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  1. 1. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS)
  2. 2. GRASS: Geographic Resources Analysis Support System Scope: Learn the use of Free Software GIS PART I: Introduction to GRASS and QGIS PART II: Practical examples © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA
  3. 3. GRASS: Geographic Resources Analysis Support System Free Software GIS (“software libero”): GRASS master Web site is in Italy: Portable: Versions for GNU/Linux, MS-Windows, Mac OSX, SUN, etc Programming: Programmer's Manual on Web site (PDF, HTML), generated weekly. Code is documented in source code files (doxygen) Sample data © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Mailing lists in various languages Commercial support
  4. 4. GRASS GIS Brief Introduction Developed since 1984, always Open Source, since 1999 under GNU GPL Written in C programming language, portable code (multi-OS, 32/64bit) International development team, since 2001 coordinated at ITC-irst GRASS master Web site: MS-Windows MacOSX GNU/Linux © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA iPAQ
  5. 5. What's GRASS GIS? Raster and 2D/3D topological vector GIS ● Voxel support (raster 3D volumes) ● Vector network analysis support ● Image processing system ● Visualization system ● From DXF DBMS integrated (SQL) ● with dbf, PostgreSQL, MySQL and sqlite drivers In GRASS 6.1 translations © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA ● of the user interface to 16 languages ongoing Interoperability: supports ● all relevant raster and vector formats
  6. 6. Spatial Data Types Supported Spatial Data Types 2D Raster data incl. image processing 3D Voxel data for volumetric data 2D/3D Vector data with topology Multidimensional points data Voxel © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Orthophoto Distances Vector TIN 3D Vector buildings
  7. 7. Raster data model Raster geometry cell matrix with coordinates resolution: cell width / height (can be in kilometers, meters, degree etc.) © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA y resolution x resolution
  8. 8. Vector data model Vector geometry types Point Centroid Node Line Vertex Boundary t t en en Area (boundary + centroid) m Se m eg eg not in all GIS! gm face (3D area) S S ent [kernel (3D centroid)] Line Vertex [volumes (faces + kernel)] Node Geometry is true 3D: x, y, z Vertex Bou nda ry © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Vertex Vertex Centroid Node Area Vertex Faces
  9. 9. How to use GRASS GIS? © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA GRASS startup screen
  10. 10. © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA
  11. 11. © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA
  12. 12. © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA
  13. 13. GRASS GIS Interoperability Data models and formats Raster Vector CAD WebGIS GeoTIFF DGN DXF Web Map Service (WMS) Erdas IMG ESRI-SHAPE DWG Web Coverage Service (WCS) MrSID GML ... Web Feature Service (WFS) ECW Spatial SQL Web Map Context Documents (WMC) JPEG2000 ... ... GDAL OGR openDWG Mapserver © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA GRASS PROJ.4
  14. 14. Command structure GRASS Command Overview prefix function type of command example class d.* display graphical output d.rast: views raster map d.vect: views vector map db.* database database selects value(s) from management table g.* general general file g.rename: renames map operations i.* imagery image processing i.smap: image classifier ps.* postscript map creation in map creation Postscript format © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA r.* raster raster data r.buffer: buffer around raster processing features r.mapcalc: map algebra r3.* voxel raster voxel data r3.mapcalc: volume map algebra processing v.* vector vector data v.overlay: vector map intersections processing
  15. 15. Some things you should know about GRASS Import of data: GRASS always import the complete map ● Export of data: ● Vector maps: always the entire map is exported (cut before if needed) ● Raster maps: r.out.gdal always exports entire map at original resolution ● r.out.tiff (etc.) export at current region and resolution What's a region in GRASS? The default region is the standard settings of a GRASS location which is ● essentially independent from any map A region is the current working area (user selected resolution and coordinate ● boundaries) All vector calculations are done at full vector map ● All raster calculations are done at current resolution/region. To do calculations ● © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA at original raster map resolution/region, the easiest way is to use 'g.region' first to set current region to map GRASS Mapset (see next slides) “northeast” GRASS Mapset “sardegna” GRASS Location “italy”
  16. 16. Spearfish Sample Dataset Spearfish (SD) sample data location Spearfish SD © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Maps: raster, vector and point data ● covering two 1:24000 topographic ● maps (quadrangles Spearfish and Deadwood North) UTM zone 13N, transverse mercator projection, Clarke66 ellipsoid, ● NAD27 datum, metric units, boundary coordinates: ● DATA download: 4928000N, 4914000S, 590000W, 609000E
  17. 17. Practical GIS Usage Start a “terminal” to enter commands Start GRASS 6 within the terminal: grass61 ­help grass61 ­gui 1. © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA 2. 3.
