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Storage Area Network (SAN)
1
Outline
• Shared Storage Architecture
• Direct Access Storage (DAS)
– SCSI
– RAID
• Network Attached Storage (NAS)
• Stora...
The SNIA Model
• SNIA – Storage Networking Industry
Association
• SNIA is a framework that captures the
functional layers ...
File/record layerFile/record layer
Block layerBlock layer
Storage devices (disks, …)Storage devices (disks, …)
Database
(d...
The SNIA storage model
A layered view
5
Storage Trend and Demand
6
2010+
40G/100G SAN and LAN
Three Basic Forms of Network
Storage
• Direct access storage (DAS)
• Network attached storage (NAS)
• Storage area network...
Quick Overview
8
DAS NAS SAN
Storage Type sectors shared files blocks
Data
Transmission
IDE/SCSI
TCP/IP,
Ethernet
Fibre
Ch...
9
DAS NAS FC-SAN
FC
Switch
servers
storage
clients
Direct Access Storage (DAS)
10
SCSI Disk Array
UsedUsed
SCSISCSI
ChannelChannel
Large ServerLarge Server
EthernetEthernet
...
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
• From Shugart’s 1979 SASI implementation
• An I/O bus for peripheral device, such ...
SCSI Distribution Architecture
12
• SCSI is a client/server architecture.
• The client is called the initiator and issues ...
SCSI Client/Server Architecture
13
Client
(Host)
Server
(Storage Device)
SCSI Block I/O Operation
14
SCSI Transport Mechanism
15
SCSI Commands (Block, Stream, etc.)SCSI Commands (Block, Stream, etc.)
Parallel
SCSI Transport...
SCSI Parallel Interface
16
SCSI Domain
SCSI Service Delivery Subsystem
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
• A group of hard disks is called a disk array
• RAID combines a disk array in...
RAID Functions
• Striping
– Write consecutive logical byte/blocks on consecutive physical disks
• Mirroring
– Write the sa...
Disk Striping (example)
19
Example 1: 1 0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
disk 1: odd bits disk 2: even bits parity bits (even p...
RAID Types
• RAID 0
– Stripe with no parity (see next slide for figure)
• RAID 1
– Mirror two or more disks
• RAID 0+1 (or...
RAID 0 RAID 1
21
Disk MirrorDisk Striping (no redundancy)
RAID 0+1
(or 1+0)
22
RAID 3 RAID 5
23
Disk striping with Dedicated Parity Drive Disk striping with Distributed Parity Data
24
Striping (parity) data is duplicate.
Network Attached Storage (NAS)
• NAS is adedicated storage device, and it operates
in a client/server mode.
• NAS is conne...
26
SMB
NetBIOS
TCP
IP
802.3
27
NFS
TCP
IP
802.3
Network Attached Storage (NAS)
• Specialized storage device or group of storage devices providing
centralized fault-tolera...
Case Study
29
Product: MicroNet ProtinumNAS
Storage: 1TB and more
Price: < $1,000
Protocol: CIFS/SMB, RAID
Discussion
• Need: a lot more storage (hundreds of GB)
and a scalable solution (~2 TB) for home users
– USB (USB 2.0) to a...
Storage Area Network (SAN)
• A Storage Area Network (SAN) is a specialized,
dedicated high speed network joining servers a...
SAN Benefits
• Storage consolidation
• Data sharing
• Non-disruptive scalability for growth
• Improved backup and recovery...
NAS vs. SAN ?
• Traditionally:
– NAS is used for low-volume access to a large
amount of storage by many users
– SAN is the...
Fibre Channel
• Fiber Channel is well established in the open
systems environment as the underlining
architecture of the S...
FC Standard – ANSI T11
• T11 (technical committee) has been producing
interface standards for high-performance and mass
st...
FC Protocol Layers
36
IPI: Intelligent Peripheral Interface
HIPPI: High Performance Parallel Interface
SCSI
SBCCS: Single ...
