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William Shakespeare Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature
Shakespeare <ul><li>1563-1616 </li></ul><ul><li>Stratford-on-Avon, England </li></ul><ul><li>wrote 37 plays </li></ul><ul>...
Stage Celebrity <ul><li>Actor  for Lord Chamberlain’s Men (London theater co.) </li></ul><ul><li>Also > principal  playwri...
Shakespeare wrote: <ul><li>Comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Histories </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedies </li></ul>
Romeo and Juliet <ul><li>Written about 1595 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>West Side Story  (Mov...
The Theater <ul><li>Plays produced for the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Roofless>open air </li></ul><ul><li>No artific...
Spectators <ul><li>Wealthy got benches </li></ul><ul><li>“ Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard...
Staging Areas <ul><li>Stage>platform that extended into the pit </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing & storage rooms in galleries be...
Differences <ul><li>No scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Settings > references in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate costumes </...
Actors <ul><li>Only men and boys </li></ul><ul><li>Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s roles </li></ul><u...
Elizabethan (QE1) Words <ul><li>An,and:  If </li></ul><ul><li>Anon:  Soon </li></ul><ul><li>Aye:   Yes </li></ul><ul><li>B...
QE1 Words (contin.) <ul><li>Haply: Perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>Happy: Fortunate </li></ul><ul><li>Hence: Away, from her </li...
QE1 Words (contin.) <ul><li>Whence: Where </li></ul><ul><li>Wilt: Will, will you </li></ul><ul><li>Withal: In addition to ...
Blank Verse <ul><li>Much of R & J is written in it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unrhymed verse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iambic...
Prose <ul><li>Ordinary writing that is not poetry, drama, or song </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only characters in the lower socia...
Plot <ul><li>The sequence of events in a literary work </li></ul>
Exposition <ul><li>The plot usually begins with this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduces>>>> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Inciting Moment <ul><li>Often called “initial incident” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the first bit of action that occurs which be...
Conflict <ul><li>The struggle that develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>man vs. man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>man vs. himself <...
Crisis <ul><li>The point where the protagonist’s situation will either get better or worse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protagoni...
Climax <ul><li>The turning point of the story>everything begins to unravel from here  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus begins th...
Resolution <ul><li>The end of the central conflict </li></ul>
Denouement <ul><li>The final explanation or outcome of the plot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If this is included in literature, i...
Tragedy (Shakespearean) <ul><li>Drama where the central character/s suffer disaster/great misfortune </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Theme <ul><li>Central idea  or >> </li></ul><ul><li>Insight about life which explain the downfall </li></ul>
Metaphorical Language <ul><li>Comparison of  unlike  things > </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris standing over the “lifeless body...
Dramatic Foil <ul><li>A character whose purpose is to show off another character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benvolio for Tybalt...
Round characters <ul><li>Characters  who have many personality traits, like real people. </li></ul>
Flat Characters <ul><li>One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shakespeare often uses them t...
Static Characters <ul><li>Characters within a story who remain the same.  They do not change.  They do not change their mi...
Dynamic Character <ul><li>Characters that  change  somehow during the course of the plot.  They generally change for the b...
Monologue <ul><li>One person speaking on stage > may be other character on stage too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex >  the Princ...
Soliloquy <ul><li>Long speech expressing the  thoughts  of a character alone on stage.  In R & J, Romeo gives a soliloquy ...
Aside <ul><li>Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters </li></ul>
Pun <ul><li>Shakespeare loved to use them!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humorous use of a word with two meanings > sometimes mi...
Direct Address <ul><li>Words that tell the reader who is being addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A right fair mark, fair coz,...
Dramatic Irony <ul><li>A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true </li>...
Verbal Irony <ul><li>Words  used to suggest the opposite of what is meant </li></ul>
Situational Irony <ul><li>An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the...
Comic Relief <ul><li>Use of comedy within literature that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness.  ...
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shakespeare

