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CHAPTER 1 •UNDERSTANDING EXCEPTIONALITIES   IN          THE 21STCENTURY
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DISABILITY                                             1970’s: decade                          ...
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DISABILITY   Twentieth century    marked by    contradictions   Parental    Involvement   Sp...
NOTABLE LEGISLATION & CASES                    All of this led up to…
THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT                 (ADA)   Signed in 1990   “No otherwise qualified person with a disab...
THE ADA DEFINITION OF DISABILITY   Having a physical or mental    impairment that substantially limits    himor her in so...
INTENT OF THE ADA   The intent of ADA is to create a “fair    and level playing field” for all    eligible persons with d...
MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE ADA Employment Transportation Public accommodations Government Telecommunications
LABELING
COMMON TERMINOLOGY A process called labelingis used by every society to identify people who differ significantly from the ...
WHAT’S THE DANGER? What is the danger in labeling people? “Least Dangerous Assumption” So…why do we do it?
DESCRIBING PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENCES   The Effects of    Being Labeled:       Separating the        Person and the        ...
USING PEOPLE FIRST LANGUAGE
Chapter 2EDUCATION FOR ALL
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   Students with    disabilities were    denied the right to    an education until    1954, w...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   Today, all students    are entitled to a free    education that must    also be appropriat...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   A public school can    deny enrollment to a    student with a    disability if they don’t ...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   A child can receive    special education as    long as they have    been diagnosed    with...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   The Individualized    Education    Plan/Program (I.E.P.),    the written    framework for ...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   Even if parents don’t    want their child to    have special    education, the    school c...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   If a child who receives    special education is    suspended beyond the    maximum amount ...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   Even if a child with a    disability is serviced    in general education    classrooms, th...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   According to IDEA    (special ed law),    students should be    educated with their    non...
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA?   If a school suspects a    child has a disability,    they must administer    a comprehensi...
ORIGINS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION   Early Special Education Programs   Education as a Privilege but Not a Right   Expanding ...
VIDEO: A NEW IDEANote-taking sheet available
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATIONACT (IDEA)   What is Special Education?       Specially designed instruction prov...
WHO IS ELIGIBLE FOR SPECIAL EDUCATIONAND RELATED SERVICES?1.   Identified as having one of the federal     disability cond...
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA)   Major Provisions of IDEA     A Free and Appropriate Public Educatio...
PROVISIONS OF THE INDIVIDUALS  WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION                           ACT (IDEA)                           ...
CHARACTERISTICS OF EVIDENCE-BASEDSPECIAL EDUCATION PRACTICE                            Intensive      Explicit teaching   ...
FEDERAL DISABILITY CODES/CONDITIONS   Intellectual disability      Multiple disabilities   Hearing impairments        ...
COMPONENTS OF THE IEPPresent Levels of    Measurable       Progress Toward  Performance        Annual Goals       Annual G...
COMPONENTS OF THE IEP           MODIFICATIONS                          ACCOMMODATIONSSomething we CHANGE about the        ...
IEP VS. 504 PLAN          IEP                     504 Plan•Governed by IDEA            •Governed by ADA•Student has a disa...
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Ch1 and 2

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Ch1 and 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 •UNDERSTANDING EXCEPTIONALITIES IN THE 21STCENTURY
  2. 2. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DISABILITY 1970’s: decade of revolution 20th century contradictions: better treatment vs. more negative Infanticide, social view Slavery, Abuse, Abandonment
  3. 3. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DISABILITY Twentieth century marked by contradictions Parental Involvement Sparked legislative action
  4. 4. NOTABLE LEGISLATION & CASES All of this led up to…
  5. 5. THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) Signed in 1990 “No otherwise qualified person with a disability…shall, solely on the basis of disability, be denied access to, or the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity provided by any entity/institution that receives federal financial assistance.”
  6. 6. THE ADA DEFINITION OF DISABILITY Having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits himor her in some major life activity, and having experienced discrimination resulting from this physical or mental impairment
  7. 7. INTENT OF THE ADA The intent of ADA is to create a “fair and level playing field” for all eligible persons with disabilities.  To do so the law specifies that reasonable accommodations need to be made that take into account each person’s need resulting from his or her disabilities.
  8. 8. MAJOR PROVISIONS OF THE ADA Employment Transportation Public accommodations Government Telecommunications
  9. 9. LABELING
  10. 10. COMMON TERMINOLOGY A process called labelingis used by every society to identify people who differ significantly from the accepted norm. DISORDER DISABILITY HANDICAP EXCEPTIONAL• Mental • Loss of • Limitation • Substantial• physical functioning • Demands of difference• psychological environment • Individualized • Interferes assistance with development
  11. 11. WHAT’S THE DANGER? What is the danger in labeling people? “Least Dangerous Assumption” So…why do we do it?