FC Layers: 0 & 1
37
FC Layer 2
38
Port_ID Port_ID
FC Address
• FC node – a node has many ports
• FC port – the end point of a link (either
transmission or reception).
• Por...
FC Naming and Addressing
• Each node normally has one physical interface , known as
N_Port.
• Each node has an 8-byte node...
FC Port Naming
41
Fiber Channel
Switch
Fiber Channel
Switch
Fiber Channel
Stores
Fiber Channel
Host
N-Port F-Port E-Port E...
FC Layers – 3 & 4
42
(one)
SAN Topologies
• Fibre Channel based networks support three
types of topologies:
– Point-to-point
– Loop (arbitrated) – sh...
FC - Point-to-Point
• The point-to-point topology is the easiest Fibre
Channel configuration to implement, and it is also ...
Data Access over FC
45
SCSI
FC
Data
SCSI
FC
Data
Arbitrated Loop
• Shared Media Transport
– Similar in concept to shared Ethernet
• Not common for FC-based SAN
• Commonly ...
Arbitrated Loop (Daisy Chain)
47
Tx
Rx
Tx
Tx
Tx
Rx
Rx
Rx
FC – Arbitrated Loop (FC Hub)
48
RAID, SCSI, and Fibre Channel
49
RAIDController
SCSI Disks
RAIDController
Fibre Channel
Loop
Switched FC SAN
• Fibre Channel-switches function in a manner
similar to traditional network switches to
provide increased...
FC – Switched SAN
51
Fiber Channel
Switch
Fiber Channel
Stores
Servers
Clients
Data Access over Switched SAN
52
Fiber Channel
Switch
Storage
DeviceServers
SCSI
FC
Data
SCSI
FC
Data
SCSI
FC
FC - Storage Area Network
(redundant architecture)
53
Fiber Channel
Switch
Fiber Channel
Stores
Servers
Clients
Repeat Overview
54
DAS NAS SAN
Storage Type sectors shared files blocks
Data
Transmission
IDE/SCSI
TCP/IP,
Ethernet
Fibre
...
IP-based Storage Area Networks
55
Course Outline
– IP over FC (RFC 2625)
– IP-SAN
• iSCCI (RFC 3720)
– IP and FC-SAN Interworking
• FC Encapsulation (RFC 36...
RFC 2625 – IP and ARP
over Fiber Channel (FC)
• FC supports multiple higher layer protocols,
and SCSI is the most widely u...
IP over FC (RFC 2625)
App-1: accessing SAN from IP-based servers
58
SAN
Data
IP
L2
PHY
IP
L2
PHY
IP
RFC 2625
FC
IP
RFC 262...
IP over FC (RFC 2625)
(App-2: interworking between SAN and NAS)
59
SAN
Data
IP
L2
PHY
IP
L2
PHY
IP
RFC 2625
FC FC
IP
RFC 2...
IP-SAN
60
Advantages of IP for SAN
61
IP Network Capabilities
62
IP-SAN Protocols
63
IP - SAN
64
FC -SAN
IP
IP
Storage Devices
IP - Storage Area Network (SAN)
65
 IP storage networking – carrying storage traffic over IP
 Uses TCP, a reliable trans...
Internet SCSI (iSCSI)
• iSCSI is a proposed industry standard that allows SCSI block
I/O protocols (commands, sequences, a...
iSCSI Benefit
67
Is IP-SAN similar to NAS?
What are the advantages, if
any, of IP-SAN vs. NAS?
68
SAN, NAS, and IP-SAN
69
FC -SAN
IP
IPIP
iSCSI
iSCSI
iSCSI
Performance Analysis: iSCSI vs. NAS
(software based – no HBA)
70
iSCSI NFS
Sequential Read/Write Tests
71
Conclusion:
1. Comparable performance in character read/write and block write
2. Significan...
Small Files Read/Write
72
IOGen Test (Emulation of Database)
73
FC-SAN vs. iSCSI
• Since the iSCSI appliance attaches to the existing Ethernet
network, NAS and iSCSI are very similar in ...
