INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM ON THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ON POLICY AND PRACTICE IN
AFRICA, BAMAKO, 15TH – 17TH DECEMBER 2009
Introducing Peace Education in Cameroon Schools: A Blueprint for Sustainable Development
By 2: Objectives, Scope, Significance and Methods
1 Introduction and Background
Willibroad Dze-Ngwa The general objective
Africa is characterized by endemic inter-state and Email: firstname.lastname@example.org - To investigate the necessity for the introduction of Peace
intra-state conflicts caused by various religious, Education in Cameroon schools and colleges
linguistic and colonial diversities. (Cameroon map Specific objectives
with the various ethnic groups) - To know the extent to which peace education is taught in
The Republic of Cameroon is Africa in miniature Cameroon schools and colleges
Some conflict areas -Know the curriculum contents, available human resources
and legislative dispositions for the teaching of peace
-Investigate the extent of internal cohesion.
-Determine how greater cohesion should enhanced
Sample sites: Maroua, Kousseri, Bamenda, Yaoundé and
Instruments were Interview Guides (IG) and Focus Group
3.1. What is the extent to which peace education is taught in Cameroon?
a) Reality - It was realised that the programme on peace education is supposed to begin
- By ministerial decision N° 30 / 05 / MINESEC / IGE / IGP / SH that defines the citizenship in Form 5 (general education) and 5th year (technical schools).
education curriculum in Cameroon secondary schools (both general and technical), - Students from Forms 1-4 do not benefit from the programme.
- By Circular No. 53/D/64/MINEDUC/IGP/ESG/IPN-HG of 15 November 1990 changing “the - The Anglophone education sub-system, the subject is not taught at all even
subject referred to as Civics to Citizenship.” in the Form Five class.
- By the curriculum content developed by the Pedagogical Support Unit of the Ministry of - In the Francophone education sub-system, the subject is taken more
Secondary Education, Lesson 2 of Part I in the Form 5 programme is entitled ‘‘THE NOTION OF seriously.
PEACE’’. - Peace education is not being considered as an important option in the
b) Dream national education policy.
There is a clear-cut dichotomy between the document and the effective application of peace - There are no trained teachers for the subject.
education in the field because; - Few private universities have introduced peace education
- The programme on peace education is supposed to begin only in Form 5 (general education) and - State universities in Cameroon are still reluctant to introduce programmes
5th year (technical schools). on peace studies.
- The Francophone and Anglophone education sub-systems do not lay the same emphasis on the - There are many ethnic, linguistic, religious, ideological and regional
subject. In the Anglophone sub-system, the “Notion of Peace” is just one chapter in the whole conflicts in the country.
citizenship education programme. - Internal cohesion and sustainable development in Cameroon is threatened!!!
- In most of the schools within this sub-system, the subject is taught only from Forms 1 – 3.
Therefore, not even in Form Five.
- Citizenship as a whole is not tested in public examinations, hence included to please government.
- In the Francophone sub-system, the subject is taught from 6eme to premiere, (Forms One up to 5: Recommendations
Lower Sixth). a) On Peace Education
- There are no teacher-training colleges and no trained teachers on peace and citizenship education. - There is need for legislative dispositions for the teaching of peace education
- However, there are many Private Higher Institutions of learning and NGOs are involved in peace in all secondary schools and colleges in Cameroon
education. - Peace-builders should be trained.
3:2. what is the curriculum content, its implementation, available human resources and - The present curriculum content needs to be reviewed
legislative dispositions that facilitates the teaching of peace education? - Historical facts and figures should not be distorted
The curriculum content of Peace and citizenship education is inadequate. - There is need to harmonise the programmes of the Anglophone and
- More lessons on Peace education with some practical activities on peace and conflicts should be Francophone sub-systems of education.
taught. - Teacher-training institutes should establish faculties or departments for the
- National symbols and the Constitutional changes from 1960 to 1996 are not well taught. training of specialized teachers on peace and citizenship education.
- Election riggings do not inspire effective tolerance, recognition and protection of all and sundry. - Teachers and researchers should research publish findings on peace
- Social justice is highly lacking in the curriculum. education.
- Again, the curriculum distorts some historical facts and figures for personal reasons. - The subject be taught from Forms One to Upper Sixth
- It should be evaluated in major public examinations in the secondary
3:3. Evaluating the degree of internal cohesion schools.
- Cameroon is a haven of peace compared to some neighbours countries however, the peace is just b) For greater internal cohesion
relative. - Genuine dialogue,
- There are increasing inter-ethnic and regional conflicts in the country like the - Parity of Anglo-Saxon and French legacies,
- The Anglophone-Francophone dichotomy - Unity in diversity, that is, the recognition and protection of diversity,
- The Arab Choa/ Kotoko armed conflicts, the Bamileke problem, and the Mbororo Problem ensuring equality, mutual respect and peaceful co-existence
- Even political parties have ethnic colorations. - Effective decentralization of power.
- The Bali-Bawock conflicts, - There should be a balanced development policy for all the regions
- The ennemies dans la maison and rentree chez vous syndrome - Contextualized democracy based on African realties.
- Constitutional changes and constant election manipulation and rigging. - There should be encouragement of effective and continuous peace
- The crisis of February 2008 education (formal and informal).
* This conflict situation has been compounded by Continuous peace education will reduce conflicts, ensure stability, improve
- Corruption, favouritism, nepotism, negative ethnicities hence, on human rights, and encourage investment and sustainable development;
- Permanent instability, low investments, poverty, hunger and diseases, conflicts, human rights reduce unemployment and the poverty situation in the country.
abuse, unemployment (The Vicious cycle of conflicts).