Geopolitics of human security


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Geopolitics of human security

  2. 2. Let’s go Beyond Prejudice And Charm  Till fifty years ago, geopolitics was considered as a Nazi discipline and therefore execrated (Geopolitik).  Nowadays, it is a considered as a magical word, as “The discipline” that can explain everything that is beyond common rationality and understanding; huge interests and macro-politics  For us it is just a methodology that can help us in understanding and explaining complex phenomena
  3. 3. GEOPOLITICS AND GLOBALISATION  «La géopolitique c’est la science de l’État comme organisme géographique ou comme entité dans l’espace : c'est-à-dire l’État comme pays, territoire, domaine ou, plus caractéristique, comme règne.» Johan Kjellén (1864 – 1922) Geopolitics: geography contributes largely in the definition of national interests -> the constant factors in foreign policy  Globalisation: the world is interconnected -> local events may have global consequences and vice versa. The horizon is always the globe 
  5. 5. Homo Politicus / Space Space at the centre: how space is affecting human life on individual and collective level?  What’s space? Territory with its resources and constraints (routes and blockages). Geopolitics investigates on how territory and power are intertwined.  What’s Homo Politicus? Human beings perceived as social animals, i.e. animals that live together in a certain time and space and produce rules and norms to prevent and/or manage conflicts. 
  6. 6. HOW SPACE IS CHANGING? Globalisation: with the acceleration of flows of people, goods and information someone has declared the “death of space”.  In the ’80s and ’90s nation-states and frontiers have been defied by the globalisation of world economy and several ethnic wars, but they finally survived!  Relativity theory: A. Einstein demonstrated that time and space are not absolute measures of reality but a continuum: “timespace”, that depends on the observer 
  7. 7. RELATIVITY THEORY: MINKOWSKI’S SPACETIME In physics and mathematics, Minkowski space or Minkowski spacetime (named after the German mathematician Hermann Minkowski) is the mathematical setting in which Einstein's theory of special relativity is most conveniently formulated. In this setting the three ordinary dimensions of space are combined with a single dimension of time to form a four-dimensional manifold for representing a spacetime.
  8. 8. GLOBALISATION: THE DEATH OF SPACE?  ICTs revolution has meant a drastic reduction of time and costs of transfer and transportation of infos, people and resourcess.  This has favoured delocalisation of production, international dependency and migration flows.  By contrast, proliferation of regional trade blocs (Nafta, Europe, Japan-Asia) shows that space is still relevant for international relations and multinational companies.
  9. 9. TRANSNATIONAL RELATIONS  International relations: between States, formalised by treaties and bilateral on multilateral agreements.  Transnational relations: network of horizontal links between groups or non-state actors:  NGOs,  multinational/transnational companies,  ethnic / religious / linguistic groups,  Civil societies.
  10. 10. « FADING STATES »?  Is nation-states’ sovereignty threaten by the globalisation of economic systems?  Surely nation-states have to re-think and re-define their roles and powers: domestic and foreign policies are more and more interconnected.  Some examples:  Arab nationalism  Islamist movements  Kurds  Financial flows (small States viability, Kosovo, Iceland)
  12. 12. WHY?  Representing data on maps may help in interpreting events and imaging future consequences
  13. 13. GEOGRAPHY OF POLITICS  Which data: Geographical distribution of resources and people  Access to resources  Flows and chokepoints  Integrating time and space into a map   Which sources  Statistics  Human sources (Geographer / historian / anthropologist) > Collaborative Mapping  GPS – Global Positioning System
  14. 14. WHAT FOR?  Analysing conflicts  Identifying « causes »?  Risk evaluation  Facilitating conflicts resolution  Preventing Evaluating region potentialities  Defining regional strategies / foreign policies  Youth workers?   Tackling more easily problems and conflicts arising in their daily work.  A deeper knowledge of the area will you to develop new partnerships and cooperation initiatives.
  15. 15. WHAT’S A MAP? A brief historical background
  16. 16. GEOPOLITICS: A METHODOLOGY  What’s a map? A tool for representing reality or a tool for interpreting it?  A tool for controlling the space or to discover it? The maps we have today are the result of a long historical and cultural process: from the Babylonian tablet to the Mercator map.  As the first historical examples of maps show: the representation of the “known” space depends on the “knowledge” of the authors and his beliefs. 
