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The Meaning,
Nature, and
Purpose of
Counseling
Prepared by
Wyneth Ramos Barrera
The Meaning of
Counseling
Glanz (1972) –
• “open-ended, face to face problem solving situation
within which a student with...
Shostrom and Brammer
• “A purposeful, reciprocal relationship between two
people in which one, a trained person, helps the...
A process and relationship.
 It is a process by which concerted attention is given
by both counselor and a counselee to t...
The Nature of Counseling
Ford and Urban in their book entitled Systems of Psychotherapy (1963); cited four
natures of coun...
 3. The interaction is relatively prolonged since alteration of
behavior takes time. In contrast to a brief conversation ...
Purposes of Counseling
1. To give the student information on matters important to his adjustment
and growth;
2. To get inf...
Essential Elements of
Counseling Process
Downing (1965) enumerated eight (8) essentials to the
counseling process as follo...
Ethical Standards in
Counseling
1. Counselors concern is always the welfare of the client.
2. The counselor should be comp...
Types of Counseling
Directive or Clinical Counseling
 this type of counseling allows the counselor to give the counselee ...
Steps Involved in
Directive Counseling
1. Analysis
 It includes collection of information about the individual which can
...
4. Prognosis
 Under this step a prediction is made about the future development of
the problem.
5. Counseling
 The couns...
Steps Involved in Non-
Directive Counseling
1. Defining the Problematic Situation:
 First of all the counselor should def...
Steps Involved in Eclectic
Counseling
1. Diagnosis of the cause.
2. Analysis of the problem.
3. Preparation of a tentative...
-the end-
Thank you….
;)
Tools and Techniques Used in the
Guidance Process
Report by
Añago Glory and Pedragoza, Ma. Donna
The Anecdotal Records
 Anecdotal records are record of an
episode in the life of a student. It describes
one significant ...
Effective Anecdotal Records
The following guidelines should be observed
when writing the record:
• Record observation at t...
Effective Anecdotal Records
• Use performance terms to describe
behavior.
• Be careful about including information
about o...
Anecdotal record (Sample)
Student: Christopher Jones
Age: 6 years, 2 months
Observer: Wendy Jones
Date: 7th July 20XX, 11:...
Observation details:
Christopher played with the drama materials for 15
minutes, using the dress-ups and examining himself...
Anecdotal Record
Activity: ____Learning center – Table toys_ Date: _____11/09/02______
Name: ______ Tommy Tantrum_________...
• Anyone reviewing this record can ―see‖ exactly
what occurred at the table. Notice how bias words
such as ―demanded‖, ―gr...
Procedures in Organizing Anecdotal
Records
1. Staff Orientation – is very because
preparation of anecdotal record are
done...
Example of Anecdotal Report Form and Record
form
3. Reporting Anecdotes - Anecdotal
reporting must remain as objective as
possible. Positive incidents of pupil‘s
behavior ...
Types of Anecdotal Records
Randall gives the four types of anecdotal
record
as follows:
1. Objective description of a spec...
Advantages of Anecdotal Record
1. Deepens understanding of student‘s
behavior.
2. Student‘s behavior is seen in its full
c...
Disadvantages of Anecdotal Record
1. Difficulty in securing objective report.
Teachers report their reaction rather
than t...
Characteristics of a Good Anecdotal Record
1. Objectivity. It must be objective,
disregarding personal, emotional reaction...
4. Selectivity. Teachers and trained workers
can select which of the anecdotes are
significant in understanding a counsele...
Autobiography
An autobiography is an individual‘s life
story – routine behavior, attitudes, interests,
ideals – written by...
The following outline can guide teachers and
counselors
who make use of the autobiography technique—
1. Early life history...
3. Schooling – schools attended, subject like
best, least, plans after school, significant
school experiences
4. Leisure –...
Cumulative Record
It is a written accumulation of significant
factual information about an individual
which if maintained ...
Content of a Cumulative Record Card
1. Personal Data
Personal data give introductory information
about a child like his na...
3. Academic data
It deals with the information about
the previous school attended earlier,
present grade or class, examina...
weight, blood pressure, communicable disease if
any treatments given, food habits, exercise
parental disease if any, care ...
5. Co – curricular activities data – the child
participation in different co-curricular activities,
leadership qualities, ...
Case Study
 It is a careful study and interpretation
of pertinent data concerning the
students development and problems a...
Some points to be observed in making a
case study:
1. Select a case that gives you interest both
from the standpoint of th...
Values of Case Study
1. A considerate number of students in the
school who were most seriously in need of
careful individu...
Outline of a Case Method
1. Symptom
This involves finding his chronological age,
the marks received in various subjects,
i...
3. Coordination (neuro-muscular) –
no good test are available but careful
observation will give helpful data.
b. Health
1....
f. Learning Defect
g. Social History
h. Health History
i. Personality Problems
j. Observation of Pupil
k. Summary
l. Tenta...
Observation
Observation is basic to other guidance
techniques. The behavior and personality of
an individual are measured ...
Conducting an Observation
Based on the research conducted by
Shertzer (1976), the following guidelines may be
used to impr...
Here are some aspects of behavior to be
watched by an observer:
a) Desire to get attention or recognition from
associates....
i. Ways of answering question, of asking
questions.
j. Social adaptability
k. Leadership qualities
l. Interest in school w...
Thank you!
Methods and
techniques used in
the Guidance
process
(Continuation)
Presented By: Ma. Donna M. Pedragoza
CPE – August 17, 2...
Rating Scale
• It is a scale as any order by which
individuals may compared and a rating is
estimated based on qualities a...
Types of Rating Scale
 Numerical scales
Descriptive scales
Paired comparisons
Graphic rating scale
Numerical
scales
• It employs
numbers for
denoting
gradations
and the
meaning of
each
number is
defined.
How would you rate
industriousness?
________ Indolent, expends
little effort
________ Frequently does not
complete
work
__...
Paired
Comparisons
• The rater
compares
person rated
with respect
to trait to
every other
individual
rated in
general term...
Graphic Rating
scale
• This is the
most widely
used type of
rating scale.
Sociometry
It involves using students spontaneous choices
as an index for arranging interpersonal relations in
the classro...
In sociometric methods
Interview
It is considered as the heart of
counseling.
It is a face–to–face relationship
involving the process of informat...
Degree of Structure
Interview can be Structured or
unstructured.
 An interview is structured when the
interviewer and th...
Different kinds of interviews:
a. Educational guidance
b. Marriage counseling
c. Religious counseling
d. Health counseling...
Steps in interview:
1. Preparing for the interview.
2. Establishing rapport.
3. Developing insight.
4. Terminating the int...
Types of Questions
• Open (General) Questions- Allow a wide
range of responses, elicit a variety of
response, and useful w...
