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Session 11 renewable energy

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renewable energy

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Session 11 renewable energy

  1. 1. Session 11 - Renewables • • • • • • Biomass Geothermal Hydro Solar Ocean Based Wind
  2. 2. Renewable Sources • Solar • Gravitational • Radioactive All have a nuclear history
  3. 3. Attractiveness of Renewables Generally: • It’s abundant, available everywhere • Does not deplete Earth’s resources • Minimal environmental impact
  4. 4. Challenges • Technological Challenges – – – – Low capture efficiency Low energy density Lack of dispatchability Environmental issues • Integration Challenges – – – – – Small present contribution High capital costs Materials ramp up limitations Storage, location vs. load, transmission lines Output versus load requirements
  5. 5. Overview of Conversion Processes • Solar – Photons to electricity (photoelectric effect) – Electromagnetic wave to heat (absorption) – Thermal expansion to kinetic – Electromagnetic wave to chemical (photosyn.) – EM wave to phase change, storage (hydro)
  6. 6. Overview of Conversion Processes (continued) • Gravitational – Potential energy to Kinetic energy (hydro) – Differential kinetic energies (ocean) – Thermal energy from plates, magma • Nuclear – Nuclear to thermal (radioactive decay of K, U, Th in Earth’s interior)
  7. 7. Renewables - 2007
  8. 8. Saturation US Energy Consumption is ~ 100 Quads. By 2050 with 2% annual growth: 230 Q Scenario 1: No conservation, grow wind and solar from levels of 0.4 Q in 2006 by 15% annually: 187 Q in 2050 Scenario 2: Conservation (1% growth), grow wind and solar by 10% annually: 152 Q needed; 27 Q from renewables
  9. 9. Policy • Minnesota’s Next Generation Renewable Energy Objective of 2007: – 25% of electrical energy must derive from renewable fuel by 2025 (30% for Xcel Energy) • US Energy Policy Act of 2005 – Temporary tax breaks for biodiesel – Breaks for closed-loop biomass, solar, wind, geothermal (closed loop = grown exclusively for power production) – Lesser breaks for open-looped biomass, landfill gas, hydroelectric • Minnesota Sustainable Forest Resources Act of 1995 – Provides for multiple uses of forests – Directs Department of Natural Resources to monitor
  10. 10. Policy • Minnesota’s Next Generation Renewable Energy Objective of 2007: – 25% of electrical energy must derive from renewable fuel by 2025 (30% for Xcel Energy) • US Energy Policy Act of 2005 – Temporary tax breaks for biodiesel – Breaks for closed-loop biomass, solar, wind, geothermal (closed loop = grown exclusively for power production) – Lesser breaks for open-looped biomass, landfill gas, hydroelectric • Minnesota Sustainable Forest Resources Act of 1995 – Provides for multiple uses of forests – Directs Department of Natural Resources to monitor

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