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### Solutions power point

1. 1. Solutions,Acids and Bases, & Water<br />Mr. Denallo<br />
2. 2. What is a solution?<br />A solution is any mixture of two or more materials, where the solute and solvent are mixed homogenously.<br />
3. 3. Wait, what?<br />For a mixture to be considered a solution, the solute (what’s being dissolved) and the solvent (what’s doing the dissolving) must have a specific ratio throughout the mixture (homogenous)<br />
4. 4. Is it a solution?<br />Milk and cereal?<br />No, the cereal isn’t dissolved in the milk<br />Sea water?<br />Yes, the salt is dissolved by the water<br />Milk?<br />No, the different fats and proteins in milk are unaffected by the water in it <br />Air?<br />Yes, the air we breathe is an evenly mixed combination of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, and Water Vapor<br />
5. 5. Tips and Tricks<br />Almost every mixture you can see through is a solution. Even if the mixture is colored (like lemonade) if light can pass through it, it’s a solution.<br />Any material you cannot see through (like milk) is a mixture, as the light is scattering off of the materials suspended in the mixture. <br />Any mixture of gasses is ALWAYS a solution.<br />
6. 6. Like dissolves like<br />A substance can only be dissolved into another substance if they share a similar polarity. Non-polar substances can only be dissolved by other non-polar substances, and polar substances can only be dissolved by polar substances. <br />
7. 7. Polarity<br />A compound’s polarity is determined by how evenly the electrons are distributed in the molecule.<br />If a molecule is symmetrical around the central atom, then it is non-polar<br />If a molecule is asymmetrical around the central atom, then it is polar. <br />
8. 8. Polarity (cont’d)<br />Polar<br />Non-Polar<br />
9. 9. Water: Love It or Hate It<br />Some compounds are very easily dissolved in water, and are known to be hydrophilic. <br />“hydro”= water, “philia”= love<br />Others won’t dissolve in water at all. These are known to be hydrophobic.<br />“hydro”= water, “phobos”= fear<br />
10. 10. Hydrophilaphobia-wha?<br />Some compounds, like soap or cell membranes, have parts that are hydrophilic (likes the water) and parts that are hydrophobic (repels the water). <br />
11. 11. Universal Solvents<br />Some solvents are known as “universal” because they can dissolve a wide variety of materials. <br />For example, water can dissolve sugar, salt, honey, vinegar, soap, food coloring, chocolate syrup, and oxygen (among tons of other things)<br />No solvent can be truly universal, however, because no solvent can dissolve every single solute <br />
12. 12. Acids and Bases<br />In water, the pull of the oxygen atom on the hydrogen atom is so strong that it can actually draw one from another water molecule (dissociation). <br />When this occurs, you end up with two molecules: H+ and OH-<br />Pure water has these two ions in equal concentrations. <br />
13. 13. Acids<br />When a water molecule is broken apart, the H+ ion usually pairs up with another water molecule to form H3O+, known as a hydronium ion. <br />When the number of hydronium ions in a solution outnumbers OH- ions, the solution is said to be acidic<br />
14. 14. Bases<br />The OH- molecule is known as a hydroxide ion<br />When a solution has more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions, it is said to be basic, or alkaline<br />Bases often feel slippery, because the OH- molecules react to the oil on our skin to form a soap. <br />
15. 15. pH<br />pH stands for “potential for Hydrogen”<br />The pH scale is a measurement for how acidic or basic a solution is<br />Acids have lower pH values and bases have higher pH values<br />A change from one level to the next represents a tenfold change in either acidity or alkalinity. In other words, an acid with a pH of 3 has ten times as many H3O+ ions as does an acid with a pH of 4. <br />
16. 16. Buffers<br />Buffers are substances that counteract a small amount of either an acid or base so that the solution stays a specific pH.<br />Huh?<br />Since many organic substances need to remain a constant pH, they’ll use buffers to cancel out enough of the acid or base to keep the whole area within a safe range<br />
17. 17. Properties of Water<br />As we learned earlier, water is a polar molecule. The oxygen portion is slightly negative, and the hydrogen portions are slightly positive<br />
18. 18. Hydrogen Bonding<br />Since there are positive and negative regions in each water molecule, they are attracted to the oppositely charged regions in other molecules. <br />The negatively charged oxygen will be attracted to the positively charged hydrogens.<br />
19. 19. Cohesion and Adhesion<br />Cohesion is the attractive forces between molecules of the same compound.<br />This is what gives water properties like surface tension.<br />Adhesion is the attractive forces between molecules of differing compounds<br />You can see this when water clings to a cold glass (capillarity)<br />