Interview Approaches
• An interview approach is direct when the
questions explain the purpose of the
interview and direct ...
Test and testing
• The most commonly used
specialized technique in guidance
and counseling.
Test are tasks, together with ...
What are tests used for?
1.)Tests are used as basis for admission into an
educational institution.
Accdg.to Fine , test se...
5. Tests are used for classifications of pupils into
sections.
6.) Tests determine which students are specially
gifted in ...
Types of Tests
 Achievement tests
 Standardized tests
 Intelligence tests
 Aptitude tests
 Interest-inventory tests
...
Achievement tests – These are test devised to
measure achievement in the subject studied in school.
Standardized tests – t...
Interest-inventory tests – it reveals the field or fields
in which pupils are interested.
Personality Tests – Personality ...
Diagnostic
test
Intelligence
test
Answer sheets in
Achievement test
Aptitude test
Prepared by:
Jasmin D. Gelle
Theoretical
Approach to
Counseling
Counseling
• This counseling approach
stresses counselee‘s ability to determine
the issues discussed and to solve their
ow...
The major elements which characterize the
client-centered counseling are:
a.) The quality of the relationship between
coun...
c. The interaction within the relationship is the
element which provides the catharsis.
d.) The immediate situation is the...
f.) Advising, interpreting and diagnosing limit
the client’s freedom and may threaten rather
than aid his growth.
g.) The ...
2. The Counselor-Centered
Approach
• This approach often sees
the counselor as a teacher who directs
the learning process....
The following are some points of emphasis
within the directive approach:
a.) Considerable responsibility is assumed
by the...
c.) Counseling tools play an important part
in the counseling effort. Objective data
are used to improve client self-
unde...
e.) The counselor interprets for the client to gain
intellectual insights and knowledge for future
growth and progress.
f....
g.) The intellectual aspects, not the emotional
demand first attention.
h.) Decisions reached are to a great extent those ...
3. Existential Counseling
Focus on freedom of choice and
action that goes with it. They view
people as the author of their...
The existentialist give emphasis on the
following:
a.) It helps clients realize the importance of
responsibility, awarenes...
d.) The client is freed from being an observer and
becomes a shaper of meaningful personal activity.
e.) Existential couns...
4. The Eclectic Approach
• Is best characterized by its
freedom to use whatever techniques or
procedures seem to the couns...
A summary of the eclectic
view
a.) The methods used are justified by the counselor
because of their appropriateness for bo...
d.) Modification of methods is made in an effort to
accommodate the client.
e.) Feelings of comfort are essential.
f.) The...
5. The Gestalt Therapy
(Gestalt means whole figure)
• Focused on helping individuals
become more in touch with the many
as...
Techniques in the
Counseling
Process
Techniques in the Counseling Process
1. Listening Techniques
2. Reflection and Clarification Technique
3. Leading
4. Inter...
Types of Counseling
According to Areas Covered
Academic / Educational
Vocational / Occupational / Career
Personal / Soc...
Types of Counseling According to Areas Covered
- Key Elements according to
Conner
1) Education
2) Observation and awarenes...
6) Challenging irrational beliefs
and unrealistic expectations
7) Breaking vicious cycles and
addictive behavior
8) Creati...
o Grief or Bereavement Counseling
o Pastoral Counseling
o Leisure Counseling
a)The kind of Leisure activities that are
sui...
o Addiction Counseling
a) Substance Abuse
b) Cyber Addiction
c) Addiction to the Addicted
Types of Counseling According to...
Types of Counseling According to
Participants
• Individual counseling
• Group Counseling
• Multiple Counseling
• Couple Co...
T – h – a – n – k Y – o – u ! ! !
Testing
Meaning of Test
• Tests are tasks which define ability. They
may be investigation, study review or an
inquisition.
• a pro...
Purposes of Test
specific purposes and
aims as follows:
1. To determine student achievement
level and progress.
2. To gain data for diagnos...
5. To improve instruction.
6. To determine existing self-
concepts and attitudes.
7. To ascertain social adjustments.
8. T...
Limitations
of Testing
Abilities,attitudes,and
interests.
The Following are some of
the critical limiting
factors in test usage:
1. Low motivatio...
3. Low validity and reliability for
some students
4. The unavailability of local norms.
5. Undue influence of
environmenta...
Uses and Types
of
Testing
Uses of Tests
Tests are used for as follows:
1. Test are used as basis for
admission into an educational
institution.
2. T...
4. Tests are used for classifying
student’s into sections.
5. Tests serve as determinants in
choosing a vocation/career.
6...
Type of Tests
1. Aptitude test
2. Achievement test
3. Interest Inventory test
4. Intelligence test
5. Personality test
6. Occupational/C...
1.Aptitude Test
• The aptitude test measure a
pupil’s potential for learning. The
knowledge gained from this
tests are use...
2.Achievement Test
• Achievement test have been used for
many years in elementary and
secondary schools and have helped
te...
3. Interest Inventory Test
• Interest inventories provide scores
from which patterns of interest are
established . These p...
4. Intelligence Tests
• These measure general
intelligence, particularly the IQ of
the counselee and the pupil’s
potential...
5. Personality Tests
• Personality is the sum total of an
individual’s overt and inner feelings.
These kinds of tests ofte...
6. Occupational/Career
Test
• These are designed to determine
the skills, special abilities and
techniques that make an in...
7. Diagnostic Test
• The purpose of this test is to
determine the weaknesses of the
individual so that remedies could
be d...
The Gifted Child
DIORIE C. CELADA
Guidance Service:
1. Identify the nature of his giftedness
2. Making the information available
3. Providing stimulation an...
The Concern of the Guidance
for the Gifted Child
―AWARENESS‖  starting
point
* Guidance people can be
satisfied with the ...
The Concern of the Guidance
for the Gifted Child
Locating the gifted child
Ascertaining the nature of his
giftedness
Provi...
Identifying The Gifted Child
 The gifted child is often neglected in school because
he is able to do satisfactory work wi...
Identifying The Gifted Child
George Mead ( 1935 )
Six Kinds of Giftedness
1. Intellectual Gift
2. Giftedness of aesthetic ...
Characteristics of the Gifted
Child
Cutts and Moseley ( 1959 )
1. Demonstrate unusual ability in several
areas. These may ...
Characteristics of the Gifted
Child
3. General maturity level is above
average and he may give the
impression of being old...
Characteristics of the Gifted
Child
6. His verbal expressions, vocabulary, reading
ability and spelling skills are usually...
EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
• Exceptional Child / Learners are, “those
who require special education and
related services if they are to realize their...
The term exceptional children includes children who
experience difficulties in learning as well as those
whose performance...
Thus, exceptional children is an inclusive term that
refers to children with learning and/or behavior
problems, children w...
HUNT (1982)
• who deviate from the average child in
physical, mental, emotional or social
characteristics to such an exten...