FC over IP
75
IP SAN
Data
SCSI
FC 0-2 FC 0-2
FCIP
TCP
IP
L2
PHY
IP
L2
PHY
TCP
IP
L2
PHY
FC 0-2
Data
SCSI
FC 0-2
FCP FCP
SA...
Storage Virtualization
76
FC -SAN IP
PHYSICAL LOGICAL
Virtualization
Logical storage Pool
(Direct Attached Storage)
RAID
J...
Storage Virtualization
• Definition: storage virtualization hides the
physical storage from applications on host
systems, ...
Virtualization Intelligence
• Host-Based: storage virtualization could be implemented on
the host through Logical Volume M...
Storage Virtualization
79
RAID JBOD
LVMLVM
RAID
SAN Switch
RAID JBODRAID
SAN Switch
w/ Virtualization
Intelligence
LUNLUN
SAN Challenges
• Standards
– ANSI T10 (SCSI) ANSI T11 (FC), IETF (IP-SAN), Ethernet
(IEEE 802.3), SNIA, etc.
• Interoperab...
Summary
• Needs for large storage – continual growth
– 109
(G) => 1012
(T) => 1015
(P) => 1018
(E) …….
• From dedicated so...
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San

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San

  1. 1. Storage Area Network (SAN) 1
  2. 2. Outline • Shared Storage Architecture • Direct Access Storage (DAS) – SCSI – RAID • Network Attached Storage (NAS) • Storage Area Network (SAN) – Fiber Channel and – Fiber Channel Switch 2
  3. 3. The SNIA Model • SNIA – Storage Networking Industry Association • SNIA is a framework that captures the functional layers and properties of a storage system • Trying to become an industry standard 3
  4. 4. File/record layerFile/record layer Block layerBlock layer Storage devices (disks, …)Storage devices (disks, …) Database (dbms) File system (FS) The SNIA shared storage model 4 Storagedomain Network Host Device Block aggregation Application
  5. 5. The SNIA storage model A layered view 5
  6. 6. Storage Trend and Demand 6 2010+ 40G/100G SAN and LAN
  7. 7. Three Basic Forms of Network Storage • Direct access storage (DAS) • Network attached storage (NAS) • Storage area network (SAN) • And a number of variations on each (especially the last two) 7
  8. 8. Quick Overview 8 DAS NAS SAN Storage Type sectors shared files blocks Data Transmission IDE/SCSI TCP/IP, Ethernet Fibre Channel Access Mode clients or servers clients or servers servers Capacity (bytes) 109 109 - 1012 1012 Complexity Easy Moderate Difficult Management Cost (perGB) High Moderate Low
  9. 9. 9 DAS NAS FC-SAN FC Switch servers storage clients
  10. 10. Direct Access Storage (DAS) 10 SCSI Disk Array UsedUsed SCSISCSI ChannelChannel Large ServerLarge Server EthernetEthernet NetworkNetwork clientsclients IDE Disk Array UsedUsed Small ServerSmall Server UsedUsed
  11. 11. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) • From Shugart’s 1979 SASI implementation • An I/O bus for peripheral device, such as hard drives, tape drives, CD-ROM, scanners, etc. – an improvement over IDE • A single SCSI bus connects multiple elements (max 7 or 15). • High speed data transfer: – 5, 10, 20, 100, 320MB/sec, … • Overlapping I/O capability: – Multiple read & write commands can be outstanding simultaneously – Different SCSI drives to be processing commands concurrently rather than serially. The data can then be buffered and transferred over the SCSI bus at very high speeds 11
  12. 12. SCSI Distribution Architecture 12 • SCSI is a client/server architecture. • The client is called the initiator and issues request to the server. The client is I/O subsystem under the typical OS control. • The “server” is called the target, which is the SCSI controller inside the storage device. It receives, process, and responds to the requests from the initiator. • SCSI commands support block I/O, transferring large amount of data in blocks. Client (Initiator) Storage Device (Target) request response
  13. 13. SCSI Client/Server Architecture 13 Client (Host) Server (Storage Device)
  14. 14. SCSI Block I/O Operation 14
