It all starts with a question!• Who, what, when, where, why?• Scientists work to answer questions.• The need to find answers drives technology.• New technology leads to new discoveries and more questions.
Research/Data Collection• The longest (on going) phase of scientific investigation. Data = any and all information scientists gather in trying to answer their questions.• The next step is to gather information.• What do we know? We have to be informed before we can make an……..
Data Collection• Data is collected through OBSERVATION.• 5 senses – exactly what is felt, seen, heard, smelled, or tasted.• Inference= interpretation of observation.• Described 1 of 2 ways:• Quantitative = Numbers ex: 43 inches• Qualitative = Words ex: blue, gritty
HYPOTHESIS• Statement that explains the observations and can be tested.• Testable only if evidence can be collected that either does or does NOT support it.• May be supported by evidence but can be refined, revised, or discarded as new evidence is uncovered.
ExperimentingThe process of testing a hypothesis or prediction by gathering data under CONTROLLED CONDITIONS.
Controlled Experiment• Comparison of a control group with an experimental group.• Groups are identical except for 1 factor.• Control Group has nothing “new” happening to it. The same old, same old.• Experimental Group – has the independent variable applied (something “new”).
Variables• Independent Variable – the factor that the scientist manipulates.• Dependent Variable – the factor that the scientist observes or measures.• Ex:
Analyzing Data and Drawing Conclusions• Data has to be organized.• Charts, Graphs, paragraphs, etc.• Process of determining if data is reliable• Does it support hypothesis?
Theory• A broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be true.• Supported by considerable evidence.• May tie together several related hypotheses.• Few true theories are produced in science.