Chapter 1 ecology (2)


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  • Resources: Air, water, minerals, energy sources, soil, biodiversity. Services: air and water purification, soil renewal, nutrient cycling, etc.
  • Chapter 1 ecology (2)

    1. 1. Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability
    2. 2.  Study of connections in nature. Environment includes all living and nonliving thing with which an organism interacts. Living = biotic Nonliving = abiotic ES studies how the earth works, our interaction with the earth, and the methods/procedures we use to deal with environmental problems. Environmentalism is a social movement dedicated to protecting life support systems for ALL species.
    3. 3.  Life depends on natural capital- the natural resources and services that keep life forms alive.
    4. 4.  Life depends on solar energy and natural capital. Human activities can degrade natural capital. Environmentally sustainable societies protect natural capital and live off its income. Plan for future generations. urban-agriculture-blooms.html
    5. 5.  1968, biologist Garrett Hardin called the degradation of openly shared resources the tragedy of the commons. tragedy-of-the-commons
    6. 6.  Perpetual resource is continuously renewed and expected to last (solar energy). Renewable resource is replenished in days to several hundred years through natural processes (forests, fish populations, freshwater, etc.) Environmental Degradation occurs when the available supply of renewable resources declines (forests cut down faster than growing back, soil erosion, climate change.)
    7. 7.  Sustainability of Life depends on: Reliance on solar energy. Protect Biodiversity. Stop interfering with natural Chemical Cycling.
    8. 8.  Represents the amount of biologically productive land and water needed to indefinitely supply the people in a particular country or area with renewable resources and to absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by such resource use. Large Footprints: United States, European Union. Small Footprints: India and Japan. Footprints can be expressed in number of Earth’s needed to support consumption (3 ½)
    9. 9.  Exist in fixed quantities. Exhaustible energy (coal and oil) Metallic Minerals (copper and gold) Nonmetallic Minerals (salt and sand) Sustainable Solution: Reduce, reuse, recycle (order is important) 1. Reduce means to use less of the resource. 2. Reuse means to use resource over and over. (using empty butter tub for leftovers) 3. Recycle means to collect waste materials and process them into new materials.
    10. 10.  High Income like United States and Canada Only 18% of world’s population Use 88% of world’s resources Produce 75% of world’s waste Larger Ecological Footprint
    11. 11.  Low Income (some are middle-income) like China, India, Nigeria, Haiti. 82% of world’s population. Use 12% of world’s resources.
    12. 12.  Point Sources: single, identifiable source (smokestack) Nonpoint Sources: spread out and difficult to identify (lawn runoff puts chemicals into water ways). Prevention vs. Cleanup Prevention reduces or eliminate production of pollutants Cleanup is more expensive and less effective.
    13. 13.  Climate change Acid rain Decreased biodiversity acid-rain-eating-washington-dc.html
    14. 14.  4 causes: Population Growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Excluding environmental cost from prices
    15. 15.  Exponential (J-shaped curve) 2009 – 6.8 BILLION people on the planet Estimated to be 9.3 Billion by 2050 us-earth-too-many-people.html
    16. 16.  Basic needs are not met. Basic needs: food, water, shelter, health and education. 1 in 5 live in extreme poverty. Premature death due to malnutrition Inadequate sanitation (waste removal, clean water)
    17. 17.  Better Education  Damage to Scientific Research environment from Technological consumption solutions  Environmental degradation  PollutionBeneficial Harmful
    18. 18.  Increase reliance on renewable energy (solar, wind) Protect Biodiversity (endangered species and land protection, reduce pollution) Do not disrupt natural chemical cycles (carbon cycle, water cycle, climate, etc).