  18. 18. Info: Command line versus graphical user interface On the next slide we either use the following command line: # set current region to landcover map, '-p' prints the settings: g.region rast=landcover.30m -p or these settings in the graphical user interface: © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA
  19. 19. GRASS: Geographic Resources Analysis Support System Location and Mapset: “GRASS speech” Database: contains all GRASS data Each GRASS project is organized in a „Location“ directory with subsequent „Mapset(s)“ subdirectories: Location: contains all spatial/attribute data of a geographically defined • region (= project area) Mapset(s): used to subdivide data organization e.g. by user names, • subregions or access rights (workgroups) PERMANENT: The PERMANENT mapset is a standard mapset which • © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA contains the definitions of a location. May also contain general cartography as it is visible to all users Multi-User support: multiple users can work in a single location using different mapsets. Access rights can be managed per user. No user can modify/delete data of other users.
  20. 20. GRASS: Geographic Resources Analysis Support System Example for Location and Mapsets GRASS Database Location Mapset Geometry and attribute data cats /prov_trentino /trento cell /silvia cellhd cell_misc /europa colr fcell /home/user/grassdata /hannover /city hist /world coor streets dbln parks hist © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA vector sidx lakes topo poi streets.dbf parks.dbf dbf lakes.dbf poi.dbf
  21. 21. GRASS: User map Who is using GRASS? AMTI/NASA Ames Research Center USA Austrian Institute for Avalanche and Torrent Research Bank of America Bombardier Aerospace Canada Brenner Railway Austria BR-NetProduction (Bavarian Television) Germany Canadian Forest Service CEA Monte Bondone Census USA CERN Switzerland CICESE Mexico CNR Italia Colorado State University Comune di Prato, Italy Comune Milano, Italy Comune Modena, Italy Comune di Torino, Italy Cornell University USA CSIRO Australia Landesmuseum Linz Austria Deutsche Bank Germany Purdue University La Poste France DLR Germany Qualcomm USA Lawrence Laboratories USA Dubai Municipality Regione Toscana Lockheed Martin Space USA DuPont Spain © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Rutgers University Los Alamos National Laboratory EDF France Sevilla University Spain Meteo Poland Ericsson Sweden South African Weather Bureau (METSYS) MIT Lincoln Laboratory ETH Zuerich Switzerland Stockholm Environment Institute-Boston Nanjing University FED USA Teledetection France National Botanic Garden of Belgium Finnish Meteorological Institute Telefónica Spain National Museum Japan Forschungszentrum Juelich Germany TU Berlin National Radio Astronomy Observatory USA Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany TU Muenchen National Research Center of Soils USA GFZ Potsdam Germany UC Davis NCSA Illinois USA Global Environmental Technology Nigeria Limited UFRGS Brasilia NCSU USA Graz Technical University Austria University of Costa Rica NIMA USA Harvard University University of Sydney NOAA USA (GLOBE DEM generated with GRASS) Hokkaido University University of Toronto Canada NRSA USA HPCC NECTEC Bangkok Thailand University of Trento, Italy Onera France (running SPOT etc.) Iceland Forest Service Iceland US Army Politecnico di Milano Inst.of Earthquake Engineering & Seismology (ITSAK) Greece US Bureau of Reclamation Politecnico di Torino ISMAA - Centro Agrometeorologico, Istituto Agrario San Michele US Dep. of Agriculture Princeton University JPL NASA VA Linux Systems USA Procergs Brasilia JSC NASA
  22. 22. New OSGeo Foundation: Proposed founding projects GRASS GIS © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Founded 4th February 2006, Chicago
  23. 23. Capacity building Communities growing together... GRASS/FOSS4G Free Software for Geoinformatics GRASS/FOSS4G, Bangkok 2004 Mapserver Free GIS/Mapserver conference MUM3 – OSG'05, Minneapolis, 2005 EOGEO © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Joint Meeting 9/2006, Lausanne, CH GRASS/MUM/EOGEO/JAVA GDAL/OGR => FOSS4G2006 Conference
  24. 24. Capacity building Communities growing together... (General) statistical computing environment: PostgreSQL Rgeo: spatial data analysis in R, unified Most advanced open source relational database classes and interfaces (e.g, RGRASS) GRASS GIS Spatial Computing GDAL - Geospatial Data Abstraction © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA Library PostGIS: support for QGIS: user friendly geographic objects to the Open Source GIS PostgreSQL object-relational database Spatially-enabled Internet applications ... AND MANY OTHERS!
  25. 25. License of this document This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.­sa/2.5/deed.en “GIS seminar: The GRASS GIS software”, © 2006 Markus Neteler, Italy License details: Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 You are free: - to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work, - to make derivative works, © Markus Neteler 2006 ­ CC­BY­SA - to make commercial use of the work, under the following conditions: Attribution. You must give the original author credit. Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Your fair use and other rights are in no way affected by the above.