Applied Forest Ecology: An Introduction to Silviculture Eli Sagor [email_address]
<ul><li>Thanks to </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Gilmore, UMN College  </li></ul><ul><li>of Natural Resources </li></ul>
Outline <ul><li>What is “silviculture?” </li></ul><ul><li>Values of the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Forest structure </li></u...
Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health ...
Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of  controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health...
Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health ...
Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The  art and science  of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and healt...
Purpose of Silviculture <ul><li>To create and maintain the kind of forest that will best fulfill the objectives of the own...
Limits of Silviculture <ul><li>Working  with  the forces of nature:  sailing analogy </li></ul>
Values we derive from forests <ul><li>Common forest products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber, game wildlife, recreation... <...
Values we derive from forests <ul><li>Common forest products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber, game wildlife, recreation... </...
Values we derive from forests <ul><li>Non-market values: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological, habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Forest Structure
Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>DOMINANT  – trees with crowns extending above the main canopy—receiving direct sunlight...
Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>INTERMEDIATE  – shorter trees with crowns  extending into the main canopy—receiving dir...
 
 
Age classes and cohorts <ul><li>EVEN-AGED:   the difference in age between the youngest and oldest trees does not exceed 2...
(Ontario Extension image)
The toolbox
The toolbox <ul><li>Clearcut harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>“ Selective” or partial harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed ...
Silvicultural System Components <ul><li>Age classes (cohorts) </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration method  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Silviculture  ≠  Harvesting <ul><li>A silvicultural system applies to the  whole rotation . </li></ul><ul><li>A harvesting...
Silvicultural Systems <ul><li>Clearcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Seed tree </li></ul><ul><li>Shelterwood </li></ul><ul><li>Gro...
Clearcutting Method <ul><li>Clear all vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the site </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees (general...
(Wisconsin DNR image)
(Ontario Extension image)
 
 
Seed Tree Method <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest all but a few large trees per acre of desired...
Seed tree: Before (Wisconsin DNR image)
Seed Tree: After (Wisconsin DNR image)
 
Shelterwood Method <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Partial harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New seedlings...
Shelterwood: mature hardwood stand before any treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
Shelterwood: After first cut (Wisconsin DNR image)
Shelterwood: After first cut, 5 years later (Wisconsin DNR image)
Shelterwood: After overstory removal (Wisconsin DNR image)
(Ontario Extension image)
 
 
Group Selection <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove small groups of trees to create patches of rege...
 
Selection System <ul><li>Start with mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove single trees or small groups </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Single tree selection: Before (Wisconsin DNR image)
Single tree selection: After (Wisconsin DNR image)
(Ontario Extension image)
 
High-Grading <ul><li>Treatment occurs when landowner is strapped for cash  </li></ul><ul><li>Best trees removed, worst lef...
Highgrade: Before any treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
Highgrade: After treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
High-Grading <ul><li>Treatment occurs when landowner is strapped for cash  </li></ul><ul><li>Best trees removed, worst lef...
Intermediate Treatments <ul><li>Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-commer...
 
 
Thinning (red pine) (Wisconsin DNR image)
More on Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) <ul><li>When choosing trees to cut, pay attention to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree fo...
How to get it done <ul><li>Long view </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a professional forester </li></ul><ul><li>May need to inv...
 
Prescriptions <ul><li>Inventory:  What do you have to work with? </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Available ...
Review <ul><li>Art and science: be creative! </li></ul><ul><li>Desired future condition? </li></ul><ul><li>Work WITH natur...
<ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Sagor </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(651) 624-6948 </li></ul>
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Growing and Tending Your Forest: An introduction to silviculture

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Standard version of the Woodland Advisor "Growing and Tending Your Forest" presentation for a woodland owner audience. Last updated 2005.

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Growing and Tending Your Forest: An introduction to silviculture