  17. 17. BABYLONIAN WORLD MAP: Imago mundi: geography or cosmology?
  18. 18. BABYLONIAN WORLD MAP Imago mundi: geography or cosmology? Babylonian, about 700-500 BCProbably from Sippar, southern Iraq Babylon is shown in the centre (the rectangle in the top half of the circle), and Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area is ringed by a circular waterway labelled 'Salt-Sea'. The outer rim of the sea is surrounded by what were probably originally eight regions, each indicated by a triangle, labelled 'Region' or 'Island', and marked with the distance in between. The regions are shown as triangles since that was how it was visualized that they first would look when approached by water. The map is sometimes taken as a serious example of ancient geography, but although the places are shown in their approximately correct positions, the real purpose of the map is to explain the Babylonian view of the mythological world.
  19. 19. BABYLONIAN WORLD MAP: Geography Or Cosmology? 8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed.   9 And the LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground— trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.    10 A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters.    11 The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold.    12 (The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there.)    13 The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush.    14 The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. Bible, Genesis, 2 (8 – 14)
  20. 20. Anaximander’s map (610 – 546 BCE)
  21. 21. Why drawing a map? Anaximander most likely drew this map for three reasons: First, it could be used to improve navigation and trade between Miletus's colonies and other colonies around the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Second, Thales (his master) would probably have found it easier to convince the Ionian city-states to join in a federation in order to push the Median threat away if he possessed such a tool. Finally, the philosophical idea of a global representation of the world simply for the sake of knowledge was reason enough to design one.
  23. 23. ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE (276195 BC)    Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276-195 BC) was a Greek mathematician, elegiac poet, athlete, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist. He was the first person to use the word "geography" and invented the discipline of geography as we understand it. He also created a map of the world based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. He made several discoveries and inventions including a system of latitude and longitude. He was the first person to calculate the circumference of the earth by using a measuring system using stades, or the length of stadiums during that time period. He was the third chief librarian of the Great Library of Alexandria (sources) Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC), popularly known as Alexander the Great
  24. 24. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMAEUS (90-168 AD)
  25. 25. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMAEUS (90-168 AD)     Claudius Ptolemaeus (90-168 AD), known as Ptolemy, was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer and a poet. Ptolemy’s Geographia is a compilation of what was known about the world's geography in the Roman Empire during his time, he relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer. He assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), but Ptolemy improved projections.
  26. 26. MUHAMMAD AL-IDRISI The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Muhammad al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154.
  27. 27. MUHAMMAD AL-IDRISI  First example of scientific collection of information from indirect sources  Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti or simply Al-Idrisi (1099–1165 or 1166) was an Andalusian geographer, cartographer, and traveller who lived in Sicily, at the court of King Roger II. He was born in the North African city of Ceuta (Sabtah) then belonging to the Almoravid Empire and died in Sicily.  Al Idrisi was a descendent of the Idrisid rulers of Morocco, who in turn were descendants of Hasan bin Ali, the son of Ali and the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad  Al-Idrisi, produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. He incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East, gathered by Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical geographers to create the most accurate map of the world up until his time.
  28. 28. MERCATOR’S WORLD MAP Rumold's world map, drawn in 1587 after his father's map of 1567 (published in 1595)
  29. 29. GERARDUS MERCATOR (1512-1594)    Gerardus Mercator was a Flemish cartographer. He was born in Rupelmonde in the County of Flanders. He is remembered for the Mercator projection world map, which is named after him. "Mercator" is the Latinized form of his name and it means "merchant". Despite Mercator's fame as a cartographer, his main source of income came through his craftsmanship of mathematical instruments. He was skilful in producing globes Mercator took the word atlas to describe a collection of maps, and encouraged Abraham Ortelius to compile the first modern world atlas --Theatrum Orbis Terrarum -- in 1570. He produced his own atlas in a number of parts, the first of which was published in 1578 and consisted of corrected versions of the maps of Ptolemy
  31. 31. ARNO PETERS’ MAP
  32. 32. GOOGLE MAPS
  33. 33. GOOGLE EARTH
  34. 34. CONCEPTUAL MAP The Washington Post, 27 July 2008
  35. 35. Genetic map of Europe Source :
  36. 36. Eu debt mapping Source: New Yok Times
  39. 39. “CLASH OF CIVILISATIONS?” Samuel P. Huntington “"The Clash of Civilizations?" , Foreign Affairs 1993
  40. 40. FRONTIERS AND CONFLICTS  Frontiers are always permeable  Dividing or mixing?  Managing flows  What’s the best internatioanal institutional architecture?  Frontiers as interface!!
