Ms. Mary Gene Panes
is a visual model, a pictorial
device that presents bands of
experience arrange according to
degree of abstraction and not
degree of difficulty. The farther
you go from the bottom of the
cone, the more abstract the
These are first hand experiences
which serves as the foundation of our
learning. We built up our reservoir
of meaningful information and ideas
seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and
smelling. In the context of the
teaching-learning process, it is
learning by doing.
here, we make use of a
representative models or mock
ups of reality for practical reasons
and so that we can make the reallife accessible to the students’
perceptions and understanding.
By dramatization, we can participate
in a reconstructed experience, even
though the original event is far
removed us in time. We relive the
outbreak of the Philippine revolution
by acting out the role of characteristic
in a drama.
Demonstration – It is a visualized
explanation of an important
fact, idea or process by the use of
photographs, drawings, films, display
s, or guided motions. It is showing
how things are done.
Study trips – These are excursions
and visits conducted to observe an
event that is unavailable within the
Exhibits – These are displays to e seen
by spectators. They may consist of
working models arranged meaningfully
or photographs with models, charts, and
posters. Sometimes exhibits are “for your
Television and motion pictures –
Television and motion pictures can
reconstruct the reality of the past so
effectively that were made to feel we are
Still pictures, Recording, Radio –
These are visual and auditory devices
may be used by an individual or a group.
Visual symbols – They are no longer
realistic reproduction of physical things
for these are highly, abstract
Verbal symbols – They are not like
the objects or ideas for which they stand.
They usually do not contain visual clues
to their meaning. Written words fall
under this category.
We do not use only one medium of
communication in isolation.
We avoid teaching directly at the
symbol level of though without
adequate foundation of the concrete.
When teaching, we don’t get stuck in