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# Ogt review science

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### Ogt review science

1. 1. OGT Science Review
2. 2. Physical Science
3. 3. Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion:► 1st law: A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion until an outside force acts on it (inertia)► 2nd law: A forces causes an object to accelerate► 3rd law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
4. 4. Kinetic Energy: energy in motion► Examples: jogging, an mp3 player playing music► KE = ½ mv2  m = mass  V=velocity
5. 5. Potential Energy: stored energy► The ability of a system to do work due to its position or internal structure► Examples: batteries, the food we eat, a rock on a ledge, an expanded rubber band► Gravitational PE = m x g x h  M= mass g = gravity h=height
6. 6. Law of Conservation of Energy:► Saysthat energy cannot be created or destroyed…only converted to another type of energy  Example: chemical energy in food converting into different types of energy  Example: Solar (sun) energy converts to chemical energy during photosynthesis  Example: in an mp3…chemical energy in a battery is converted into electrical energy that powers the mp3, which becomes sound energy
7. 7. Heat (a type of energy) can be transferred in 3 ways…1. conduction: transfer of heat through a solid object Example: heating on stove► Convection: transfer of heat by liquid or gas example: currents in ocean waters, earth’s mantle layers, steam from water► Radiation: transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves example: microwaves, x-rays, infrared
8. 8. Chemical Properties:► Any change that produces a new substance► Examples:when copper corrodes and turns green, when iron rusts, when something is burned
9. 9. Physical Change:►A change that does not create any new substance.► Examples: phase changes of water, cutting hair, creating mixture
10. 10. Endothermic reactions:►A reaction that absorbs heat from the surrounding► Ex: baking a cake
11. 11. Exothermic reactions:►A reaction that gives off heat► Ex: burning wood or paper produces heat
12. 12. Other terms in phase changes:► Freezing: when a liquid becomes a solid► Melting: when a solid changes to liquid to allow molecules to move more freely► Evaporation: liquid becomes a gas; molecules now moving rapidly► Condensation: gas becomes a liquid (clouds)► Sublimation: Solid directly to a gas (dry ice)► Precipitation: clouds release water in rain/snow
13. 13. Density► Allows objects to float or sink► Density = mass/volume► Density of water is 1 g/ml
14. 14. Atomic Structure► Matter: anything that takes up space► Atom: smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element  Protons: positive (in nucleus)  Neutrons: no charge (in nucleus)  Electrons: negative (orbit nucleus)► Element:pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
15. 15. Periodic Table► Atomic number: # of protons in an atom  Hydrogen: Atomic #1, so it’s the 1st element ►Moving left to right, the elements go up in atomic number on the periodic table► Top number: atomic #► Bottom number: atomic mass (protons & neutrons)
16. 16. Bonds► Ionic bonds: form when one or more valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another, creating positive and negative ions► Covalent bonds: some atoms complete their outer shell by sharing these valence electrons with other atoms
17. 17. Wave Properties► Earthquake, water, and sound waves require matter to travel through► Electromagnetic waves do not require matter (light, radio, micro, x-rays)
18. 18. ► Wavelength: the length of one complete wavelength cycle► Amplitude: a measure of the energy a wave carries (distance from crest to midline)  Larger the amplitude…higher the sound► Frequency: # of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time► In phase: when 2 waves match (become larger wave)► Out of phase: when 2 waves do not match up (will cancel each other out)
19. 19. Earth & Space Science
20. 20. Big Bang Theory:► Universewas created in one giant explosion about 13.7 billion years ago  Galaxies are moving apart from central location  Red shift: the light most galaxies give off is close to the red end of the spectrum…therefore the light energy is longer and the color is red as they move out