  15. 15. SCSI Transport Mechanism 15 SCSI Commands (Block, Stream, etc.)SCSI Commands (Block, Stream, etc.) Parallel SCSI Transport Parallel SCSI Transport SCSI Applications (File Systems, Databases)SCSI Applications (File Systems, Databases) Parallel SCSI Interfaces Parallel SCSI Interfaces SCSI Device-Type Commands SCSI Generic Commands SCSI Transport Protocols Network Transport Physical interface Fibre ChannelFibre Channel EthernetEthernet IPIP TCPTCP SCSI Commands, Data, and StatusSCSI Commands, Data, and Status FCP SCSI over FC FCP SCSI over FC iSCSI SCSI over TCP/IP iSCSI SCSI over TCP/IP
  16. 16. SCSI Parallel Interface 16 SCSI Domain SCSI Service Delivery Subsystem
  17. 17. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) • A group of hard disks is called a disk array • RAID combines a disk array into a single virtual device – called RAID drive • Provide fault tolerance for shared data and applications • Different implementations: Level 0-5 • Characteristics: – Storage Capacity – Speed: Fast Read and/or Fast Write – Resilience in the face of device failure 17
  18. 18. RAID Functions • Striping – Write consecutive logical byte/blocks on consecutive physical disks • Mirroring – Write the same block on two or more physical disks • Parity Calculation – Given N disks, N-1 consecutive blocks are data blocks, Nth block is for parity – When any of the N-1 data blocks is altered, N-2 XOR calculations are performed on these N-1 blocks – The Data Block(s) and Parity Block are written – Destroy one of these N blocks, and that block can be reconstructed using N-2 XOR calculations on the remaining N-1 blocks – Destroy two or more blocks – reconstruction is not possible 18
  19. 19. Disk Striping (example) 19 Example 1: 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 disk 1: odd bits disk 2: even bits parity bits (even parity) Example 2: 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 3k+1 bits 3k+2 bits parity bits (odd parity) 1 1 3k bits
  20. 20. RAID Types • RAID 0 – Stripe with no parity (see next slide for figure) • RAID 1 – Mirror two or more disks • RAID 0+1 (or 1+0) – Stripe and Mirrors • RAID 3 – Synchronous, Subdivided Block Access; Dedicated Parity Drive • RAID 5 – Like RAID 4, but parity striped across multiple drives 20
  21. 21. RAID 0 RAID 1 21 Disk MirrorDisk Striping (no redundancy)
  22. 22. RAID 0+1 (or 1+0) 22
  23. 23. RAID 3 RAID 5 23 Disk striping with Dedicated Parity Drive Disk striping with Distributed Parity Data
  24. 24. 24 Striping (parity) data is duplicate.
  25. 25. Network Attached Storage (NAS) • NAS is adedicated storage device, and it operates in a client/server mode. • NAS is connected to the file server via LAN. • Protocol: NFS (or CIFS) over an IP Network – Network File System (NFS) – UNIX/Linux – Common Internet File System (CIFS) – Windows Remote file system (drives) mounted on the local system (drives) • evolved from Microsoft NetBIOS, NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT), and Server Message Block (SMB) – SAMBA: SMB on Linux (Making Linux a Windows File Server) • Advantage: no distance limitation • Disadvantage: Speed and Latency • Weakness: Security 25
  26. 26. 26 SMB NetBIOS TCP IP 802.3
  27. 27. 27 NFS TCP IP 802.3
  28. 28. Network Attached Storage (NAS) • Specialized storage device or group of storage devices providing centralized fault-tolerant data storage for a network 28 Clients Servers Storage Devices
  29. 29. Case Study 29 Product: MicroNet ProtinumNAS Storage: 1TB and more Price: < $1,000 Protocol: CIFS/SMB, RAID
  30. 30. Discussion • Need: a lot more storage (hundreds of GB) and a scalable solution (~2 TB) for home users – USB (USB 2.0) to a server, up to 480M bps – Firewire (IEEE 1394) to a server, up to 3.2G bps – SCSI to a server: up to 320MB (320×8 bps) – NAS: no need for a server 30 Q: What is your choice?
