MFHEO-original

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The original version of the Minnesota Forest History, Ecology, and Opportunity presentation. This has evolved into the presentation now called From Glaciers to Global Climate Change: Minnesota's past, present, and future forests.

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  • MFHEO-original

    1. 1. The History, Ecology, and Management of Central Minnesota’s Forests Eli Sagor Regional Extension Educator University of Minnesota [email_address] Woodland Owners and Users Conference 2003
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Glacial history </li></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types and natural disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>How to maintain desired forest types on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Glacial history <ul><li>Four major glaciation periods in last two million years </li></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin glaciation began 75,000 y.a. </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted tens of thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>Covered almost all of Minnesota </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.9 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Glacial impacts on landscape <ul><li>Moraine topography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting glacier deposits rock, sand, debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandria and Itasca moraines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deposit the stuff that will become soil </li></ul>
    6. 6. Post-glacial landscape <ul><li>Barren, cold, rocky landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial till: unsorted sand and rock </li></ul><ul><li>No animals or plants </li></ul>
    7. 7. Outline <ul><li>Glacial history </li></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types and natural disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>How to maintain desired forest types on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Soils <ul><li>Start with sandy, rocky unsorted glacial till </li></ul><ul><li>Soil formation factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate (freezing, heat, precipitation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic matter inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical weathering </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. What is soil? <ul><li>Clay, silt, and sand (glacial) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Living organisms (!) </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral nutrients </li></ul>
    10. 10. Minnesota’s common soil types <ul><li>Northeast / Coniferous: Inceptisols </li></ul><ul><li>Central / Deciduous: Alfisols </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast / Prairie: Mollisols </li></ul>
    11. 11. Northeast / Coniferous <ul><li>Inceptisol: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, moist climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients quickly wash away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower productivity </li></ul></ul>Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.22
    12. 12. Central / Deciduous <ul><li>Alfisol: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer, moist climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper organic layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower percolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients more available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More productive </li></ul></ul>Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.22
    13. 13. Southeast / Prairie <ul><li>Mollisol: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer, drier climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEEP organic layer (up to 40 inches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients abundant and available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very productive </li></ul></ul>Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.22
    14. 14. Outline <ul><li>Glacial history </li></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types and natural disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>How to maintain desired forest types on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.6
    16. 16. Minnesota’s 3 biomes <ul><li>Northeast: Coniferous </li></ul><ul><li>Central: Deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast: Prairie </li></ul>Source: MN DNR
    17. 17. Upland Deciduous Forests Photo by Firth Photo-Bank, Mpls
    18. 18. Deciduous: Aspen-Birch <ul><li>Early successional / pioneer </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around in areas with frequent, high-intensity disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds travel far, seeking openings </li></ul>
    19. 19. Deciduous: Aspen-Birch <ul><li>Early successional / pioneer </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around in areas with frequent, high-intensity disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds travel far, seeking openings </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: severe fire or wind </li></ul>
    20. 20. Deciduous: Oaks <ul><li>Intermediate type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul>
    21. 21. Deciduous: Oaks <ul><li>Intermediate type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: Fire </li></ul>
    22. 22. Deciduous: Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Climax type, shade tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, rich sites (alfisols) </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around in areas where intense disturbance is rare </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuate through small gaps </li></ul>
    23. 23. Deciduous: Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: small gaps from windthrow or tree death </li></ul><ul><li>Small gap disturbance every 40-150 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic disturbance 400-1000 yrs </li></ul>MN DNR, in press