  1. 1. Applied Forest Ecology: An Introduction to Silviculture Eli Sagor [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>Thanks to </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Gilmore, UMN College </li></ul><ul><li>of Natural Resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>What is “silviculture?” </li></ul><ul><li>Values of the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Forest structure </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. </li></ul><ul><li>(J. Helms 1998) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. </li></ul><ul><li>(J. Helms 1998) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. </li></ul><ul><li>(J. Helms 1998) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definitions of Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. </li></ul><ul><li>(J. Helms 1998) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose of Silviculture <ul><li>To create and maintain the kind of forest that will best fulfill the objectives of the owner and governing society. </li></ul><ul><li>(DM Smith et al. 1997) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Limits of Silviculture <ul><li>Working with the forces of nature: sailing analogy </li></ul>
  10. 10. Values we derive from forests <ul><li>Common forest products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber, game wildlife, recreation... </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Values we derive from forests <ul><li>Common forest products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber, game wildlife, recreation... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialty forest products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berries & nuts, birch bark, balsam boughs... </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Values we derive from forests <ul><li>Non-market values: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological, habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual, existence values </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Forest Structure
  14. 14. Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>DOMINANT – trees with crowns extending above the main canopy—receiving direct sunlight from above and partly from the sides </li></ul><ul><li>CODOMINANT – trees with crowns forming the general level of the crown cover—receiving direct sunlight from above but little from the sides </li></ul>
  15. 15. Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>INTERMEDIATE – shorter trees with crowns extending into the main canopy—receiving direct sunlight from above but not from the sides </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPRESSED – trees with crowns entirely below the main canopy—receiving no direct light from above or from the sides </li></ul>
  16. 18. Age classes and cohorts <ul><li>EVEN-AGED: the difference in age between the youngest and oldest trees does not exceed 20% of the total rotation age. </li></ul><ul><li>TWO-AGED: stands contain two distinct age classes. </li></ul><ul><li>UNEVEN-AGED: stands contain at least three distinct age classes. </li></ul>
  17. 19. (Ontario Extension image)
  18. 20. The toolbox
  19. 21. The toolbox <ul><li>Clearcut harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>“ Selective” or partial harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed burning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to control understory competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to prepare a cleared site for planting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to favor natural regeneration of desired species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce fuel loads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planting of desired species and/or genetically improved stock </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting stands from damage from wildlife (deer!) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning at various times in the rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve log quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce disease effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spraying herbicides or pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting to reduce insect threats </li></ul><ul><li>Salvage cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression </li></ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul>
  20. 22. Silvicultural System Components <ul><li>Age classes (cohorts) </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural (from seed or sprout) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial (planted) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Species composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pure or mixed </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Silviculture ≠ Harvesting <ul><li>A silvicultural system applies to the whole rotation . </li></ul><ul><li>A harvesting system applies only to the harvest . </li></ul>
  22. 24. Silvicultural Systems <ul><li>Clearcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Seed tree </li></ul><ul><li>Shelterwood </li></ul><ul><li>Group selection </li></ul><ul><li>Single-tree selection </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate treatments </li></ul>
  23. 25. Clearcutting Method <ul><li>Clear all vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the site </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Spray herbicide to control competition </li></ul><ul><li>Thin (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Clearcut, and start over </li></ul>
  24. 26. (Wisconsin DNR image)
  25. 27. (Ontario Extension image)
  26. 30. Seed Tree Method <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest all but a few large trees per acre of desired species to drop seed </li></ul><ul><li>Retain or remove seed trees </li></ul><ul><li>Thin, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest </li></ul>
  27. 31. Seed tree: Before (Wisconsin DNR image)
  28. 32. Seed Tree: After (Wisconsin DNR image)
  29. 34. Shelterwood Method <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Partial harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New seedlings are established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove canopy, “release the advance regeneration” </li></ul>
  30. 35. Shelterwood: mature hardwood stand before any treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
  31. 36. Shelterwood: After first cut (Wisconsin DNR image)
  32. 37. Shelterwood: After first cut, 5 years later (Wisconsin DNR image)
  33. 38. Shelterwood: After overstory removal (Wisconsin DNR image)
  34. 39. (Ontario Extension image)
  35. 42. Group Selection <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove small groups of trees to create patches of regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat periodically in different areas </li></ul>
  36. 44. Selection System <ul><li>Start with mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove single trees or small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat as needed </li></ul>
  37. 45. Single tree selection: Before (Wisconsin DNR image)
  38. 46. Single tree selection: After (Wisconsin DNR image)
  39. 47. (Ontario Extension image)
  40. 49. High-Grading <ul><li>Treatment occurs when landowner is strapped for cash </li></ul><ul><li>Best trees removed, worst left, with little consideration for regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Future of the stand? </li></ul>
  41. 50. Highgrade: Before any treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
  42. 51. Highgrade: After treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
  43. 52. High-Grading <ul><li>Treatment occurs when landowner is strapped for cash </li></ul><ul><li>Best trees removed, worst left, with little consideration for regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Future of the stand? </li></ul><ul><li>Is high-grading a silvicultural system? </li></ul>
  44. 53. Intermediate Treatments <ul><li>Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salvage cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation cutting </li></ul>
  45. 56. Thinning (red pine) (Wisconsin DNR image)
  46. 57. More on Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) <ul><li>When choosing trees to cut, pay attention to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired future condition of stand </li></ul></ul>
  47. 58. How to get it done <ul><li>Long view </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a professional forester </li></ul><ul><li>May need to invest </li></ul><ul><li>Ask around! </li></ul>
  48. 60. Prescriptions <ul><li>Inventory: What do you have to work with? </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Available options? </li></ul>
  49. 61. Review <ul><li>Art and science: be creative! </li></ul><ul><li>Desired future condition? </li></ul><ul><li>Work WITH nature </li></ul><ul><li>Many different options </li></ul>
  50. 62. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Sagor </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(651) 624-6948 </li></ul>

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