CRUICKSHANK (1968)
• who deviates intellectually, physically,
emotionally so markedly from what is
considered to be normal...
• Exceptionalities may involve and of the
following abilities:
– Sensory
– Physical
– Emotional
– Communicative
– Behavior...
CLASSIFICATION OF
EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
1. The Physically Handicapped Child
2. The Child with an Intellectual Handicap
3. The ...
PHYSICALLY HANDICAP
INTELLECTUAL HANDICAP
EMOTIONALLY MALADJUSTED CHILD
GIFTED CHILD
INSPIRATIONAL VIDEO
• Difficulties with attention and
concentration.
• Difficulty with getting along with others.
• Easily frustrated.
• Impul...
Successful Methods
• Nurture strong leader-child
relationships.
• Spend time to develop a well-planned
lesson.
• Establish...
• Choose meaningful activities.
– Short, with limited instruction.
– Keep the leader free to move about
with the children....
• Place them in “traffic” areas of the room.
• Maintain a “calm” environment, free
from excess noise or activity.
• Seat t...
• Avoid snacks that are high in sugar,
artificial colors and flavors, & caffeine.
• Surround them with calm and controlled...
EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
• Exceptional Child / Learners are, “those
who require special education and
related services if they are to realize their...
The term exceptional children includes children who
experience difficulties in learning as well as those
whose performance...
Thus, exceptional children is an inclusive term that
refers to children with learning and/or behavior
problems, children w...
HUNT (1982)
• who deviate from the average child in
physical, mental, emotional or social
characteristics to such an exten...
CRUICKSHANK (1968)
• who deviates intellectually, physically,
emotionally so markedly from what is
considered to be normal...
• Exceptionalities may involve and of the
following abilities:
– Sensory
– Physical
– Emotional
– Communicative
– Behavior...
CLASSIFICATION OF
EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
1. The Physically Handicapped Child
2. The Child with an Intellectual Handicap
3. The ...
PHYSICALLY HANDICAP
INTELLECTUAL HANDICAP
EMOTIONALLY MALADJUSTED CHILD
GIFTED CHILD
INSPIRATIONAL VIDEO
• Difficulties with attention and
concentration.
• Difficulty with getting along with others.
• Easily frustrated.
• Impul...
Successful Methods
• Nurture strong leader-child
relationships.
• Spend time to develop a well-planned
lesson.
• Establish...
• Choose meaningful activities.
– Short, with limited instruction.
– Keep the leader free to move about
with the children....
• Place them in “traffic” areas of the room.
• Maintain a “calm” environment, free
from excess noise or activity.
• Seat t...
• Avoid snacks that are high in sugar,
artificial colors and flavors, & caffeine.
• Surround them with calm and controlled...
Counseling
Counseling
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Counseling
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Counseling

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Counseling

  1. 1. The Meaning, Nature, and Purpose of Counseling Prepared by Wyneth Ramos Barrera
  2. 2. The Meaning of Counseling Glanz (1972) – • “open-ended, face to face problem solving situation within which a student with professional assistance, can focus and begin to solve a problem or problems”. Rogers (1965) • The assistance which comes to a child through face to face contact, with a professionally trained person in a psychological relationship using either talk or play as the primary medium of communication. A relationship in which one of the parties has the intent of promoting the growth, development, maturity and improved functioning of the other.
  3. 3. Shostrom and Brammer • “A purposeful, reciprocal relationship between two people in which one, a trained person, helps the other to change himself or his environment” (Shostrom, Everett L. and Lawrence M. Brammer; The Dynamics of the Counseling Process; McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.; New York; 1962). Brewer (1933) • “Counseling is talking over, a conference, a friendly discussion, upon as equal terms as may be, with no attempt to impose a decision, and with every effort to stimulate the thought of the student to find or generate such technical knowledge and wisdom as will lead him to a right decision.”
  4. 4. A process and relationship.  It is a process by which concerted attention is given by both counselor and a counselee to the problems and concerns of the student in a setting of privacy, warmth, mutual acceptance and confidentiality. As a process, it utilizes appropriate tools and procedures which contribute to the experiences.  It is a relationship characterized by trust, confidence and intimacy in which a student gains intellectual and emotional stability from which he can resolve difficulties, make plans and realize greater self- fulfillment.
  5. 5. The Nature of Counseling Ford and Urban in their book entitled Systems of Psychotherapy (1963); cited four natures of counseling. These are as follows:  1. Counseling involves two people in interaction, a generic term for the exchange of meanings between people which includes the direct communication of talking and listening as well as gestures, glances, nods or shakes of the head, frowns, and other non-verbal features by which meaning is transmitted from one person to another. The interaction is highly confidential, and since counselee discuss themselves in an intimate fashion, it is highly private and unobserved by others.  2. The mode of interaction is usually limited to the verbal realm; the counselor and counselee talk with one another. Counselees talk about themselves, their thoughts, feelings, and actions. They describe events. The counselor listens and responds in some fashion to what the counselee says to provoke further responses. The two think, talk, and share their ideas.
  6. 6.  3. The interaction is relatively prolonged since alteration of behavior takes time. In contrast to a brief conversation with friend in which distortions or unconscious desires are usually maintained and usually only temporary relief is gained, counseling has its goal, the change of behavior. It is assumed that through the counseling interaction, the counselee will in time revise his distortions and alter his behavior.  4.The purpose of the relationship is change of behavior of the counselee. The counselor focuses he interaction upon the counselee. Counselees need not to be concerned about the happiness of the counselor but must devote their energies to changing themselves. Ford and Urban’s four major points highlight the fact that counseling is a collaborative relationship that permits counselees to freely express and explore themselves and the issues which are of concern to them.
  7. 7. Purposes of Counseling 1. To give the student information on matters important to his adjustment and growth; 2. To get information about the student which will be of help to him in solving his problems; 3. To establish a feeling of mutual understanding between pupil and teacher; 4. To help the pupil work out a plan for solving his difficulties; 5. To help the pupil know himself better, his interests, abilities, aptitudes and available opportunities; 6. To encourage special talents and develop right attitudes; 7. To inspire successful endeavor toward he attainment or realization of objectives; 8. To assist the pupil in planning for his educational and vocational choices – formulating plans for vocations, making surveys of employment opportunities, administering vocational or aptitude test, gathering cumulative occupational information, following-up pupils for placement and sponsoring convocations, programs, and career day seminars.
  8. 8. Essential Elements of Counseling Process Downing (1965) enumerated eight (8) essentials to the counseling process as follows: 1. Anticipating the interview. 2. Developing a positive working relationship. 3. Exploring feelings and attitudes 4. Reviewing and determining present status. 5. Considering existing problems. 6. Exploring alternatives. 7. Making decision. 8. Post counseling contact.