21. 21. How a star is formed…► In space, dust & gas get pulled together by gravity = nebula► this gravity produces heat, and nuclear fusion occursMassive Star Cycle: nebula-massive star-large red giant-supernova- black hole or neutron starLow mass star cycle: nebula-star similar to sun-small red giant-white dwarf-black dwarf
22. 22. Tools► Telescopes: look at moons, planets, galaxies► Spaceship: allows travel to collect data► Satellites: transmit signals from outer space► Probes: sent by scientists to collect data on far away planets that humans cannot get to
23. 23. Galaxies► Spiral► Eliptical► irregular
24. 24. Why does the earth and other planets revolve around the sun?► Gravitational force
25. 25. ► Earth rotates on axis: causes night and day► Earth revolves around sun  1 year = one time around sun
26. 26. Seasons► Hemispheres differ (summer/winter) depending on angle toward sun (think of the tilt)► Solar eclipse: when moon blocks sun from the Earth’s view (moon is between)► Lunar eclipse: when Earth blocks our view of moon (Earth is between)
27. 27. Plate Techtonics► Theory that the Earth’s crust is made up of many plates that are floating on top of the Earth’s mantle layer (which is molten liquid rock)  Earthquake: when plates slide past each other, creating friction  Mountains: when plates collide & push up  Magma: comes up between 2 plates or melt through a soft crustal plate  Convection currents in mantle push plates around, causing continents to drift and seafloors to spread
28. 28. Alfred Wegener► Proposed Continental Drift Theory (at one time continents were all 1 land mass)Fossils: a piece/trace of an organism that was once alive (found in sedimentary rock)*Oldest rock sediments will be on the bottom
29. 29. Non-renewable resources► Fossil fuels: gasoline, oil, coal► We can never replace or renew them2 negatives: 1. They will eventually run out 2. They cause global warming
30. 30. Renewable Resources► Can be replaced and renewed► Ex: sunlight, water power, wind, wood, crops
31. 31. Global Warming► When heat is trapped, and causes the planet to become warmer► Greenhouse effect: insulation layer that allows some heat in, and other out
32. 32. Alternative Energy Sources (VERY IMPORTANT!!)► Wind power  Good: no CO2 produced  Bad: must have windHydroelectric (dams)  Good: no CO2 produced  Bad: need large river► Solar panels  Good: no CO2 produced  Bad: expensive; must have sun shine
33. 33. ► Hydrogen power  Good: no CO2 produced; large amounts of energy  Bad: explosive; expensive► Geothermal  Good: no CO2 produced  Bad: need access to underground temperatures► Ethanol-making alcohol from corn/sugar cane  Good: produces less CO2 than fossil fuels  Bad: still creates carbon dioxide
34. 34. How can we conserve resources?► Recycle► Car pool► Ride bike instead of driving► Use public transportation► Turn off water/electricity when not using
35. 35. Biomes► Desert: little rain; large temp. change► Rainforest: hot and wet► Tundra: cold; has wet/dry seasons► Grasslands: wet/dry seasons; hot► Deciduous forest (us): even moisture; warm summers/cold winters► Coniferous forest: moisture varies; cool summers/cold winters
36. 36. ► Biomes with colder temperatures have less diversity of life
37. 37. Moh’s Mineral Hardness Scale►1 Talc (softest mineral on Earth)► 2 Gypsum► 3 Calcite► 4 Fluorite► 5 Apatite► 6 Feldspar► 7 Quartz► 8 Topaz► 9 Corundum► 10 Diamond (hardest mineral on Earth) **higher number will scratch lower number**
38. 38. Life Science
39. 39. ► Predator: organisms that kill and eat others► Prey: organisms that the predators kills► Herbivore: feeds off plants only► Carnivore: feeds off animals only► Omnivore: feeds off plants and animals
40. 40. ► Consumers: depend other organisms for energy  Primary consumer: 1st to eat the plant  Secondary consumer: eats 1st consumer► Producers:produce own food through photosynthesis► Food chain: 3-5 links► Food web: network of food chains
41. 41. Energy pyramid► Bottom is the producers (get energy from sun)► Most available energy is located at the bottom!!► Only 10% of each level gets passed on  Where does the other 90% go? ►Lost as HEAT
42. 42. Biotic (living) factors:► Plants, animals, fungi, etc.