  31. 31. Storage Area Network (SAN) • A Storage Area Network (SAN) is a specialized, dedicated high speed network joining servers and storage, including disks, disk arrays, tapes, etc. • Storage (data store) is separated from the processors (and separated processing). • High capacity, high availability, high scalability, ease of configuration, ease of reconfiguration. • Fiber Channel is the de facto SAN networking architecture, although other network standards could be used. 31
  32. 32. SAN Benefits • Storage consolidation • Data sharing • Non-disruptive scalability for growth • Improved backup and recovery • Tape pooling • LAN-free and server-free data movement • High performance • High availability server clustering • Data integrity • Disaster tolerance • Ease of data migration • Cost-effectives (total cost of ownership) 32
  33. 33. NAS vs. SAN ? • Traditionally: – NAS is used for low-volume access to a large amount of storage by many users – SAN is the solution for terabytes (1012 ) of storage and multiple, simultaneous access to files, such as streaming audio/video. • The lines are becoming blurred between the two technologies now, and while the SAN- versus-NAS debate continues, the fact is that both technologies complement each another. 33
  34. 34. Fibre Channel • Fiber Channel is well established in the open systems environment as the underlining architecture of the SAN. • Fibre Channel is structured with independent layers, as are other networking protocols. There are five layers, where 0 is the lowest layer. The physical layers are 0 to 2. These layers carry the physical attributes of the network and transport the data created by the higher level protocols, such as SCSI, TCP/IP, or FICON. 34
  35. 35. FC Standard – ANSI T11 • T11 (technical committee) has been producing interface standards for high-performance and mass storage applications since the 1970’s. – http://www.t11.org/index.htm • Designed to transport multiple protocols, such as HIPPI, IPI, SCSI, IP, Ethernet, etc. • Full duplex medium • Channels are established between the originator and the responder. • Transfer rate from 100MB/s to Gigabits/s • Distance >10 km (single mode fiber) • Multi-layer stack functions (not mapped to the OSI model) 35
  36. 36. FC Protocol Layers 36 IPI: Intelligent Peripheral Interface HIPPI: High Performance Parallel Interface SCSI SBCCS: Single Byte Command Code Set Gbaud Gbaud
  37. 37. FC Layers: 0 & 1 37
  38. 38. FC Layer 2 38 Port_ID Port_ID
  39. 39. FC Address • FC node – a node has many ports • FC port – the end point of a link (either transmission or reception). • Port ID: a unique 24-bit address for a port • In Frame Header (see Slide-49), there are two fields: Source address (transmission port) and Destination address (reception port) 39
  40. 40. FC Naming and Addressing • Each node normally has one physical interface , known as N_Port. • Each node has an 8-byte node name. – Assigned by manufacturer – If registered with IEEE, it is known as World Wide Name. • N_Port ID: 24-bit port address • An N_Port has a point-to-point connection with another N_Port. • An N-Port may be attached to a fabric port, F_port. • Connection between fabric switches is via expansion ports, E_ports. • A switch port, if configured for either one, is a generic port, G_Port. 40
  41. 41. FC Port Naming 41 Fiber Channel Switch Fiber Channel Switch Fiber Channel Stores Fiber Channel Host N-Port F-Port E-Port E-Port F-Port N-Port Node port, fabric port, expansion port, generic port
  42. 42. FC Layers – 3 & 4 42 (one)
  43. 43. SAN Topologies • Fibre Channel based networks support three types of topologies: – Point-to-point – Loop (arbitrated) – shared media – Switched 43