  9. 9. Ethical Standards in Counseling 1. Counselors concern is always the welfare of the client. 2. The counselor should be competent enough to serve the client. He/She should have the necessary skills and training. 3. The confidentiality of the cases should always be observed. Cases on suicide, crimes committed, addiction and anything that pertains to threat to life may violate confidentiality policy. 4. There should be a record or file for every client and every significant things said in the counseling sessions or every important datum like test results should be recorded.
  10. 10. Types of Counseling Directive or Clinical Counseling  this type of counseling allows the counselor to give the counselee information about himself, his opportunities, his problems. Non-Directive Counseling  this is also known as client-centered counseling. Eclectic Counseling  this is the merger of both directive and non-directive counseling. The counselor should be competent and proficient in incorporating this method so that a happy medium can be affected. (Thorns)
  11. 11. Steps Involved in Directive Counseling 1. Analysis  It includes collection of information about the individual which can be collected through structured interviews, psychological case history methods, Interaction with family members, friends, etc. 2. Synthesis  After collection of lot data the information is organized in the logical manner to analyse the individual in terms of his qualifications, assets, potentials, liability adjustment, cultural background, habits etc. 3. Diagnosis  The diagnosis consists of the interpretation of the data in relation to the nature and problem, the causes of problems.
  12. 12. 4. Prognosis  Under this step a prediction is made about the future development of the problem. 5. Counseling  The counseling here is to bring about adjustment and re-adjustment to the individual in relation to his problem. Attitudes and interest of the individual are considered during the counseling.It emphasis the individual to develop life cycle where an effort in the positive direction could lead to success and success in turn could lead to further efforts and motivations. 6. Follow -up  The sixth step in directive counseling is follow up which is extremely important. An individual may be able to solve immediate problems through counseling but new problems may occur or the original problem may re-occur. Follow-up with the client is extremely necessary. The role of counselor is important as he has to make the individual understand and accept his strength and also his weakness and faults.
  13. 13. Steps Involved in Non- Directive Counseling 1. Defining the Problematic Situation:  First of all the counselor should define the problematic situation. 2. Free Expression of Feelings:  After the first step, the client is made aware of the fact that he can express his feelings freely and the counselor approves this. 3. Development of Insight:  The counselor goes on thinking regarding the client's new feelings along with the development of client's insight and he goes on classifying all those new feelings. 4. Classification of Positive and Negative Feelings:  After the free expression of feelings by the client, the counselor identifies his negative and positive feelings and he classifies them. 5. Termination of Counseling Situation:  The counselor looks for a point where he can terminate the counseling situation after all the above steps. According to this school of thought, either the client or the counselor can suggest for such termination of counseling situation.
  14. 14. Steps Involved in Eclectic Counseling 1. Diagnosis of the cause. 2. Analysis of the problem. 3. Preparation of a tentative plan for modifying factors. 4. Securing effective conditions for counseling. 5. Interviewing and stimulating the client to develop his own resources and to assume its responsibility for trying new modes of adjustment. 6. Proper handling of any related problems which may contribute to adjustment.
  15. 15. -the end- Thank you…. ;)
  16. 16. Tools and Techniques Used in the Guidance Process Report by Añago Glory and Pedragoza, Ma. Donna
  17. 17. The Anecdotal Records  Anecdotal records are record of an episode in the life of a student. It describes one significant of a students overt behavior. It is also a narrative of events in which the student takes such a part as to reveal something which may be significant to his/her personality.  A written record kept in a positive tone of a child‘s progress based on milestone particular to that child social, emotional, physical, aesthetics, and cognitive development.  It is useful for reporting a child‘s progress
  18. 18. Effective Anecdotal Records The following guidelines should be observed when writing the record: • Record observation at the time behavior is observed rather than at a later time. • Utilize a standardized anecdotal record form to record the information to help insure that all relevant information is included. • Record what is actually observed rather than your feelings about the incident.
  19. 19. Effective Anecdotal Records • Use performance terms to describe behavior. • Be careful about including information about other students (by name) in the record. • Be aware that parents and other professionals will have access to the record.
  20. 20. Anecdotal record (Sample) Student: Christopher Jones Age: 6 years, 2 months Observer: Wendy Jones Date: 7th July 20XX, 11:45am Setting: Classroom Purpose: To observe Christopher's sentence structure with peers. Observational question: Does Christopher use simple sentences or more complex sentences when interacting with his peers?
  21. 21. Observation details: Christopher played with the drama materials for 15 minutes, using the dress-ups and examining himself in the mirror. He walked over to the home corner table and said to another boy, 'Hey give me that.' He took the spoon from the other student. I spoke to Christopher and asked him to give the spoon back to the other student. He gave the spoon back and said, 'I like choc milk and a biscuit too!' I asked the children to pack away. Another adult approached Christopher asking him to help pack away. Christopher replied to the adult, 'And then can we go outside?' The adult replied 'Yes!' Christopher shouted 'Yay' and started packing away. Analysis: Christopher was able to use both simple and complex sentence structure. He demonstrated confidence in his interactions with his peers. Christopher was able to engage in appropriate 'turn taking' during his brief conversation with an adult.
  22. 22. Anecdotal Record Activity: ____Learning center – Table toys_ Date: _____11/09/02______ Name: ______ Tommy Tantrum__________ Recorder: ____Tina Teacher___ Tommy ran over to the table where other students were completing puzzles shouting, ―Here I come!‖ He then approached another student and asked, ―Can I have that puzzle?‖ Other student: No, I‘m not finished. Jimmy: But I need that one to build my rocket ship. Other student: Mrs. H says you have to wait your turn. Jimmy: Mrs. H, Mrs. H, can I have that puzzle now? Mrs. H: when is finished, you may have a turn. Jimmy: Set the timer then. (to other student) You have 1 minute, right Mrs. H? Jimmy then sat at the table with his face supported by his hands and repeated 5 times, Time is almost up. When the timer rang, Jimmy took the puzzle and dumped it and began assembling it himself.
  23. 23. • Anyone reviewing this record can ―see‖ exactly what occurred at the table. Notice how bias words such as ―demanded‖, ―grabbed‖ or ―whined‖ are omitted. An anecdotal record should be written in a positive tone. It needs to emphasize what a child is doing and his or her achievements as opposed to what the child is not doing. These records help defend and/or support other observations or opinions concerning a child‘s skill. They are particularly helpful in areas of social/emotional and behavioral skills.
  24. 24. Procedures in Organizing Anecdotal Records 1. Staff Orientation – is very because preparation of anecdotal record are done by the staff. 2. Preparation of forms - Once the staff has decided to proceed with the plan reporting anecdotes, forms for reporting the anecdotes must be formulated. This form must be simple and applicable to a definite situation.