43. 43. Abiotic (non-living) factors:► Weather, rocks, water, hills, rocks, holes, etc.
44. 44. Symbiosis (aka symbiotic relationships)1. mutualism: both organisms benefit Ex: bee pollinating a flower2. Commensalism: one benefits, other is not harmed OR helped Ex: bird’s nest in tree3. Parasitism: one benefits, other is harmed Ex: flea on dog
45. 45. Natural Selection► When nature chooses the most favorable variation► Those organisms that are the best for that environment will survive and reproduce the best► Ex: giraffes with tall food (only tall giraffes survive and reproduce)
46. 46. Photosynthesis► When plants convert light energy (sun) into chemical energy (glucose=food)► Must take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen!► Who does this? PLANTS
47. 47. Cellular Respiration► Take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide► Who does this? ANIMALS & PLANTS► Together: both cycles need each other!!  Just opposites of each other
48. 48. Cells: smallest functional unit of organism► Eukaryotes: have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles  Ex: plants, animals► Prokaryotes: lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles  Ex: bacteria
49. 49. Organelles: have a membrane► Nucleus: control center; contains DNA► Ribosome: makes proteins► Lysosomes: digests food particles► Mitochondria:produces energy (powerhouse)► Endoplasmic reticulum: transports► Golgi complex (apparatus/body): process and packages proteins► Vacuole: stores water & food► Cytoplasm: gel-like substance that fills cell
50. 50. Plants vs. Animal Cells:Only in plants:► Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll (green pigment); photosynthesis occurs here► Cell walls: give plants support
51. 51. DNA► Located on chromosomes► Shaped like double helix► DNA in specific spot on chromosome = gene► Virusesare not cells; they must inject DNA into host in order to reproduce  Ex: flu and HIV
52. 52. Asexual reproduction:► Reproduction from 1 parent► DNA is identical to parent► Involves mitosis► Ex: bacteria, fungi, some plants/animals
53. 53. Sexual reproduction:► Involves 2 parents► Causes VARIETY► Involves meiosis
54. 54. Mitosis vs. Meiosis► Mitosis: cell division that produces 2 identical daughter cells► Meiosis: cell division that produces 4 different daughter cells  Sperm/egg  Each have 23 chromosomes  When sperm + egg = 46 chromosomes
55. 55. Genetics► Allele: one form of a gene► Dominant: trait is expressed if 1 there► Recessive: only expressed if 2 present► Homozygous: same (hh, BB)► Heterozygous: different (Hh, Bb)
56. 56. Sex-linked traits► Male: XY► Female: XX► Males are more likely to get a sex-linked disorder, for they only need 1 affected X to have the disorder. Females would need 2 affected x’s to have the disorder (which is less likely).
57. 57. Science & Technology
58. 58. 2 kinds of nuclear energy► Nuclear fusion: produced inside stars► Nuclear fission: when radioactive atom called an isotope is broken up into two smaller atoms -occurs inside Earth’s core, nuclear power plants, and nuclear weapons
59. 59. Other ideas:► Know how technology and inventions impact our life and environment► State advantages/disadvantages of specific technologies► Examples: car adv/disadv, genetically altered food, hydroelectric power, lasers► How modern practices use science: auditorium can quiet by using carpet, styrofoam, curtains (solid, smooth materials will reflect sound)
60. 60. Scientific InquiryScientific Ways of Knowing
61. 61. Scientific method► Hypothesis must be able to be tested► Dependent variable: depends on independent variable (ex: growth of plant)► Independent variable: what you are actually changing (ex: adding fertilizer)► Control: untreated sample
62. 62. Know scientific instruments and their purposes► Findvolume of object with graduated cylinder► Observation: something you detect using your senses► Inference: may or may not be true; based on past experiences
63. 63. ► Deal with ethical issues…why something is right or wrong► Safety issues► Explain yourself, no matter what your opinion
64. 64. *Much of this information in this powerpoint was gained fromhttp://mapleschools.com/docs/286_11_8_2007science%20study%20guide09.pdf