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Lecture 9-High Level Waste Management

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Lecture 9-High Level Waste Management

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Lecture 9-High Level Waste Management

  1. 1. High Level Waste Management Chapter 10 Section 3 Dr. John Ringle NE 112 Jump to first page
  2. 2. I. Radioactive Waste A. Classification & Characteristics of Radioactive Waste B. Quantities of Waste C. Sources of Waste D. Current Location Jump to first page
  3. 3. II. Radioactive Waste Management A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. Principles Responsibility HLW - Disposal Options HLW Acts - Congress Characteristics of a Good Geologic Repository Hazards of Deep Geologic Disposal HLW Activity in Other Countries LLW -Disposal Options Hazards of LLW Disposal LLW Acts - Congress LLW Activity in Other Countries TRU Waste Disposal Jump to first page
  4. 4. I. Radioactive Waste A. CLASSIFICATION & CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE CLASS DEFINITION CHARACTERISTICS High Level Waste (HLW) fission and activation products resulting from reprocessing of spent fuel high heat, high γ activity, fairly short t H SPENT FUEL (SF) non-reprocessed spent fuel high heat, high γ activity, α emitters; fairly short t H for γ, long t H for α Transuranic (TRU) Z > 92 t H > 20 yr Act. > 100 nCi/g low heat, α emitters, long t H Mill tailings residue of U mills natural radioactivity, Ra & Rn, α emitters Low Level Waste (LLW) all else - none of the above low heat, moderate γ activity, short t H Defense vs. Commercial waste - depends on the origin of the waste and the nature of the activity that created the waste Jump to first page
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  9. 9. B. QUANTITIES OF WASTE (as of 12-31-96) TYPE VOLUME (m3 ) ACTIVITY (MCi) DEPTH ON FOOTBALL FIELD (ft.) HLW - Commercial 2000 23.6 1.6 HLW - Defense 345,350 878 254 SF - Commercial 13,808 30,000 10.3 SF - Defense 1091 n.a. 0.85 TRU - Defense 238,000 2.74 174 LLW - Commercial 1.75 x 10 6 5.1 1286 LLW - Defense 3.39 x 10 6 12.1 2500 Mill Tailings 119 x 10 6 n.a. 87,600 Jump to first page
  10. 10. C.SOURCES OF WASTE HLW - Defense Hanford; Savannah River (SR), SC; Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL) HLW - Commercial none recently; formerly produced at West Valley, NY SF - Defense none (fuel is reprocessed) SF - Commercial Civilian power plants around U.S. TRU - Defense Hanford, SR, INEL, Rocky Flats TRU - Commercial none LLW - Defense Hanford, SR, INEL LLW - Commercial power plants, industry, hospitals, universities around U.S. Jump to first page
  11. 11. D.CURRENT LOCATION HLW - Defense stored at Hanford, SR, INEL; vitrify and transfer to commercial repository ~ 2010 HLW - Commercial West Valley, NY; vitrify and transfer to commercial repository ~ 2010 SF - Commercial stored at pow er plants; transfer to commercial repository ~ 2010 TRU - stored at Hanford, SR, INEL, Rocky Flats; transfer to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), NM ~ March 1999 Defense LLW - Defense Hanford, SR, INEL, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos LLW - Commercial 2 sites now : Hanford; Barnwell, SC In a few years: 2-5 regional sites (?) Mill Tailings No operational mills; 6 mills on standby status. 26 total tailings storage areas in w estern U.S. Jump to first page
  12. 12. II. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT A. Principles B. Responsibility C. HLW - Disposal Options D. HLW Acts - Congress E. Characteristics of a Good Geologic Repository F. Hazards of Deep Geologic Disposal G.HLW Activity in Other Countries H. LLW -Disposal Options I. Hazards of LLW Disposal J. LLW Acts - Congress K. LLW Activity in Other Countries L. TRU Waste Disposal Jump to first page
  13. 13. II. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT A. PRINCIPLES • Time • Isolation (Distance, Shielding) B. RESPONSIBILITY • U.S. Government: HLW, TRU, Spent Fuel, defense LLW • States: Commercial LLW C. HLW -- DISPOSAL OPTIONS 1. Deep geologic repositories 2. Subseabed 3. Space 4. Ice sheet 5. Transmutation 6. Very deep hole 7. Island burial Jump to first page