  42. 42. Shifting paradigm in peace and security  As far more people have been killed by their own governments or by famine and epidemics than by foreign armies during the last 100 years, international organisations working for security, like NATO, UN and the European Union, now consider the security of individuals rather than states as their main concern  The first formal definition proposed by the Pakistani economist Dr. Mahbub ul-Haq in 1994  Protecting civilians from their own governments, a narrow interpretation of human security, has been claimed as the main reason to intervene in domestic conflicts such as Libya at the current time and the Balkans back in the ’90s.  More widely, human security is the combination of threats associated with war, genocide, and the displacement of populations and its main focus is not defending borders from external military threats, but rather concerning itself with the security of individuals. Human security and national security should be, and often are, mutually reinforcing. However secure States do not automatically mean secure peoples and secure people does not mean secure States.
  43. 43. Human security Vs. traditional security Form of Security Referent The Object of Protection Potential Threats • Traditional Security Human Security The state The individual The integrity and safety of the state The safety and freedom of the individual • • • • • • Inter-state war and foreign intervention Nuclear proliferation Civil disorder Poverty Disease Environmental depletion Human rights violations Conflicts, violence and repression Source: UNDP, Arab Human Development Report 2009, page 19
  44. 44. What is actually changing  Including the aforementioned human security definition in the analysis means looking at consequences on individuals of traditional geopolitical issues, and recent events in Arab countries have proven the pertinence, while assessing threats, of widening the scope of the analysis to include factors such as:  unemployment  climate change  and poverty
  45. 45. Original definition: 1994 In the original definition published in 1994 Dr. Mahbub ul Haq argued that the scope of global security should be expanded to include threats in seven areas: security requires an assured basic income for individuals, usually from productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed safety net. Unemployment problems constitute an important factor underlying political tensions and ethnic violence. Economic security requires that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. Quite often the problem is the poor distribution of food and a lack of purchasing power. Food security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles that are due to malnutrition and insufficient access to health services, clean water and other basic necessities. Health
  46. 46. Original definition 1994  Environmental security aims to protect people from the shortand long-term ravages of nature, man-made threats in nature, and deterioration of the natural environment. In developing countries, lack of access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats. Global warming, caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, is another environmental security issue.  Personal security aims to protect people from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub-state actors, from domestic abuse, or from predatory adults.  Community security aims to protect people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence.  Political security is concerned with whether people live in a society that honours their basic human and civic rights.
  47. 47. Natural resources > conflicts
  48. 48. Climate change > food security Source: New York Times
  49. 49. Climate change > natural disasters
  51. 51.         Moreau Defarges, Philippe; Introduction à la géopolitique, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1994. Fuller, Graham & Lesser, Ian; A Sense a Siege: the Geopolitics of Islam and the West, Rand, 1995Ayubi, Nazih N.; Over-stating the Arab State, London, I.B. Tauris, 1995. Anderson, Benedict; Imagined Communities, Halliday, Fred; The Middle East in International Relations: power, politics and ideology, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005. Hoeber Rudolph, Susan & Piscatori, James; Transnational Religion and Fading States, Boulder, Westview Press, 1997. Mandaville, Peter; Transnational Muslim Politics: Reimagining the Umma, London, Routeledge, 2003. Kepel, Gilles; Jihad: expansion et declin de l’islamisme, Paris, Gallimard, 2000. Vatikiotis, P.J.; Islam and the State, London, Croom Helm, 1987.