15 minutesQuestion – think about ALL barriers, not just physicalAttitudinal barriers – do places in our community allow for loudness, movement, limited reading skills? What if people don’t have a physical disability but a sensory or intellectual one? Are we still accessible to those individuals?
p. 19. read, then share as whole group. (10 minutes max)Labels and diagnoses: mental retardation, epilepsy, autism, physical disability, chronic health problems, serious ED; paralysis from broken neckGoals: to work in a “real job”, earn money, and make decisions about how she spends her own moneyOpportunities: video store job: work with movies which she loves, earn more money, work with non-disabled co-workersSupports needed: behavior supports (schedule, praise, varied ways of giving critical feedback), transportation, banking assistance, money mgt.What issues would the employer raise about her capability to perform the essential functions of the job?2 What could you see as the “reasonable accommodations” necessary to help Sarina succeed at this job if she were hired? Must be able to create a “fair and level playing field”. The test is its effectiveness. Does the accommodation provide an opportunity for the person with a disability to achieve the same level of performance equal to those of a person without a disability? examples: * Change work hours or schedules: i.e. allowing a diabetic employee to take regular meal breaks during a shift. * Modifications of job tasks: i.e. allowing a blind office worker to substitute transcription and duplicating duties for proofreading and filing. * Division of tasks among employees: i.e. allowing a bookkeeper who is deaf to trade phone duties with another employee in exchange for filing duties. * Provide large-button touch-tone telephone for someone who has low vision or poor hand coordination. For Sarina:Copy of alphabet to aid in ABC ordering the videosAllow to be seated for certain tasksUse of Window cleaner and dusting wipes to adapt for use of left hand only
Disorder: a disturbance in normal mental, physical, or psychological functioning. A general and broad term (example: language disorder, eating disorder, psychological disorder - all refer to a broad range of specific conditions)Disability: click for hyperlink slideHandicap: a limitation imposed on a person by the environment and the person’s capacity to cope with that limitation. Ex: a person with a physical disability who uses a wheelchair. When a place isn’t accessible, the disability becomes a handicap. Not everyone with a disability has a handicap in all environments. Comes form phrase “cap in hand” from when disabled persons were forced to beg in the street. Hate seeing that word on signs now!Exceptional: far-reaching term to describe a person who differs substantially from what is typical in terms of physical, behavioral, or intellectual performance. Can mean extraordinary abilities like GT, and/or disabilities like SLD or intellectual disabilities. Labels can be positive or negative, and are often based on perceptions and ideas rather than facts. While labels are necessary by the law in order to obtain and provide services for people, they also promote stereotyping and exclusion.
Video clip of Jen Nesbit from Including SamuelWhy do we do it? – providing services (who gets them , who doesn’t), communication for professionals, special programs based on labels (deaf school, autism waiver)
Developmental approach involves looking at typical development. Statistics tell us what is normal and typical development. Ex: the average 12 month old says 1-2 words and walks independently. Based on data and observations of a large sample of 12 month olds. BEHAVIOR BASEDCultural: here, cultural values define what is typical and normal. People are considered different when they do something that is frowned upon by the rest of their society, according of the majority. VALUE BASEDSelf-labeling: this has to do with how we see ourselves instead of how others see us. So, someone may be labeled by their culture or society but refuse to accept that label as true. Ex: thomas Edison labeled as intellectually disabled, but he understood that he was an individual thinker. Ignored label given to him by others. SELF-PERCEPTION BASEDExample of Thomas Edison rejecting label of being intellectually disabled. All of these approaches influence the effects of being labeled
Important!!Gen ed teachers are providers on the IEP, so this applies to you!Individualized: continuous planning, assessment, adjustment of curriculum and instructional methods to meet student’s needs, even as those needs change. Intensive Instruction: matching instruction to student ability, providing and then fading of prompts and cues, giving concrete feedback regarding task performance, requiring high rates of response from the studentCan be group or 1-1, but must be done over timeLife skills: will cover more in depth later in course, Explicit is more structured and teacher-directedLife skills support the student in school, work, and community
Ch1 and 2
CHAPTER 1 •UNDERSTANDING EXCEPTIONALITIES IN THE 21STCENTURY
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DISABILITY 1970’s: decade of revolution 20th century contradictions: better treatment vs. more negative Infanticide, social view Slavery, Abuse, Abandonment
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DISABILITY Twentieth century marked by contradictions Parental Involvement Sparked legislative action
NOTABLE LEGISLATION & CASES All of this led up to…
THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) Signed in 1990 “No otherwise qualified person with a disability…shall, solely on the basis of disability, be denied access to, or the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity provided by any entity/institution that receives federal financial assistance.”
