Cultural and linguistic diversity


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  • Hidalgo’s 3 levels1993Hidalgo, N. 1993. Multicultural teacher introspection. In Perry, T. and Fraser, J. (Eds.) Freedom's Plow: Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom. New York: Routledge.
  • These are the PURPOSES of each type of educationControversy between multicultural education and special ed: not all kids from diverse backgrounds need specialed, but specialized services and instruction may address important needs for many of them (is this a reason to place a child from a diverse background in special ed?)
  • Ethnically and culturally diverse groups represent susbtantial portions of the American population
  • Contributes to referral to special edNot a single influence – accompanied by other factors such as lack of health care, increased health and development risks)Discuss – Personal connections, students you knew, why is this, what could be done, how this affects the student coming in to school
  • Contribute to special ed referraldicsuss – How, combined with poverty factors, does this impact the child? Again, personal connections, ideas, etc
  • HOW parents are involved are affected by these 3 thingsView of disability may be different than that of the cultural majorityMay be reluctant to take an active role in the school systemBehaviors “we” see as problematic and in need of special ed are viewed as normal in some cultures. Parents might not see them as problematic.DISCUSS: what types of behavior differences could exist between cultures, how they could be viewed as normal in one culture and abnormal in another, differing views of disability and needing special assistance…
  • Language diversity contributes to assessment difficulties in these 3 waysthen, be referred for special edMay talk with friends and in class and appear fluent in English, but not enough for academic work or assessmentsLanguage difference may cause assessments to give an inaccurate representation of their abilityDISCUSS: what types of tasks could be most difficult to assess knowledge? How language-based cultural differences can play a role in academics
  • How assessments contribute to overrepresentation in special edMainstream culture deciding the diagnoses and treatments for nonmainstream childrenAfrican american students show up far more than they should based on their numbers in the school population – in classrooms for students with ED and IDLatino children are also a growing population in special educationBias – standardized tests criticized b/c the norm sample is the cultural majority and we’re comparing children from different culture with this population. Nonmainstream kids appear disadvantaged due to cultural differences, but someone could assume it’s due to intellectual disabilityCulturally responsive tests have content that is first and foremost comprehensible to the learner. The issue of cultural comprehensibility is complex. In an increasingly multicultural world, most students, including English language learners, will encounter content from many different cultures as part of their schooling. This shift towards cultural pluralism and diversity is to be celebrated. However, test items are usually intended to assess a student's comprehension of academic materials, not their understanding of culture. ELLs cannot be assumed to have background knowledge of cultures different from their own.DISCUSS: - how much should we weight the tests of kids from diverse backgrounds?
  • Page 124
  • Cultural and linguistic diversity

    1. 1. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity<br />Chapter 5<br />
    2. 2. What is CULTURE?<br />
    3. 3. Cultural Pluralism<br /><ul><li>Many cultural subgroups
    4. 4. Not just one “American culture”
    5. 5. Living/learning together
    6. 6. Preserves group differences
    7. 7. Maintains each group’s cultural or ethnic traditions</li></li></ul><li>
    8. 8. Growing Population<br />Substantial portions of the American population<br />Growing population<br />Immigration<br />Birth rates<br />Increased demands on educational system<br />Students from culturally and linguistic diversity do not complete school in the same proportions as students from the cultural majority.<br />
    9. 9. Activity: TRIOS<br />Model for flexible grouping<br />Movement for some<br />Stationary for others<br />Opportunities for engagement with all classmates<br />Fast-paced<br />Freedom to get a little off-topic<br />Topics are “springboards” for related discussions if they occur<br />Our topic: Education for Culturally Diverse Students<br />
    10. 10. Poverty<br />Low socioeconomic status (SES) increases likelihood of circumstances resulting in:<br />Disadvantaged prenatal development<br />Birth complications<br />Environmental conditions in impoverished households may place children at risk:<br />Malnutrition<br />Toxic agents<br />37 million Americans live in poverty.<br />African American women are FOUR TIMES as likely to die during childbirth<br />than White women due to lack of access to prenatal care.<br />African Americans and Latinos are 60% more likely to be turned down for a mortgage loan, AFTER controlling for employment and financial factors.<br />2009, US Census Bureau<br />
    11. 11. Migrancy<br />Often characterized by:<br />Language differences<br />Economic disadvantages<br />Transient lifestyle means, for the child:<br />Moving up to several times a year<br />Reduced continuity of educational programming<br />Average of 17 weeks <br />of work per year. <br />61% living in poverty.<br />25% attend school at grade levels lower than <br />their age peers.<br />More than 1/3 drop out<br />Parents’ median grade level completed: 6th <br />From the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS)<br />
    12. 12. Parent Involvement<br />View of disability and special education<br />Willingness to take an active role<br />View of “problematic” behaviors<br />Chinese-American parents tend to look for community and familial resources to compensate for what school lacks.<br />Learning behaviors vary among cultures.<br />Harvard Family Research Project, 2006<br />
    13. 13. Linguistic Diversity<br />Limited (or no) English proficiency may appear to have speech or language disorders<br />Conversational fluency may “cover up” limited proficiency in academics/assessments<br />Ability not fully represented by assessments<br />Educational<br />psychological<br />
    14. 14. Assessments and Overrepresentation<br />Instruments (psychological, educational, achievement tests)<br />Specific language<br />Content and context<br />Tendency to “favor” cultural majority<br />Procedures<br />Measurement bias <br />inaccuracy of test results related to cultural background, gender, or race<br />Appears in construction of the test itself – not assessing a skill directly, tied to a culture a student may not know about<br />Standardized, norm-referenced tests highly criticized for their norm sample<br />Non-discriminatory testing<br />Diana vs. Board of Ed in 1970<br />Native language<br />Without racial or cultural discrimination<br />Culture-free tests are impossible<br />Create culture-responsive tests<br />Valid assessment tools<br />
    15. 15. Examples of cultural bias in assessment<br />"Linda had 3 tamales and 2 tacos before noon.”<br />"Linda ate 3 tamales and 2 tacos for lunch."<br />"Oscar bought a new sweater that cost two hundred dollars. He paid for the sweater with a credit card with a simple interest rate of 1.7 percent per month and a ten dollar fee for late payments. If Oscar's first payment of $50 was late, what would be the balance on his next monthly statement?”<br />Explanation about credit, interest, and late fees vs. a cash economy<br />"One of the most important speeches was given by Lincoln.”<br />"One of the most important speeches in U.S. history was given by President Lincoln."<br />
    16. 16. Examples of cultural bias in assessment<br />Pam went to a party with a tall pointed hat,. long black cape, and a broom.  She was dressed as a ______. a. witch        b. ghost       c.  cowgirl        d. pumpkin<br />The playmates wore costumes to Sandra's Halloween party. Nellie ________ a tall, black, pointed hat. <br />a. walked        b. wore       c. cared   d. hurt   <br />In the first colonies in America, making clothing took time.  The women first had to spin the yarn.  Clothes for the colonial family were usually made in_____. a. factories        b. homes        c. luxury        d. China<br />
    17. 17. Page 124<br />
    18. 18.<br />For more information, statistics, articles, etc…<br />