  12. 12. DESCRIBING PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENCES The Effects of Being Labeled:  Separating the Person and the Label  Environmental Bias
  13. 13. USING PEOPLE FIRST LANGUAGE
  14. 14. Chapter 2EDUCATION FOR ALL
  15. 15. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Students with disabilities were denied the right to an education until 1954, when segregation in schools was ended with the landmark FALSE case of Brown vs. Board of Education.
  16. 16. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Today, all students are entitled to a free education that must also be appropriate. TRUE
  17. 17. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? A public school can deny enrollment to a student with a disability if they don’t think they can meet their needs. FALSE
  18. 18. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? A child can receive special education as long as they have been diagnosed with a disability that is covered by IDEA (the law governing special education). FALSE
  19. 19. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? The Individualized Education Plan/Program (I.E.P.), the written framework for delivering special education services, is a legal and binding document that must be implemented by the school. TRUE
  20. 20. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Even if parents don’t want their child to have special education, the school can enter a child into a special education program without the parents’ FALSE consent, if they think it is in the best interest of the child.
  21. 21. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? If a child who receives special education is suspended beyond the maximum amount of days allowed by the school system (generally, 10 days in a school year), the school doesn’t have to provide special education services for those days spent out of school. FALSE
  22. 22. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? Even if a child with a disability is serviced in general education classrooms, the special educator is the one responsible for providing the student with the necessary FALSE accommodations.
  23. 23. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? According to IDEA (special ed law), students should be educated with their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. TRUE
  24. 24. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IDEA? If a school suspects a child has a disability, they must administer a comprehensive educational assessment to identify if the student is below grade level. FALSE Then, they can determine if the child has a disability.
  25. 25. ORIGINS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION Early Special Education Programs Education as a Privilege but Not a Right Expanding the Role of the Federal Government
  26. 26. VIDEO: A NEW IDEANote-taking sheet available
  27. 27. INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATIONACT (IDEA) What is Special Education?  Specially designed instruction provided at not cost to parents across all settings. What Are Related Services?  Speech and language therapy  Occupational therapy  Physical therapy  Hearing and vision services  Social work
  28. 28. WHO IS ELIGIBLE FOR SPECIAL EDUCATIONAND RELATED SERVICES?1. Identified as having one of the federal disability conditions. AND1. Demonstrated need for specialized instruction and related services in order to receive an appropriate education.
  29. 29. INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) Major Provisions of IDEA  A Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)  Nondiscriminatory and Multidisciplinary Assessment  Parental Safeguards and Involvement  The Individualized Education Program (IEP)  Education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)  See page 31, figure 2.1
  30. 30. PROVISIONS OF THE INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) Nondiscriminatory and FAPE Multidisciplinary Assessment Parental IEP Safeguards Education in the LRE See page 31, fig. 2.1
  31. 31. CHARACTERISTICS OF EVIDENCE-BASEDSPECIAL EDUCATION PRACTICE Intensive Explicit teaching Individualization Instruction of life skills • Student- • Frequent • Academic centered instructional • Adaptive approach to experiences • Functional making • Significant instructional duration decisions and • Limited plans breaks • 1:1 at times
  32. 32. FEDERAL DISABILITY CODES/CONDITIONS Intellectual disability  Multiple disabilities Hearing impairments  Other health impairments Speech-language  Specific learning impairments disabilities Visual impairments  Autism Serious emotional disturbance  Traumatic brain injury Orthopedic impairments
  33. 33. COMPONENTS OF THE IEPPresent Levels of Measurable Progress Toward Performance Annual Goals Annual GoalsRelated Services and Testing LRE Explanation Supplementary AccommodationsAids & Services
  34. 34. COMPONENTS OF THE IEP MODIFICATIONS ACCOMMODATIONSSomething we CHANGE about the SUPPORTS provided to help the childcurriculum to meet a child’s needs. access general education. No alteration of curriculum.Examples: Examples:•Reduced complexity of learning •Use of calculatormaterials •Seating change•Selected objectives in a content unit •Graphic organizers for writing•Selected vocabulary •Books on tape•Adapt grade level text for student’s •Reduced length of assignmentsreading level (adapting 8th grade •Fewer problems to complete“Romeo and Juliet” for a student that •Enlarged printreads at a 2nd grade level).
  35. 35. IEP VS. 504 PLAN IEP 504 Plan•Governed by IDEA •Governed by ADA•Student has a disability •Student has a disabilityas defined by IDEA as defined by ADA•Student requires •Student requiresindividualized instruction accommodations only asas outlined by all outlined by the 504 plan.components of the IEP.•Special Education •General Education

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