  44. 44. FC - Point-to-Point • The point-to-point topology is the easiest Fibre Channel configuration to implement, and it is also the easiest to administer. • The distance between nodes can be up to 10 km 44
  45. 45. Data Access over FC 45 SCSI FC Data SCSI FC Data
  46. 46. Arbitrated Loop • Shared Media Transport – Similar in concept to shared Ethernet • Not common for FC-based SAN • Commonly used for JBOD (Just a Bunch of Disks) • An arbitration protocol determines who can access the media. – ARB primitive 46
  47. 47. Arbitrated Loop (Daisy Chain) 47 Tx Rx Tx Tx Tx Rx Rx Rx
  48. 48. FC – Arbitrated Loop (FC Hub) 48
  49. 49. RAID, SCSI, and Fibre Channel 49 RAIDController SCSI Disks RAIDController Fibre Channel Loop
  50. 50. Switched FC SAN • Fibre Channel-switches function in a manner similar to traditional network switches to provide increased bandwidth, scalable performance, an increased number of devices, and, in some cases, increased redundancy. Fibre Channel-switches vary in the number of ports and media types they support. • Multiple switches can be connected to form a switch fabric capable of supporting a large number of host servers and storage subsystems 50
  51. 51. FC – Switched SAN 51 Fiber Channel Switch Fiber Channel Stores Servers Clients
  52. 52. Data Access over Switched SAN 52 Fiber Channel Switch Storage DeviceServers SCSI FC Data SCSI FC Data SCSI FC
  53. 53. FC - Storage Area Network (redundant architecture) 53 Fiber Channel Switch Fiber Channel Stores Servers Clients
  54. 54. Repeat Overview 54 DAS NAS SAN Storage Type sectors shared files blocks Data Transmission IDE/SCSI TCP/IP, Ethernet Fibre Channel Access Mode clients or servers clients or servers servers Capacity (bytes) 109 109 - 1012 1012 Complexity Easy Moderate Difficult Management Cost (perGB) High Moderate Low
  55. 55. IP-based Storage Area Networks 55
  56. 56. Course Outline – IP over FC (RFC 2625) – IP-SAN • iSCCI (RFC 3720) – IP and FC-SAN Interworking • FC Encapsulation (RFC 3643) • FCIP (RFC 3821) – FC over IP • iFCP (RFC 4172) – Storage Virtualization 56
  57. 57. RFC 2625 – IP and ARP over Fiber Channel (FC) • FC supports multiple higher layer protocols, and SCSI is the most widely used one. • What about IP over FC? – Access data in SAN from IP-based servers – interworking between NAS and SAN • RFC 2625 addresses two issues. – A scheme to encapsulate IP and ARP packets inside the FC frame (as the FC payload) – A procedure to resolve the address mapping 57
  58. 58. IP over FC (RFC 2625) App-1: accessing SAN from IP-based servers 58 SAN Data IP L2 PHY IP L2 PHY IP RFC 2625 FC IP RFC 2625 FC Data SAN FC/IP Gateway FC-based Storage Device FC
  59. 59. IP over FC (RFC 2625) (App-2: interworking between SAN and NAS) 59 SAN Data IP L2 PHY IP L2 PHY IP RFC 2625 FC FC IP RFC 2625 FC L2 PHY IP Data IP L2 PHY SAN FC/IP Gateway FC/IP Gateway NAS-based Storage Device
  60. 60. IP-SAN 60
  61. 61. Advantages of IP for SAN 61
  62. 62. IP Network Capabilities 62
  63. 63. IP-SAN Protocols 63
  64. 64. IP - SAN 64 FC -SAN IP IP Storage Devices
  65. 65. IP - Storage Area Network (SAN) 65  IP storage networking – carrying storage traffic over IP  Uses TCP, a reliable transport for delivery  Can be used for local data center and long haul applications  Two primary IETF protocols/standards:  iSCSI – Internet SCSI – allows block storage to be accessed over a TCP/IP network as though it were locally attached  FCIP – Fibre-Channel-over-IP – used to tunnel Fibre Channel frames over TCP/IP connections IPIPIPIP TCPTCPTCPTCP iSCSIiSCSIiSCSIiSCSI SCSISCSISCSISCSI DataDataDataData IPIPIPIP TCPTCPTCPTCP FCIPFCIPFCIPFCIP FCFCFCFC SCSISCSISCSISCSI DataDataDataData