  25. 25. Example of Anecdotal Report Form and Record form
  26. 26. 3. Reporting Anecdotes - Anecdotal reporting must remain as objective as possible. Positive incidents of pupil‘s behavior sometimes are more significant than negative incident. 4. Collection and Storage of Anecdotes - Systematic and convenient method of collecting anecdotes must be adopted. 5. Summarization of anecdotal record.
  27. 27. Types of Anecdotal Records Randall gives the four types of anecdotal record as follows: 1. Objective description of a specific data. 2. Description of incident followed by interpretation. 3. Description of incident followed by interpretation and recommendation. 4. Description of an incident in which description and interpretation are inter – mixed.
  28. 28. Advantages of Anecdotal Record 1. Deepens understanding of student‘s behavior. 2. Student‘s behavior is seen in its full context. 3. Developed of skills in identifying the causes of disturbances.
  29. 29. Disadvantages of Anecdotal Record 1. Difficulty in securing objective report. Teachers report their reaction rather than their observation. 2. Difficulty in securing reports on many students.
  30. 30. Characteristics of a Good Anecdotal Record 1. Objectivity. It must be objective, disregarding personal, emotional reaction of the reporter to the incident observed. 2. Specific. It must include specific action, direct observation and a fair sequence of incident. 3. Adequate background information. It must give definite information about time, place, and person involved as well as name, age and the specific situation wherein the subject or counselee is observed.
  31. 31. 4. Selectivity. Teachers and trained workers can select which of the anecdotes are significant in understanding a counselee‘s problem. 5. Reliability. The report must be based on one‘s personal observation and not mere hearsay.
  32. 32. Autobiography An autobiography is an individual‘s life story – routine behavior, attitudes, interests, ideals – written by himself. It is a genetic approach to a study of interests, choices or plans. It is a means of securing information about individual. Autobiographies help counselor understand the pupils. They are form of the therapeutic treatment, releasing tension within an individual. Autobiographies serve as an effective source of information in the counseling process.
  33. 33. The following outline can guide teachers and counselors who make use of the autobiography technique— 1. Early life history Birth – date, place Place in the family— Parents, brothers, sisters – names, ages, place of birth of parents occupation of parents, religion, language spoken, early childhood memories Interest facts about occupations, talents, achievements 2. Health – height, weight, vision, hearing, early diseases
  34. 34. 3. Schooling – schools attended, subject like best, least, plans after school, significant school experiences 4. Leisure – interest - hobby, reading interest, movies, concert 5. Vocational information – work experience, type of work liked best, least, help given by family 6. Personal history – the counselee as a person physical appearance, social interest, philosophy of life,
  35. 35. Cumulative Record It is a written accumulation of significant factual information about an individual which if maintained and progressively developed over a sufficient period of time, gives a summarized case history and indicates the direction and rate of development of individual. Record should cover the entire span of the student‘s school career and should be kept in a safe place.
  36. 36. Content of a Cumulative Record Card 1. Personal Data Personal data give introductory information about a child like his name, sex, date of birth, age, parent ‗s name, and family background. 2. Family background and Home environment Can identify possible areas of concern – whether the family is intact; whether the socio- economic situation is sufficient to meet need of the family; whether parents or siblings are possible sources of emotional support or problems.
  37. 37. 3. Academic data It deals with the information about the previous school attended earlier, present grade or class, examination appeared, results, division, and percentage of marks in each examination, failure, percentage of attendance etc.
  38. 38. weight, blood pressure, communicable disease if any treatments given, food habits, exercise parental disease if any, care taken and handicap.
  39. 39. 5. Co – curricular activities data – the child participation in different co-curricular activities, leadership qualities, certificates awarded, prizes and medal received are recorded. 6. Personality characteristics – this reveal the psychological aspects like intellectual ability, self confidence, emotional stability, leadership qualities, tolerance, initiative and sense of responsibility.
  40. 40. Case Study  It is a careful study and interpretation of pertinent data concerning the students development and problems and some suitable recommendation.  Case study involves the students background, environment, interpersonal relations and factors influencing his development and adjustments.  Case study employs the use of researches, test, interviews and observation.
  41. 41. Some points to be observed in making a case study: 1. Select a case that gives you interest both from the standpoint of the nature of the case and the personality of individual. 2. If possible, choose one student from one of your class whom you feel needs attention and help and who will probably cooperate with you. 3. When considering various students, give some thought to the shy, quiet, retiring students.
  42. 42. Values of Case Study 1. A considerate number of students in the school who were most seriously in need of careful individual attention and guidance were subject of detailed study. 2. Each case investigator acquired a better understanding of cumulative records and a great insight into the relationship of those records to the immediate needs of the pupils. 3. The case studies form a basis for group discussion conferences between the different teachers of each pupil.
  43. 43. Outline of a Case Method 1. Symptom This involves finding his chronological age, the marks received in various subjects, instances of misconduct, tardiness and absences from school, etc. 2. Examination a. Psycho- physical 1. Vision 2. Hearing
  44. 44. 3. Coordination (neuro-muscular) – no good test are available but careful observation will give helpful data. b. Health 1. Vital index 2. Nutrition 3. Teeth 4. General physical condition c. Scores in Achievement Test d. School Progress e. Summary of Teacher Statement
  45. 45. f. Learning Defect g. Social History h. Health History i. Personality Problems j. Observation of Pupil k. Summary l. Tentative Diagnosis
  46. 46. Observation Observation is basic to other guidance techniques. The behavior and personality of an individual are measured in terms of what he says and does. It provides a practical way of testing the worth of certain ideas that have been formulated about the individual; and it can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the steps that are being taken to facilitate the individual‘s learning, development, and adjustment.
  47. 47. Conducting an Observation Based on the research conducted by Shertzer (1976), the following guidelines may be used to improve observation: 1. Before observation takes place, determined what is to be observed. 2. Observed only one pupil at a time. 3. Watch for significant behavior. 4. Spread observations over the school day. 5. Learn to observe without resorting to writing notes during the observation period. 6. If possible, record and summarize the observation immediately after it is completed.
  48. 48. Here are some aspects of behavior to be watched by an observer: a) Desire to get attention or recognition from associates. b) Tendency toward mastery submission c) Display of rivalry d) Tendency to tease, to be inquisitive, to play e) Desire to cooperate or compete in class f) Study habits g) Speed in reading h) Completion of homework
  49. 49. i. Ways of answering question, of asking questions. j. Social adaptability k. Leadership qualities l. Interest in school work m. Speech difficulties, physical defects n. Attempts at cheating, acts of dishonesty. o. Paying attention
  50. 50. Thank you!
  51. 51. Methods and techniques used in the Guidance process (Continuation) Presented By: Ma. Donna M. Pedragoza CPE – August 17, 2013
  52. 52. Rating Scale • It is a scale as any order by which individuals may compared and a rating is estimated based on qualities and abilities. • It is used in obtaining from others an estimate of their impression or judgment on the individual with respect to the characteristics named in a scale. • It is a form that presents a list of descriptive words or phrases which are checked by the rater.