    24. 24. Deciduous: Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Yellow birch, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, moist northern MN sites (cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Alfisols </li></ul>
    25. 25. Deciduous: Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Birches, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Often found on richer, moister, northern MN sites </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: small gaps, windthrow </li></ul>
    26. 26. Deciduous: Prairie transition / savanna <ul><li>Dry, open stands with trees AND prairie </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent fire </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse types: shrublands, bur oak, … </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: Frequent fire </li></ul>
    27. 27. Upland Coniferous Forests Photo by Blacklock Nature Photography, from Tester 1995
    28. 28. Upland Coniferous Forests <ul><li>Cold, shorter growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Coarser, less productive soil </li></ul><ul><li>Keep needles for nutrients and short growing season </li></ul>
    29. 29. Coniferous: Aspen-birch <ul><li>WHAT??? Not conifers, but often found with conifer stands </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer type, often first to colonize after serious fire </li></ul>
    30. 30. Coniferous: Aspen-birch <ul><li>NOT conifers, but a common type in Northeast Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer type, often first to colonize after serious fire </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: large fire or extensive windthrow </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to white-red pine or fir-spruce, depending on site </li></ul>
    31. 31. Coniferous: White & red pine <ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate, transitional type </li></ul><ul><li>Likes Inceptisols </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type: 100 – 250 years </li></ul>
    32. 32. Coniferous: White & red pine <ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate, transitional type </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type: 100 – 250 years </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: Severe fire / extensive windthrow </li></ul>
    33. 34. Coniferous: Fir-spruce <ul><li>Balsam fir, white spruce, birch, black spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist on many soil types but not driest </li></ul><ul><li>Late successional, climax type </li></ul>
    34. 35. Coniferous: Fir-spruce <ul><li>Balsam fir, white spruce, birch, black spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Late successional, climax type </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: small or larger gaps from windthrow, insects, or tree death </li></ul>
    35. 36. Coniferous: Black spruce <ul><li>Found on wet, low areas </li></ul><ul><li>Not much competition… </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant boreal forest type </li></ul>
    36. 37. Coniferous: Black spruce <ul><li>Found on wet, low areas </li></ul><ul><li>Not much competition… </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant boreal forest type </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: fire </li></ul>
    37. 38. Outline <ul><li>Glacial history </li></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types and natural disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>How to maintain desired forest types on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    38. 39. Forest Management 101 <ul><li>Grow the right species for the site </li></ul><ul><li>Know and mimic natural disturbance regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a professional forester </li></ul>
    39. 40. Source : Tom McEvoy, 2000. Introduction to Forest Ecology and Silviculture . Second Edition. Copyright Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES).
    40. 41. Deciduous: Aspen-Birch <ul><li>Early successional / pioneer </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around in areas with frequent, high-intensity disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds travel far, seeking openings </li></ul>
    41. 42. Source : Tom McEvoy, 2000. Introduction to Forest Ecology and Silviculture . Second Edition. Copyright Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES).
    42. 43. Deciduous: Oaks <ul><li>Intermediate type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul>
    43. 44. Source : Tom McEvoy, 2000. Introduction to Forest Ecology and Silviculture . Second Edition. Copyright Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES).
    44. 45. Deciduous: Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Yellow birch, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Often found on richer, moister, northern MN sites </li></ul>
    45. 46. Source: D.M. Smith et al, 1997
    46. 48. Coniferous: White & red pine <ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate, transitional type </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type: 100 – 250 years </li></ul>
    47. 49. Source : Tom McEvoy, 2000. Introduction to Forest Ecology and Silviculture . Second Edition. Copyright Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES).
    48. 52. For more information: <ul><li>Minnesota’s Natural Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Book by John R. Tester </li></ul><ul><li>University of Minnesota Press, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Woodland Advisor Program </li></ul><ul><li>Sessions offered throughout the state in ’03 and ’04 </li></ul><ul><li>Details: Conference exhibit or </li></ul><ul><li>www.cnr.umn.edu/cfc/wa </li></ul>
    49. 53. For more information: <ul><li>Minnesota’s Natural Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Book by John R. Tester </li></ul><ul><li>University of Minnesota Press, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Field Guide to the Native Plant Communities of Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>(developed for professional foresters) </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet available, in press </li></ul>

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