Leadership Responsiblity And Decentralization

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Leadership Responsiblity And Decentralization

  1. 1. Challenges to Overcome to Achieve Universal Primary Education in Benin by 2015 G M Joachim Boko, MPA’10 University of Pittsburgh Netherlands Development Organization
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Primary education in Benin and research question </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Global concerns for development in this millennium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Forum on Education (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millennium Development Goals (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Track Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benin is listed among countries far from reaching the EFA goals despite apparent governmental and donor commitment </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Education as a national concern present in public policy ( Etat Généraux de l’education , National Forum On Education, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Government commitment for primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Strong donors mobilization and support (Fast track, bilateral donors) </li></ul><ul><li>However, the results seem not to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Benin is among the 17 countries far from reaching EFA goals (UNESCO, GMR 2009) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>What changes needs to be made to make the most out of available resources, increase effectiveness in primary education service provision and achieve EFA to in Benin? </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Qualitative approach </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with key informants: parents associations, policymakers, policy implementers, local governments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dataset produced by the Netherlands Development Organization on accountability and service provision in 3 municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Clients’ perceptions: Accountability from within </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Executive members and elected officials are not used to give account. “They take responsibilities in your name and do not tell you anything about what’s going on. How can you hold them accountable in these conditions?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> A student parent </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>A donor requirement bringing negative political drawbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If we are elected it is because people trust in us; there is no need to embarrass ourselves with giving account. Doing it may mean that we have something to hide. It is the (technical and financial) partners who brought this matter and if we could be accountable to them, that should be enough. We are in politics and anything you do can bring bad drawbacks during elections.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Elected official </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Upward bureaucratic accountability and politicization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A public agency officer is someone who is recruited by the State for the whole length of his career and is rarely punished. Therefore, he has no culture of downward accountability. He does not depend on the mayor. The service he provides is appreciated by his superior hierarchy and not by the beneficiaries…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A public servant </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>58% of the personnel of the Ministry of Primary Education disagree that promotions in the ministry take into account individual performance (UNESCO, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Job specification book not enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Performance criteria apply only to the lowest level of service provision </li></ul>
  11. 14. Readiness of municipalities to take on responsibilities in primary education service provision Availability of a department of dedicated exclusively to primary education Primary education service provision specifically taken care of somehow by other departments Statistics production and update / planning for education sector Availability of technical knowledge on construction of school facilities Gogounou No No No yes Kandi No Yes No yes Banikoara No No No No Cobly No No Yes No Toucountouna No Yes Yes Yes Boukoumbe No Yes Yes Yes Klouekanme Yes Yes Yes Yes Lokossa No Yes No No Dogbo No Yes No Yes Aplahoue No No No Yes Ouinhi No Yes No Yes Sinende No Yes Yes Yes Za-Kpota No Yes No Yes
  12. 15. <ul><li>Unless people’s perceptions especially those in the position to hold accountable and those in the position to give account change, little will be achieved toward the education for all goals. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Decentralization is important to achieve goals, however the current state of affairs in Benin leaves little room to achieve results in the short term; the required capacities are absent in most of local governments. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>The last alternative remains the central government in the short term. However, unless accountability mechanisms are enforced and the responsibility chain is redefined with clear compacts and performance criteria, and most important, enforcement along the responsibility chain, little results will be achieved in the short term. </li></ul>

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