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Introducing Peace Education In Cameroon Schools


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Introducing Peace Education In Cameroon Schools

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM ON THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ON POLICY AND PRACTICE IN AFRICA, BAMAKO, 15TH – 17TH DECEMBER 2009 Introducing Peace Education in Cameroon Schools: A Blueprint for Sustainable Development By 2: Objectives, Scope, Significance and Methods 1 Introduction and Background Willibroad Dze-Ngwa The general objective Africa is characterized by endemic inter-state and Email: - To investigate the necessity for the introduction of Peace intra-state conflicts caused by various religious, Education in Cameroon schools and colleges linguistic and colonial diversities. (Cameroon map Specific objectives with the various ethnic groups) - To know the extent to which peace education is taught in The Republic of Cameroon is Africa in miniature Cameroon schools and colleges Some conflict areas -Know the curriculum contents, available human resources and legislative dispositions for the teaching of peace education. -Investigate the extent of internal cohesion. -Determine how greater cohesion should enhanced Sample sites: Maroua, Kousseri, Bamenda, Yaoundé and Douala. Instruments were Interview Guides (IG) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 3.1. What is the extent to which peace education is taught in Cameroon? 4: Conclusions a) Reality - It was realised that the programme on peace education is supposed to begin - By ministerial decision N° 30 / 05 / MINESEC / IGE / IGP / SH that defines the citizenship in Form 5 (general education) and 5th year (technical schools). education curriculum in Cameroon secondary schools (both general and technical), - Students from Forms 1-4 do not benefit from the programme. - By Circular No. 53/D/64/MINEDUC/IGP/ESG/IPN-HG of 15 November 1990 changing “the - The Anglophone education sub-system, the subject is not taught at all even subject referred to as Civics to Citizenship.” in the Form Five class. - By the curriculum content developed by the Pedagogical Support Unit of the Ministry of - In the Francophone education sub-system, the subject is taken more Secondary Education, Lesson 2 of Part I in the Form 5 programme is entitled ‘‘THE NOTION OF seriously. PEACE’’. - Peace education is not being considered as an important option in the b) Dream national education policy. There is a clear-cut dichotomy between the document and the effective application of peace - There are no trained teachers for the subject. education in the field because; - Few private universities have introduced peace education - The programme on peace education is supposed to begin only in Form 5 (general education) and - State universities in Cameroon are still reluctant to introduce programmes 5th year (technical schools). on peace studies. - The Francophone and Anglophone education sub-systems do not lay the same emphasis on the - There are many ethnic, linguistic, religious, ideological and regional subject. In the Anglophone sub-system, the “Notion of Peace” is just one chapter in the whole conflicts in the country. citizenship education programme. - Internal cohesion and sustainable development in Cameroon is threatened!!! - In most of the schools within this sub-system, the subject is taught only from Forms 1 – 3. Therefore, not even in Form Five. - Citizenship as a whole is not tested in public examinations, hence included to please government. - In the Francophone sub-system, the subject is taught from 6eme to premiere, (Forms One up to 5: Recommendations Lower Sixth). a) On Peace Education - There are no teacher-training colleges and no trained teachers on peace and citizenship education. - There is need for legislative dispositions for the teaching of peace education - However, there are many Private Higher Institutions of learning and NGOs are involved in peace in all secondary schools and colleges in Cameroon education. - Peace-builders should be trained. 3:2. what is the curriculum content, its implementation, available human resources and - The present curriculum content needs to be reviewed legislative dispositions that facilitates the teaching of peace education? - Historical facts and figures should not be distorted The curriculum content of Peace and citizenship education is inadequate. - There is need to harmonise the programmes of the Anglophone and - More lessons on Peace education with some practical activities on peace and conflicts should be Francophone sub-systems of education. taught. - Teacher-training institutes should establish faculties or departments for the - National symbols and the Constitutional changes from 1960 to 1996 are not well taught. training of specialized teachers on peace and citizenship education. - Election riggings do not inspire effective tolerance, recognition and protection of all and sundry. - Teachers and researchers should research publish findings on peace - Social justice is highly lacking in the curriculum. education. - Again, the curriculum distorts some historical facts and figures for personal reasons. - The subject be taught from Forms One to Upper Sixth - It should be evaluated in major public examinations in the secondary 3:3. Evaluating the degree of internal cohesion schools. - Cameroon is a haven of peace compared to some neighbours countries however, the peace is just b) For greater internal cohesion relative. - Genuine dialogue, - There are increasing inter-ethnic and regional conflicts in the country like the - Parity of Anglo-Saxon and French legacies, - The Anglophone-Francophone dichotomy - Unity in diversity, that is, the recognition and protection of diversity, - The Arab Choa/ Kotoko armed conflicts, the Bamileke problem, and the Mbororo Problem ensuring equality, mutual respect and peaceful co-existence - Even political parties have ethnic colorations. - Effective decentralization of power. - The Bali-Bawock conflicts, - There should be a balanced development policy for all the regions - The ennemies dans la maison and rentree chez vous syndrome - Contextualized democracy based on African realties. - Constitutional changes and constant election manipulation and rigging. - There should be encouragement of effective and continuous peace - The crisis of February 2008 education (formal and informal). * This conflict situation has been compounded by Continuous peace education will reduce conflicts, ensure stability, improve - Corruption, favouritism, nepotism, negative ethnicities hence, on human rights, and encourage investment and sustainable development; - Permanent instability, low investments, poverty, hunger and diseases, conflicts, human rights reduce unemployment and the poverty situation in the country. abuse, unemployment (The Vicious cycle of conflicts).