  53. 53. Types of Rating Scale  Numerical scales Descriptive scales Paired comparisons Graphic rating scale
  54. 54. Numerical scales • It employs numbers for denoting gradations and the meaning of each number is defined.
  55. 55. How would you rate industriousness? ________ Indolent, expends little effort ________ Frequently does not complete work ________ Gets required work done, but no more ________Steady worker and occasionally does more than required Descriptive scales • Scales are sometimes constructed which employs a series of phrases describing various degrees of characteristic rated.
  56. 56. Paired Comparisons • The rater compares person rated with respect to trait to every other individual rated in general terms of “equal”, “better” or ”
  57. 57. Graphic Rating scale • This is the most widely used type of rating scale.
  58. 58. Sociometry It involves using students spontaneous choices as an index for arranging interpersonal relations in the classroom, state their preferences for the other member of the group as teammates, partners in work activities, leader of the group and similar position implying personal relationship. The purpose of this methods is to measures the individuals‘ social stimulus value, or in other words, their social worth or personal value as viewed by their associates.
  59. 59. In sociometric methods
  60. 60. Interview It is considered as the heart of counseling. It is a face–to–face relationship involving the process of information giving and getting and understanding. •  The purpose of interview is to obtain relevant information and focused on the content specified by the interview objectives.
  61. 61. Degree of Structure Interview can be Structured or unstructured.  An interview is structured when the interviewer and the interviewee sit down together as if they are going to fill out a questionnaire.  An interview is unstructured if it is conducted much like a conversation.
  62. 62. Different kinds of interviews: a. Educational guidance b. Marriage counseling c. Religious counseling d. Health counseling e. Family and home counseling f. Employment interview g. Adjustment interview
  63. 63. Steps in interview: 1. Preparing for the interview. 2. Establishing rapport. 3. Developing insight. 4. Terminating the interview. 5. Keeping records of the interview. 6. Evaluation of the interviewer.
  64. 64. Types of Questions • Open (General) Questions- Allow a wide range of responses, elicit a variety of response, and useful when dealing with complex issues. Open – ended questions allow the interviewee to select from among his full repertoire of responses. Close (Specific) Questions- it call for specific responses. The questions channels the interviewee‘s responses even when he does not have an opinion on the subject.
  65. 65. Interview Approaches • An interview approach is direct when the questions explain the purpose of the interview and direct the interviewee‘s attention to the information being solicited. • An indirect approach states the purpose of the interview vaguely. It is used to reduce the influence of the interview situation on the interviewee‘s responses.
  66. 66. Test and testing • The most commonly used specialized technique in guidance and counseling. Test are tasks, together with the method of appraising those tasks, which define an ability. They may be an investigation, a study, a review or an inquisition.
  67. 67. What are tests used for? 1.)Tests are used as basis for admission into an educational institution. Accdg.to Fine , test serve as a measuring rod to help teachers and the administrative staff in adjusting students who transfer from one school to another. 2.) Tests serve to give information – an individual’s ability, interests, aptitudes, and plans. 3.) Test are basis for promotion. 4.) Tests are used to compare students belonging to one school, students of different schools but in the same class level, or to determine the winners in
  68. 68. 5. Tests are used for classifications of pupils into sections. 6.) Tests determine which students are specially gifted in different academic subjects. 7. Tests evaluate standards of different schools. 8. Survey tests reveal cases of ineffective study habits. 9. Test are techniques of guidance whereby individual learners are helped to adjust to the school, the curriculum, other people; to make a vocational choice; to determine aptitudes and interest.
  69. 69. Types of Tests  Achievement tests  Standardized tests  Intelligence tests  Aptitude tests  Interest-inventory tests  Personality tests  Trade tests  Diagnostic tests
  70. 70. Achievement tests – These are test devised to measure achievement in the subject studied in school. Standardized tests – these are tests prepared by a competent group or groups of persons whereby every item is chosen after its difficulty and value have been determined by means of rigid experimental cases. Intelligence tests – it measures general intelligence, the IQ of the counselee. Aptitude tests – Aptitude is a present condition, a quality or set of qualities for fitness which are indicative of any individual’s potentials in the future.
  71. 71. Interest-inventory tests – it reveals the field or fields in which pupils are interested. Personality Tests – Personality is the sum total of an individual’s behavior and includes an individual’s overt behavior and inner feelings. It is the totality of what makes an individual different from one another. Trade Tests – are designed to determine the skills, special abilities and techniques that make an individual fit for a give occupation. Diagnostic test – are aimed to uncover and focus attention on weaknesses of individuals for remedial purposes.
  72. 72. Diagnostic test
  73. 73. Intelligence test
  74. 74. Answer sheets in Achievement test
  75. 75. Aptitude test
  76. 76. Prepared by: Jasmin D. Gelle
  77. 77. Theoretical Approach to Counseling
  78. 78. Counseling • This counseling approach stresses counselee‘s ability to determine the issues discussed and to solve their own problems. Counselor intervention in this process is minimal.
  79. 79. The major elements which characterize the client-centered counseling are: a.) The quality of the relationship between counselor and the client is of maximum importance. The relationship is the heart of the therapy. b.) The emotional aspects of the relationship are far more important than the intellectual.
  80. 80. c. The interaction within the relationship is the element which provides the catharsis. d.) The immediate situation is the focus of attention, its accompanying feelings providing the fountain for expression. e.) The counseling experience provides the opportunity for growth.
  81. 81. f.) Advising, interpreting and diagnosing limit the client’s freedom and may threaten rather than aid his growth. g.) The relationship is warm, accepting and permissive but is relatively narrow in its coverage.
  82. 82. 2. The Counselor-Centered Approach • This approach often sees the counselor as a teacher who directs the learning process. Directive counselors stress assessment and diagnosis as a fundamental counselor function.
  83. 83. The following are some points of emphasis within the directive approach: a.) Considerable responsibility is assumed by the counselor. This is made manifest in the structuring he provides, the direction he gives, his activity in the relationship and his sharing in the decisions and outcomes. b.) There is concern for techniques, procedures and the systematic attack upon problems.
  84. 84. c.) Counseling tools play an important part in the counseling effort. Objective data are used to improve client self- understanding and to serve as guide for the counselor to determine procedures to be used. d.) Diagnosis is a major step in the therapeutic relationship.
  85. 85. e.) The counselor interprets for the client to gain intellectual insights and knowledge for future growth and progress. f.) Purposeful questions are posed by the counselor to stimulate the thinking of the client and to gain information.
