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  1. 1. Instructor & Todd Lammle Sybex CCNA 640-802 Chapter 6: IP Routing
  2. 2. Chapter 6 Objectives <ul><li>Understanding IP routing </li></ul><ul><li>Static routing </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic routing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIPv2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifying routing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>To route a router need to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbor Routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Possible routes to remote network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The absolute best route to all remote networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain and verify the routing information </li></ul></ul>What is Routing? C B A D
  4. 4. Basic Path Selection <ul><li>What interface will the router send out a packet if it has destination address of </li></ul>
  5. 5. Simple IP Routing B A e0 e0 >ping B s0 s0 Host A Host B
  6. 6. Routing/PDU Example: Host A Web browses to the HTTP Server…. 3. The destination port number in a segment header will have a value of __ 1. The destination address of a frame will be the _______________________ 2. The destination IP address of a packet will be the IP address of the________________________________
  7. 7. Static Routes SO B A B Stub Network SO A Routes must be unidirectional
  8. 8. Static Route Configuration ip route remote network [ mask ] { address | interface } [ distance ] [permanent] Router(config)# ip route remote _ network mask next_hop
  9. 9. Static Route Example ip route or ip route s0 SO B A B Stub Network SO
  10. 10. Default Routes SO B A B Stub Network SO ip route ip classless
  11. 11. <ul><li>Routing protocols are used between routers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the path of a packet through a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain routing tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routed protocols are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to an interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the path is determined by the Routing protocol, determines method of delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul>Routing vs. Routed
  12. 12. Routing Protocols Autonomous System 1 Autonomous System 2 IGPs: RIP, IGRP EGPs: BGP <ul><ul><li>An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IGPs operate within an autonomous system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EGPs connect different autonomous systems. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Classful Routing Overview <ul><ul><li>Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the same network, consistency of the subnet masks is assumed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of classful routing protocols: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IGRP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classless Routing Overview <ul><ul><li>Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classless routing protocols support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary routes can be manually controlled within the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of classless routing protocols: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EIGRP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OSPF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS-IS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Administrative Distance IGRP Administrative Distance=100 Router D Router B Router A Router C RIP Administrative Distance=120 Default Administrative Distance Directly Connected: 0 Static Route: 1 RIP: 120 IGRP: 100 EIGRP: 90 OSPF: 110
  16. 16. Distance Vector C B A D Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table Distance—How far Vector—In which direction Distance vector algorithms do not allow a router to know the exact topology of an internetwork. All routers just broadcast their entire routing table out all active interfaces on periodic time intervals
  17. 17. Discovering Routes
  18. 18. Discovering Routes
  19. 19. Routing Loops
  20. 20. Router Loops
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Hop count metric selects the path, 16 is unreachable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full route table broadcast every 30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load balance maximum of 6 equal cost paths (default = 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIPv2 supports VLSM and Discontiguous networks </li></ul></ul>RIP Overview 64kbps T1 T1 T1
  22. 22. RIP Routing Configuration Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)# network network-number* *Network is a classful network address. Every device on network uses the same subnet mask network network router RIP network network router RIP
  23. 23. RIP Version 2 <ul><li>Allows the use of variable length subnet masks (VLSM) by sending subnet mask information with each route update </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Vector – same AD, and timers. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy configuration, just add the command “version 2” under the router rip configuration </li></ul>router rip network version 2
  24. 24. Discontiguous Addressing <ul><li>Two networks of the same classful networks are separated by a different network address </li></ul> <ul><ul><li>RIPv1 and IGRP do not advertise subnet masks, and therefore cannot support discontiguous subnets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSPF, EIGRP, and RIPv2 can advertise subnet masks, and therefore can support discontiguous subnets. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Passive Interface <ul><li>Maybe you don’t want to send RIP updates out your router interface connected to the Internet. Use the passive-interface command: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Router(config)# router rip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router(config-router)# passive-interface serial0 </li></ul></ul>This allows a router to receive route updates on an interface, but not send updates via that interface S0 Gateway Internet Updates X
  26. 26. Verifying RIP <ul><li>Router#show ip protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Router#show ip route </li></ul><ul><li>Router#debug ip rip </li></ul><ul><li>Router#undebug all (un all) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Summary <ul><ul><li>Open your books and go through all the written labs and the review questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the answers in class. </li></ul></ul>