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Physical Disabilties and TBI

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Physical Disabilties and TBI

  1. 1. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES<br />AND <br />TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY<br />Chapter Fourteen<br />
  2. 2. TYPES OF DISABILITIES<br />
  3. 3. Physical Disabilities<br />
  4. 4. Physical Disabilities and IDEA<br />
  5. 5. Group of chronic conditions that affect muscle coordination and body movement<br />Damage to one or more parts of the brain<br />Fetal development<br />Birth process <br />Infancy<br />Symptoms often appear at birth through first year<br />1.5 to 4.0 in 1,000 live births<br />No cure – treatment focuses on managing symptoms and related conditions<br />CEREBRAL PALSY <br />
  6. 6. CEREBRAL PALSY <br />
  7. 7. Individuals with cerebral palsy are considered to be multi-disabled<br />Motor development<br />Delayed<br />Fine motor difficulties<br />Gross motor dififculty (gait)<br />Speech & language impairment<br />Intellectual deficits<br />Visual and hearing disabilities & general perceptual problems <br />Seizures <br />CEREBRAL PALSY<br />
  8. 8. Abnormal opening in spinal column frequently causes some form of paralysis<br />May/may not affect intellectual functioning <br />Spina bifida occulta - mild condition in which a small slit is present in one or more of the vertebral structures <br />Little impact on a developing infant<br />SPINA BIFIDA <br />
  9. 9. SPINA BIFIDA <br />Subdivisions of spina bifida cystica:<br />Spina bifida meningocele- a tumor‑like sac on the back of infant which can be open or closed <br />Contains spinal fluid but no nerve tissue<br />Spina bifida myelomeningocele- sac does contain nerve tissue <br />Paralysis or partial paralysis<br />Lack of bowel & bladder control<br />
  10. 10. Spinal cord is traumatized or severed<br />Site & nature of the insult<br />Other serious damage to other parts of body<br />Paraplegia<br />Quadriplegia<br />Hemiplegia <br />SPINAL CORD INJURY <br />
  11. 11. Group of inherited & progressive conditions & characterized by loss of ability to use arms & to walk effectively due to fatty tissues that gradually replaces muscle tissue <br />Degree of seriousness influenced by heredity, age of onset, physical location, nature of onset & rate of progression<br />Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy (DMD) is most severe form of muscular degeneration<br />MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY <br />
  12. 12. Traumatic & Acquired Brain Injury<br />TBI/ABI<br />
  13. 13. Blow to the head or against stationary object<br />Car accidents: head hits windshield<br />Bike accidents: head hits ground<br />Rapid acceleration & deceleration of brain<br />Tearing of nerve fibers<br />Bruising of brain tissue against skull<br />Brain stem injuries<br />Swelling of the brain<br />DEFINITION OF TBI:<br />
  14. 14. TWO Types of Brain Damage<br />
  15. 15. IDEA definition:<br />An acquired injury to the brain<br />Caused by an external force<br />Total or partial functional disability, psychosocial impairment, or both<br />Adversely affects educational performance<br />IDEA recognizes TBI as its own diagnosis and code for special education.<br />TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY and IDEA<br />
  16. 16. Adversely affects:<br />Information processing<br />Social behavior (and control of emotions)<br />Memory<br />Reasoning & thinking<br />Speech & language skills<br />Sensory & motor abilities <br />TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY<br />
  17. 17. Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)<br />Traumatic brain injuries<br />Falls, car accidents, assaults, shaken baby syndrome, combat-related trauma<br />Alcohol-related accidents<br />Non-traumatic brain injuries (no forceful impact to the head)<br />Strokes, vascular accidents, infectious diseases, anoxic or hypoxic injuries (choking and near drowning), illegal drug use, poisoning<br />TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY<br />
  18. 18. At-Risk Groups<br />40% of <br />head injuries<br />Ages 0-5 (falls, SBS, or other abuse)<br />Ages 15-24 (risky behavior, car accidents)<br />Military personnel (blasts are leading cause)<br />Ages 75+ (falls)<br />
  19. 19. CHARACTERISTICS<br />“Flickers” of the individual’s personality at times.<br />Uneven skill maintenance in these areas, depending on area of brain affected.<br />
  20. 20. TREATMENT STAGES<br />Most experience the most improvement within 1st year following the TBI.<br />Over one-third experience life-long effects.<br />
  21. 21. Not the “old” student you knew before the trauma<br />Preparing the school community <br />Preparing the student<br />IEP<br />Short-term<br />Reflect CURRENT needs<br />Educational, communication, physical, social, adaptive skills<br />Adjust often in response to progress within first year<br />Raise expectations to maximize recovery<br />RETURNING TO SCHOOL<br />
  22. 22. POSSIBLE EDUCATIONAL RESPONSE<br />
  • shabansukkar

    Feb. 25, 2015
  • saspak

    Oct. 5, 2013

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