  86. 86. g.) The intellectual aspects, not the emotional demand first attention. h.) Decisions reached are to a great extent those of the counselor but with the aid and approval of the client. i.) Judgment of tools, instruments and techniques are the prerogative of the counselor.
  87. 87. 3. Existential Counseling Focus on freedom of choice and action that goes with it. They view people as the author of their lives. According to them, the meaning of life can be discovered in three ways: a.) by doing a deal; b.) by experiencing a value; c.) by suffering.
  88. 88. The existentialist give emphasis on the following: a.) It helps clients realize the importance of responsibility, awareness, freedom and potential. b.) Clients will take more responsibility for their lives than they have previously taken. c.)The patient experience his existence as real and gives meaning to his life.
  89. 89. d.) The client is freed from being an observer and becomes a shaper of meaningful personal activity. e.) Existential counselor make use of confrontation. f.) Counselors do not make use of psychological tests, nor do they make diagnosis.
  90. 90. 4. The Eclectic Approach • Is best characterized by its freedom to use whatever techniques or procedures seem to the counselor to be the most appropriate at any particular time.
  91. 91. A summary of the eclectic view a.) The methods used are justified by the counselor because of their appropriateness for both the client and the counselor. b.) It is characterized by flexibility c.) Freedom of choice and of expression is open to both counselor and the client.
  92. 92. d.) Modification of methods is made in an effort to accommodate the client. e.) Feelings of comfort are essential. f.) The counselor make adaptations and adjustments.
  93. 93. 5. The Gestalt Therapy (Gestalt means whole figure) • Focused on helping individuals become more in touch with the many aspects of their personhood.
  94. 94. Techniques in the Counseling Process
  95. 95. Techniques in the Counseling Process 1. Listening Techniques 2. Reflection and Clarification Technique 3. Leading 4. Interpretation 5. Instruction 6. Structuring 7. Capping
  96. 96. Types of Counseling According to Areas Covered Academic / Educational Vocational / Occupational / Career Personal / Social o Diet Counseling o Crisis Counseling
  97. 97. Types of Counseling According to Areas Covered - Key Elements according to Conner 1) Education 2) Observation and awareness 3) Discovering and using potential 4) Understanding problems 5) Creating necessary structure
  98. 98. 6) Challenging irrational beliefs and unrealistic expectations 7) Breaking vicious cycles and addictive behavior 8) Creating temporary dependencies 9) Facing fear and emotional pain 10)Recognizing that one is not destroyed - Key Elements according to Conner
  99. 99. o Grief or Bereavement Counseling o Pastoral Counseling o Leisure Counseling a)The kind of Leisure activities that are suitable for the individual b)When and/or How long one must engage in leisure activities Types of Counseling According to Areas Covered
  100. 100. o Addiction Counseling a) Substance Abuse b) Cyber Addiction c) Addiction to the Addicted Types of Counseling According to Areas Covered
  101. 101. Types of Counseling According to Participants • Individual counseling • Group Counseling • Multiple Counseling • Couple Counseling • Family Counseling
  102. 102. T – h – a – n – k Y – o – u ! ! !
  103. 103. Testing
  104. 104. Meaning of Test • Tests are tasks which define ability. They may be investigation, study review or an inquisition. • a procedure, reaction, or reagent used to identify or characterize a substance or constituent . • something (as a series of questions or exercises) for measuring the skill, knowledge, intelligence, capacities, or aptitudes of an individual or group
  105. 105. Purposes of Test
  106. 106. specific purposes and aims as follows: 1. To determine student achievement level and progress. 2. To gain data for diagnostic purposes. 3. To ascertain aptitudes. 4. To provide for the identification of interests.
  107. 107. 5. To improve instruction. 6. To determine existing self- concepts and attitudes. 7. To ascertain social adjustments. 8. To identify under achievers and over achievers.
  108. 108. Limitations of Testing
  109. 109. Abilities,attitudes,and interests. The Following are some of the critical limiting factors in test usage: 1. Low motivation of some students 2. Relative narrowness of the traits measured.
  110. 110. 3. Low validity and reliability for some students 4. The unavailability of local norms. 5. Undue influence of environmental conditions upon test results. 6. Failure to follow directions.
  111. 111. Uses and Types of Testing
  112. 112. Uses of Tests Tests are used for as follows: 1. Test are used as basis for admission into an educational institution. 2. Tests serve to give information on the student’s ability, interests, aptitudes and plans. 3. Tests are basis for promotion.
  113. 113. 4. Tests are used for classifying student’s into sections. 5. Tests serve as determinants in choosing a vocation/career. 6. Tests serve as evaluating instruments in determining the standard of a school. 7. Tests serve as an instrument in judging student’s abilities and capabilities.
  114. 114. Type of Tests
  115. 115. 1. Aptitude test 2. Achievement test 3. Interest Inventory test 4. Intelligence test 5. Personality test 6. Occupational/Career test 7. Diagnostic test
  116. 116. 1.Aptitude Test • The aptitude test measure a pupil’s potential for learning. The knowledge gained from this tests are useful in ascertaining the approximate quality of school work a child might be expected to do.
  117. 117. 2.Achievement Test • Achievement test have been used for many years in elementary and secondary schools and have helped teachers to identify academic strength and weaknesses. • Achievements test are designed to measure the outcomes of instruction, the progress pupils have made in attaining proficiency as a result of
  118. 118. 3. Interest Inventory Test • Interest inventories provide scores from which patterns of interest are established . These patterns indicate the kinds of vocational activities that have the greatest are shown on the profile sheets. • Area of interest are shown , not specific jobs.
  119. 119. 4. Intelligence Tests • These measure general intelligence, particularly the IQ of the counselee and the pupil’s potential for learning . • These test normally yield a mental age, intelligence quotient and a percentile rank.
  120. 120. 5. Personality Tests • Personality is the sum total of an individual’s overt and inner feelings. These kinds of tests often stimulate the student to give more serious consideration o his own personality development and better understanding about human personality and its development.
  121. 121. 6. Occupational/Career Test • These are designed to determine the skills, special abilities and techniques that make an individual fit for a given occupation. These tests are not comprehensive enough but they help in the selection of applicants for particular jobs or occupation.
  122. 122. 7. Diagnostic Test • The purpose of this test is to determine the weaknesses of the individual so that remedies could be done to overcome it.