  14. 14. D. HLW ACTS -CONGRESS NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982 NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY AMENDMENTS ACT OF 1987 Deep geologic disposal chosen same 2 repositories: 1 in Western U.S. 1 in Eastern U.S. 1 repository: Fee: same 1 mill/kWhr review ed annually Timetable: 1st repository begins accepting w aste by 1998 Yucca Mtn., Nevada fuel acceptance delayed (to ~2010) MRS - If Congress says yes MRS - yes Financial incentive to states w ith MRS or repository: None Financial incentive: $10 M/yr for MRS $20 M/yr for repository DOE designs & builds repository same NRC licenses repository same EPA sets radioactive release limits same Jump to first page
  15. 15. E. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY Very little (or no) groundwater in host rock. Slow water travel time in host rock. Low seismic activity. Non-corrosive environment. High absorptive properties for radionuclides. Good heat dissipation characteristics. Strong enough to support mining activity. Few fractures or cracks. No commercial interest in host rock. Isolated area. Dry climate. Jump to first page
  16. 16. F. HAZARDS OF DEEP GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL Transportation of HLW or SF to repository Shipping casks very important Release to ground water. Barriers:     Waste form (glass or ceramic) Waste canister (metal) Backfill (host rock/clay) Host rock Jump to first page
  17. 17. G. HLW ACTIVITY IN OTHER COUNTRIES Reprocess →HLW disposal Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, former USSR states No reprocessing →SF disposal Canada, Sweden, United States Storage of HLW (vitrified) or SF in water or dry storage Investigate geological repositories Jump to first page
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  21. 21. Waste Package for 21 Pressurized Water Reactor Uncanistered Fuel Assemblies Jump to first page
  22. 22. Waste Package for Five-Canister, Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste/DOE-Owned Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly Jump to first page
  23. 23. Emplacement Drift Section at Waste Package Support Location Jump to first page
  24. 24. Engineered Barrier System Options for the Viability Assessment Jump to first page
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  28. 28. H. LLW -- DISPOSAL OPTIONS 1. Shallow-land burial. 2. Earth-mounded tumulus. 3. Concrete structures—above grade & below grade. 4. Deep trenches. 5. Augered shaft. 6. High-integrity container. 7. Hydrofracture. 8. Underground mines & rock cavities. Jump to first page
  29. 29. I. HAZARDS OF LLW DISPOSAL 1. 2. 3. 1. Transportation of LLW to disposal site. 2. Leakage of LLW via groundwater. 3. Inadvertent intrusion. Jump to first page
  30. 30. J. LLW ACTS -CONGRESS LOW LEVEL WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1980 LOW LEVEL WASTE POLICY AMENDMENTS ACT OF 1985 LLW disposal is a state, not federal responsibility same Encouraged states to join together in regional compacts to deal w ith LLW same By 1-1-86, each state shall have disposal mechanism in operation to handle its LLW. By 7-1-86, non-compact state must ratify compact or enact legislation to provide for operation of instate LLW facility by 1-1-93. By 1-1-88, compacts or states must select LLW sites. By 1-1-90, license application must be filed for LLW facilities. By 1-1-93, access to existing LLW facilities ceases for states outside of the 3 compacts operating these sites. From 1986-1992, existing sites can charge increasing surcharges to w aste from outside the compact. Rebates (25% of surcharge) returned to states or compacts meeting above deadlines. Jump to first page
  31. 31. K. LLW ACTIVITY IN OTHER COUNTRIES Very similar to U.S. Many using shallow-land burial. France -- earth-mounded tumulus. Canada -- augered shafts. W. Germany -- underground mine. Sweden, Canada, Finland, Britain -- rock cavities. Jump to first page
  32. 32. L. TRU WASTE DISPOSAL Very similar in most aspects to HLW disposal. Repository is selected and constructed: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, near Carlsbad, NM. Repository is 2150 ft. below surface in bedded salt. Test phase of WIPP started in 1994. Repository began accepting TRU waste March 1999. Jump to first page
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