agency, CNES, works closely with the Guiana Space Centre, in charge of launch and deployment of the ATV. For rendezvous, docking and departure, ATV-CC is in constant communication with the mission control centres in Moscow and Houston. During the highly active phases of an ATV flight – from launch to docking, and from departure to reentry – a dedicated 60-person team works together to control all procedures. Among their critical tasks, they are responsible for the orbital approach and automatic rendezvous with the ISS. The ATV Control Centre (ATV-CC) at the CNES premises in Toulouse. During the attached phase, fewer operators are needed, Johannes Kepler was developed and is built under ESA but the control centre is manned 24 hours a day and contract by a European industrial consortium led by support is provided during all attached operations. The EADS Astrium. The project includes the cooperation of ATV project involves dozens of companies and Russian companies, which have built the docking thousands of technicians and engineers across Europe, mechanism, the refuelling system and the associated and represents a highly skilled workforce that is a great electronics. A number of US companies are also asset to the European aerospace industry. involved. Bremen, Equipped Propulsion Bay, EADS Astrium Korolev, Russian Mission Toulouse, ATV Control Centre Houston, NASA Mission Control Centre Control Center Turin, Integrated Cargo Carrier, Thales Alenia Space Italy Kourou, Launch siteInformation Kit ATV Johannes Kepler
  13. 13. European Space AgencyGETTING bETTER ThANKS TO JuLES VERNEThe maiden flight of ATV Jules Verne in 2008 marked the first rendezvous and dockingby a European spacecraft, and the first European resupply mission to the InternationalSpace Station. Since then, continuous improvements have been made.Following that first mission, the post-flight analysis Unpacking the pressurised cargo carrier of ATV at Europe’scame up with 130 technical recommendations and Spaceport in Kourou.about 30 of them were taken up and incorporated intothe design of Johannes Kepler.Included in these changes was the redesign of theinternal rack stowage, now adapted to allow mostly‘soft’ bags to be installed and not only hard-mounteditems. The pressure regulator and the insulation of thewhole ATV surface were also redesigned, while theflight application software was improved to alloweasier operations from the ATV Control Centre.A number of other modifications were also made inorder to simplify the operations of the vehicle. Lessonslearned led to several upgrades and design changesthat permit ATV-2 to ferry a full load of propellant –around 5 tonnes – to the ISS. Thanks to that first ATVreview, Johannes Kepler is the most complex spacevehicle ever developed in Europe. Jules Verne ATV following undocking from the International Space Station. 13 European Space Agency
  14. 14. human spaceflight ENcOuNTER WITh ThE ATMOSphERE Johannes Kepler remains as a pressurised part of the orbital complex for three and a half months. The ATV can be attached for up to six months and the actual stay depends on the needs of the ISS and its schedule of visiting spacecrafts. During those hundred days of the Johannes Kepler attached phase the crew gradually removes all the cargo and replaces it with unwanted material – liquid and dry waste – to clear the limited space in the Station. Once the cargo is offloaded and part of the propellant has been spent, the vehicle can be loaded with rubbish and start its return flight, thereby freeing the docking port for another vehicle. With the resupply mission completed by the beginning of June, the crew seals the hatch and the spacecraft undocks from the ISS by ground command. ATV-2’s last journey will be a controlled and destructive reentry into Earth’s atmosphere. Its engines deorbit the spacecraft on a steep flight path that causes it to ATV burning up in Earth’s atmosphere at the end of its mission. break up and burn high harmlessly over an uninhabited area of the southern Pacific Ocean. A lAST TRANSMISSION FROM ThE FuTuRE SpAcE ‘blAcK bOx‘ Johannes Kepler will perform a last task before its disintegration in the atmosphere. A small device will share ATV’s trip: the Reentry Breakup Recorder (REBR) will gather data to help engineers understand reentry breakup and make reentering space junk less hazardous. It might also be a prototype for a black box system for future space transportation systems. As ATV-2 enters the atmosphere, the system will turn on its suite of sensors to record data on the vehicle’s breakup for about five minutes. Built by The Aerospace Corporation and funded by the US Air Force, this device contains miniature sensors that will collect information about temperature, pressure and other data to help define how ATV-2 responds as it reenters. The sensors and data recorder are enclosed in a heatshield that provides protection from the severe reentry environment. The ATV-2 breakup due to aerodynamic heating and forces will cause REBR – a ‘cell phone with a heatshield’ – to be jettisoned from Johannes Kepler. This will cause REBR to activate its own transmitter and uplink the recorded data to an Iridium satellite. With this last ‘phone home’ before impact in the Pacific Ocean, the future space black box could be born.Information Kit ATV Johannes Kepler
  15. 15. European Space AgencyThE FuTuREATV’s path doesn’t end here. The third in the row has already a name, Edoardo Amaldi,in honour of the Italian physicist and space pioneer. The planned launch cadence of oneATV per year over the next four years will be the next challenge after ATV-2.The European space vessel is designed to be flexible.Cargo will vary from flight to flight depending on ISSneeds. This flexibility makes it an excellent basis fordeveloping a wide variety of new space vehicles,starting with atmospheric reentry and download fromthe ISS.ATV could evolve into an unmanned free-flyinglaboratory able to dock periodically with the ISS andbe used as a safe haven for the entire crew in case of for carrying people, making it a fully-fledged crewemergency. Automatic missions could also serve for transport vehicle. This spacecraft could be used inspace debris mitigation or in-orbit servicing of other support of future orbital infrastructures andspacecraft. exploration missions.The future of the European vessel includes the Further into the future, ATVs could be developed intopossibility of flying people in it. ATV is the basis of the a transfer vehicle for carrying tonnes of supplies andproposed Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV): the equipment, including space telescopes and planetarypressurised cabin could be transformed into a capsule spacecraft, to lunar and martian orbits. ESA’s Advanced Reentry Vehicle approaching the ISS. 15 European Space Agency
  16. 16. human spaceflight European Space AgencyMEdIA ASSISTANcEESA CONTACTS USEFUL LINKSEuropean Space Agency (ESA) ESA Human SpaceflightDirectorate of Human Spaceflight Programme OfficeESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands ATV MinisiteTel: +31 71 565 3009 YouTube ESA ChannelESA Media Relations Head Office, Paris, FranceTel: +33 1 5369 7299media@esa.intCREDITSThis document has been compiled, produced andwritten by the Coordination Office of the EuropeanSpace Agency’s Directorate of Human Spaceflight inNoordwijk, The Netherlands. Photo credits: ESA, NASA