  123. 123. The Gifted Child DIORIE C. CELADA
  124. 124. Guidance Service: 1. Identify the nature of his giftedness 2. Making the information available 3. Providing stimulation and direction • Efforts should be made to help each child develop his abilities to the highest degree possible The Guidance Service and The Gifted Child
  125. 125. The Concern of the Guidance for the Gifted Child ―AWARENESS‖  starting point * Guidance people can be satisfied with the knowledge that giftedness is attributed to both hereditary influences and the rich environmental stimulation
  126. 126. The Concern of the Guidance for the Gifted Child Locating the gifted child Ascertaining the nature of his giftedness Provide education for maximum development
  127. 127. Identifying The Gifted Child  The gifted child is often neglected in school because he is able to do satisfactory work with very little teacher time or direction  Many talents remain undeveloped for want of needed direction and stimulation that only the teacher can provide  The guidance service has a genuine interest in locating all talents among students and is not neglecting any student irrespective of the number of talents possessed
  128. 128. Identifying The Gifted Child George Mead ( 1935 ) Six Kinds of Giftedness 1. Intellectual Gift 2. Giftedness of aesthetic character 3. Superb physical gift 4. High moral and spiritual values 5. High level social understanding and living 6. Great economic ability
  129. 129. Characteristics of the Gifted Child Cutts and Moseley ( 1959 ) 1. Demonstrate unusual ability in several areas. These may be in academic subjects or in other areas. 2. Demonstrate unusual ability as a leader. This may be attributed to his superior knowledge rather than unusual social skills. Instead, the gifted child may also be a lonely child.
  130. 130. Characteristics of the Gifted Child 3. General maturity level is above average and he may give the impression of being older than he is. 4. Generally gets along well with others and has several friends. 5. Responds quickly to a problem and able to reach a solution quickly.
  131. 131. Characteristics of the Gifted Child 6. His verbal expressions, vocabulary, reading ability and spelling skills are usually superior. 7. Learns more quickly and retain information longer than the average student. 8. Make adequate interpretation of information. 9. Deals with abstraction without the benefit of concrete examples and detailed explanations.
  132. 132. EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
  133. 133. • Exceptional Child / Learners are, “those who require special education and related services if they are to realize their full human potential.” Definitions:
  134. 134. The term exceptional children includes children who experience difficulties in learning as well as those whose performance is so superior that modifications in curriculum and instruction are necessary to help them fulfill their potential.
  135. 135. Thus, exceptional children is an inclusive term that refers to children with learning and/or behavior problems, children with physical disabilities or sensory impairments, and children who are intellectually gifted or have a special talent.
  136. 136. HUNT (1982) • who deviate from the average child in physical, mental, emotional or social characteristics to such an extent that they require special educational services in order to develop to their maximum capacity. EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
  137. 137. CRUICKSHANK (1968) • who deviates intellectually, physically, emotionally so markedly from what is considered to be normal growth and development that he cannot receive maximum benefit from a regular school program and requires a special class or supplementary instructions and services.
  138. 138. • Exceptionalities may involve and of the following abilities: – Sensory – Physical – Emotional – Communicative – Behavioral Exceptionalities
  139. 139. CLASSIFICATION OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 1. The Physically Handicapped Child 2. The Child with an Intellectual Handicap 3. The Emotionally Maladjusted Child 4. The Gifted - Child
  140. 140. PHYSICALLY HANDICAP
  141. 141. INTELLECTUAL HANDICAP
  142. 142. EMOTIONALLY MALADJUSTED CHILD
  143. 143. GIFTED CHILD
  144. 144. INSPIRATIONAL VIDEO
  145. 145. • Difficulties with attention and concentration. • Difficulty with getting along with others. • Easily frustrated. • Impulsive inactions. • Continual restlessness. • Poor self-concept. How to Recognize a Student with Special Needs
  146. 146. Successful Methods • Nurture strong leader-child relationships. • Spend time to develop a well-planned lesson. • Establish a positive, warm, inviting mood. • Establish rules. • Develop consistent routines for class time. • Promote “time-on-task.
  147. 147. • Choose meaningful activities. – Short, with limited instruction. – Keep the leader free to move about with the children. – Allow all children to be successful. – Build a strong sense of belongingness. – Provide alternative activities to accommodate a variety of abilities.
  148. 148. • Place them in “traffic” areas of the room. • Maintain a “calm” environment, free from excess noise or activity. • Seat them near the leader. A gently touch on the should will often refocus and settle them. Creating an Atmosphere
  149. 149. • Avoid snacks that are high in sugar, artificial colors and flavors, & caffeine. • Surround them with calm and controlled children. • Do only one activity at a time. • Demonstrate patience and gentleness consistently. • Give clear directions and have the children repeat them.
  150. 150. EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
  151. 151. • Exceptional Child / Learners are, “those who require special education and related services if they are to realize their full human potential.” Definitions:
  152. 152. The term exceptional children includes children who experience difficulties in learning as well as those whose performance is so superior that modifications in curriculum and instruction are necessary to help them fulfill their potential.
  153. 153. Thus, exceptional children is an inclusive term that refers to children with learning and/or behavior problems, children with physical disabilities or sensory impairments, and children who are intellectually gifted or have a special talent.
  154. 154. HUNT (1982) • who deviate from the average child in physical, mental, emotional or social characteristics to such an extent that they require special educational services in order to develop to their maximum capacity. EXCEPTIONAL CHILD
  155. 155. CRUICKSHANK (1968) • who deviates intellectually, physically, emotionally so markedly from what is considered to be normal growth and development that he cannot receive maximum benefit from a regular school program and requires a special class or supplementary instructions and services.
  156. 156. • Exceptionalities may involve and of the following abilities: – Sensory – Physical – Emotional – Communicative – Behavioral Exceptionalities
  157. 157. CLASSIFICATION OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 1. The Physically Handicapped Child 2. The Child with an Intellectual Handicap 3. The Emotionally Maladjusted Child 4. The Gifted - Child
  158. 158. PHYSICALLY HANDICAP
  159. 159. INTELLECTUAL HANDICAP
  160. 160. EMOTIONALLY MALADJUSTED CHILD
  161. 161. GIFTED CHILD
  162. 162. INSPIRATIONAL VIDEO
  163. 163. • Difficulties with attention and concentration. • Difficulty with getting along with others. • Easily frustrated. • Impulsive inactions. • Continual restlessness. • Poor self-concept. How to Recognize a Student with Special Needs
  164. 164. Successful Methods • Nurture strong leader-child relationships. • Spend time to develop a well-planned lesson. • Establish a positive, warm, inviting mood. • Establish rules. • Develop consistent routines for class time. • Promote “time-on-task.
  165. 165. • Choose meaningful activities. – Short, with limited instruction. – Keep the leader free to move about with the children. – Allow all children to be successful. – Build a strong sense of belongingness. – Provide alternative activities to accommodate a variety of abilities.
  166. 166. • Place them in “traffic” areas of the room. • Maintain a “calm” environment, free from excess noise or activity. • Seat them near the leader. A gently touch on the should will often refocus and settle them. Creating an Atmosphere
  167. 167. • Avoid snacks that are high in sugar, artificial colors and flavors, & caffeine. • Surround them with calm and controlled children. • Do only one activity at a time. • Demonstrate patience and gentleness consistently. • Give clear directions and have the children repeat them.

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