  66. 66. Internet SCSI (iSCSI) • iSCSI is a proposed industry standard that allows SCSI block I/O protocols (commands, sequences, and attributes) to be sent over a network using the popular TCP/IP protocol. • A way to access storage across an IP network as though it was locally attached. • Transports SCSI protocol commands and data across an IP network • Cisco and IBM co-authored original iSCSI protocol draft • iSCSI Protocol is a standard maintained by the IETF – IP Storage (IPS) Working Group – RFC 3720 66
  67. 67. iSCSI Benefit 67
  68. 68. Is IP-SAN similar to NAS? What are the advantages, if any, of IP-SAN vs. NAS? 68
  69. 69. SAN, NAS, and IP-SAN 69 FC -SAN IP IPIP iSCSI iSCSI iSCSI
  70. 70. Performance Analysis: iSCSI vs. NAS (software based – no HBA) 70 iSCSI NFS
  71. 71. Sequential Read/Write Tests 71 Conclusion: 1. Comparable performance in character read/write and block write 2. Significant advantage of iSCSI in block read (20-25%)
  72. 72. Small Files Read/Write 72
  73. 73. IOGen Test (Emulation of Database) 73
  74. 74. FC-SAN vs. iSCSI • Since the iSCSI appliance attaches to the existing Ethernet network, NAS and iSCSI are very similar in network architecture – However, the performance would be significantly different. • Both iSCSI and SAN use Block I/O to transport data, whereas NAS uses File I/O. • SAN offers better performance (c.f. NAS), but is more expensive and requires a higher skill set to implement. iSCSI and NAS offer better pricing and skills may already be in place to implement them. • Both SAN and iSCSI offer the performance benefit of Block I/O. 74
  75. 75. FC over IP 75 IP SAN Data SCSI FC 0-2 FC 0-2 FCIP TCP IP L2 PHY IP L2 PHY TCP IP L2 PHY FC 0-2 Data SCSI FC 0-2 FCP FCP SAN an IP tunnel for FC-based SAN Application: interconnect SAN over IP-WAN. FCIP
  76. 76. Storage Virtualization 76 FC -SAN IP PHYSICAL LOGICAL Virtualization Logical storage Pool (Direct Attached Storage) RAID JBOD
  77. 77. Storage Virtualization • Definition: storage virtualization hides the physical storage from applications on host systems, and presents a simplified (logical) view of storage resources to the applications. • Virtualization allows the application to reference the storage resource by its common name where the actual storage could be on a complex, multilayered, multipath storage networks. • RAID is an early example of storage virtualization. 77
  78. 78. Virtualization Intelligence • Host-Based: storage virtualization could be implemented on the host through Logical Volume Management (LVM) which provides the logical view of the storage to the host operating system. • Switch-based: intelligence of storage virtualization could be implemented on the SAN switches. Each server is assigned a Logical Unit Number (LUN) to access the storage resources. – Switch-based virtualization could be in dual configuration for high availability. – Pros: ease of configuration and management ; redundancy/high availability – Cons: potential bottleneck on the switch; higher cost 78
  79. 79. Storage Virtualization 79 RAID JBOD LVMLVM RAID SAN Switch RAID JBODRAID SAN Switch w/ Virtualization Intelligence LUNLUN
  80. 80. SAN Challenges • Standards – ANSI T10 (SCSI) ANSI T11 (FC), IETF (IP-SAN), Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), SNIA, etc. • Interoperability • High availability and data synchronization between remote locations • Convergence – DAS, NAS, FC-SAN => IP-SAN • Management • Security 80
  81. 81. Summary • Needs for large storage – continual growth – 109 (G) => 1012 (T) => 1015 (P) => 1018 (E) ……. • From dedicated solution to network-based solution – DAS => NAS => SAN => IP-SAN • Convergence of SAN and IP-LAN/WAN – It is an IP world! • SCSI is the protocol for block data transmission – SCSI over FC - legacy – SCSI over IP (iSCSI) • FC and IP interworking protocols – IP over FC – FC over IP (FCIP) and iFCP 81

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