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shakespeare

  1. 1. William Shakespeare Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature
  2. 2. Shakespeare <ul><li>1563-1616 </li></ul><ul><li>Stratford-on-Avon, England </li></ul><ul><li>wrote 37 plays </li></ul><ul><li>about 154 sonnets </li></ul><ul><li>started out as an actor </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stage Celebrity <ul><li>Actor for Lord Chamberlain’s Men (London theater co.) </li></ul><ul><li>Also > principal playwright for them </li></ul><ul><li>1599> Lord Ch. Co. built Globe Theater where most of Sh. Play’s were performed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Shakespeare wrote: <ul><li>Comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Histories </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Romeo and Juliet <ul><li>Written about 1595 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>West Side Story (Movie) based on R&J </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Theater <ul><li>Plays produced for the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Roofless>open air </li></ul><ul><li>No artificial lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Courtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spectators <ul><li>Wealthy got benches </li></ul><ul><li>“ Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”) </li></ul><ul><li>All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Much more interaction than today </li></ul>
  8. 8. Staging Areas <ul><li>Stage>platform that extended into the pit </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage </li></ul><ul><li>second-level gallery> upper stage> famous balcony scene in R & J </li></ul><ul><li>Trap door>ghosts </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heavens”> angelic beings </li></ul>
  9. 9. Differences <ul><li>No scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Settings > references in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate costumes </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of props </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-paced, colorful>2 hours! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Actors <ul><li>Only men and boys </li></ul><ul><li>Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s roles </li></ul><ul><li>Would have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage </li></ul>
  11. 11. Elizabethan (QE1) Words <ul><li>An,and: If </li></ul><ul><li>Anon: Soon </li></ul><ul><li>Aye: Yes </li></ul><ul><li>But: Except for </li></ul><ul><li>E’en: Even </li></ul><ul><li>E’er: Ever </li></ul>
  12. 12. QE1 Words (contin.) <ul><li>Haply: Perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>Happy: Fortunate </li></ul><ul><li>Hence: Away, from her </li></ul><ul><li>Hie: Hurry </li></ul><ul><li>Marry: Indeed </li></ul>
  13. 13. QE1 Words (contin.) <ul><li>Whence: Where </li></ul><ul><li>Wilt: Will, will you </li></ul><ul><li>Withal: In addition to </li></ul><ul><li>Would: Wish </li></ul>
  14. 14. Blank Verse <ul><li>Much of R & J is written in it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unrhymed verse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iambic (unstressed, stressed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pentameter( 5 “feet” to a line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ends up to be 10 syllable lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Prose <ul><li>Ordinary writing that is not poetry, drama, or song </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare’s plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you suppose that is? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Plot <ul><li>The sequence of events in a literary work </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exposition <ul><li>The plot usually begins with this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduces>>>> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic situation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Inciting Moment <ul><li>Often called “initial incident” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the first bit of action that occurs which begins the plot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet “lock eyes” at the party </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conflict <ul><li>The struggle that develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>man vs. man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>man vs. himself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>man vs. society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>man vs. nature </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Crisis <ul><li>The point where the protagonist’s situation will either get better or worse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protagonist>good guy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antagonist>bad guy </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Climax <ul><li>The turning point of the story>everything begins to unravel from here </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus begins the falling action </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Resolution <ul><li>The end of the central conflict </li></ul>
  23. 23. Denouement <ul><li>The final explanation or outcome of the plot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If this is included in literature, it will occur after the resolution. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Tragedy (Shakespearean) <ul><li>Drama where the central character/s suffer disaster/great misfortune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many tragedies, downfall results from> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Character flaw/Fatal flaw </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of the two </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Theme <ul><li>Central idea or >> </li></ul><ul><li>Insight about life which explain the downfall </li></ul>
  26. 26. Metaphorical Language <ul><li>Comparison of unlike things > </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris standing over the “lifeless body” of Juliet, “Sweet flower, with flowers thy bridal bed I strew…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Thou detestable maw…”Gorged with the dearest morsel of the earth…” Romeo </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Dramatic Foil <ul><li>A character whose purpose is to show off another character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benvolio for Tybalt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>look for others in R & J </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Round characters <ul><li>Characters who have many personality traits, like real people. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Flat Characters <ul><li>One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Static Characters <ul><li>Characters within a story who remain the same. They do not change. They do not change their minds, opinions or character. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Dynamic Character <ul><li>Characters that change somehow during the course of the plot. They generally change for the better. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Monologue <ul><li>One person speaking on stage > may be other character on stage too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex > the Prince of Verona commanding the Capulets and Montagues to cease feuding </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Soliloquy <ul><li>Long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage. In R & J, Romeo gives a soliloquy after the servant has fled and Paris has died. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Aside <ul><li>Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters </li></ul>
  35. 35. Pun <ul><li>Shakespeare loved to use them!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humorous use of a word with two meanings > sometimes missed by the reader because of Elizabethan language and sexual innuendo </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Direct Address <ul><li>Words that tell the reader who is being addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?” </li></ul>
  37. 37. Dramatic Irony <ul><li>A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true </li></ul>
  38. 38. Verbal Irony <ul><li>Words used to suggest the opposite of what is meant </li></ul>
  39. 39. Situational Irony <ul><li>An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience </li></ul>
  40. 40. Comic Relief <ul><li>Use of comedy within literature that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness. </li></ul><ul><li>In R & J, look for moments of comic relief that help “relieve” the tragedy of the situation </li></ul>

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