THE ADA DEFINITION OF DISABILITY Having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits himor her in some major life activity, and having experienced discrimination resulting from this physical or mental impairment
INTENT OF THE ADA The intent of ADA is to create a “fair and level playing field” for all eligible persons with disabilities. To do so the law specifies that reasonable accommodations need to be made that take into account each person’s need resulting from his or her disabilities.
MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE ADA Employment Transportation Public accommodations Government Telecommunications
COMMON TERMINOLOGY A process called labelingis used by every society to identify people who differ significantly from the accepted norm. DISORDER DISABILITY HANDICAP EXCEPTIONAL• Mental • Loss of • Limitation • Substantial• physical functioning • Demands of difference• psychological environment • Individualized • Interferes assistance with development
WHAT’S THE DANGER? What is the danger in labeling people? “Least Dangerous Assumption” So…why do we do it?
DESCRIBING PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENCES The Effects of Being Labeled: Separating the Person and the Label Environmental Bias
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Students with disabilities were denied the right to an education until 1954, when segregation in schools was ended with the landmark FALSE case of Brown vs. Board of Education.
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Today, all students are entitled to a free education that must also be appropriate. TRUE
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? A public school can deny enrollment to a student with a disability if they don’t think they can meet their needs. FALSE
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? A child can receive special education as long as they have been diagnosed with a disability that is covered by IDEA (the law governing special education). FALSE
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? The Individualized Education Plan/Program (I.E.P.), the written framework for delivering special education services, is a legal and binding document that must be implemented by the school. TRUE
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Even if parents don’t want their child to have special education, the school can enter a child into a special education program without the parents’ FALSE consent, if they think it is in the best interest of the child.
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? If a child who receives special education is suspended beyond the maximum amount of days allowed by the school system (generally, 10 days in a school year), the school doesn’t have to provide special education services for those days spent out of school. FALSE
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Even if a child with a disability is serviced in general education classrooms, the special educator is the one responsible for providing the student with the necessary FALSE accommodations.
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? According to IDEA (special ed law), students should be educated with their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. TRUE
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? If a school suspects a child has a disability, they must administer a comprehensive educational assessment to identify if the student is below grade level. FALSE Then, they can determine if the child has a disability.
ORIGINS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION Early Special Education Programs Education as a Privilege but Not a Right Expanding the Role of the Federal Government
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATIONACT (IDEA) What is Special Education? Specially designed instruction provided at not cost to parents across all settings. What Are Related Services? Speech and language therapy Occupational therapy Physical therapy Hearing and vision services Social work
WHO IS ELIGIBLE FOR SPECIAL EDUCATIONAND RELATED SERVICES?1. Identified as having one of the federal disability conditions. AND1. Demonstrated need for specialized instruction and related services in order to receive an appropriate education.
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) Major Provisions of IDEA A Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Nondiscriminatory and Multidisciplinary Assessment Parental Safeguards and Involvement The Individualized Education Program (IEP) Education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) See page 31, figure 2.1
PROVISIONS OF THE INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) Nondiscriminatory and FAPE Multidisciplinary Assessment Parental IEP Safeguards Education in the LRE See page 31, fig. 2.1
CHARACTERISTICS OF EVIDENCE-BASEDSPECIAL EDUCATION PRACTICE Intensive Explicit teaching Individualization Instruction of life skills • Student- • Frequent • Academic centered instructional • Adaptive approach to experiences • Functional making • Significant instructional duration decisions and • Limited plans breaks • 1:1 at times
FEDERAL DISABILITY CODES/CONDITIONS Intellectual disability Multiple disabilities Hearing impairments Other health impairments Speech-language Specific learning impairments disabilities Visual impairments Autism Serious emotional disturbance Traumatic brain injury Orthopedic impairments
COMPONENTS OF THE IEPPresent Levels of Measurable Progress Toward Performance Annual Goals Annual GoalsRelated Services and Testing LRE Explanation Supplementary AccommodationsAids & Services
COMPONENTS OF THE IEP MODIFICATIONS ACCOMMODATIONSSomething we CHANGE about the SUPPORTS provided to help the childcurriculum to meet a child’s needs. access general education. No alteration of curriculum.Examples: Examples:•Reduced complexity of learning •Use of calculatormaterials •Seating change•Selected objectives in a content unit •Graphic organizers for writing•Selected vocabulary •Books on tape•Adapt grade level text for student’s •Reduced length of assignmentsreading level (adapting 8th grade •Fewer problems to complete“Romeo and Juliet” for a student that •Enlarged printreads at a 2nd grade level).
IEP VS. 504 PLAN IEP 504 Plan•Governed by IDEA •Governed by ADA•Student has a disability •Student has a disabilityas defined by IDEA as defined by ADA•Student requires •Student requiresindividualized instruction accommodations only asas outlined by all outlined by the 504 plan.components of the IEP.•Special Education •General Education