Secondary Writing Instruction and
Assessment Since NCLB: A Review of
the Literature as it Relates to
Technology
Matthew U....
Why technology is
important; a case study of
relevance…Twitter in the Classroom
Objectives
Determine how technology has influenced writing
instruction in the secondary classroom since the
implementation...
Methods
Database search
ERIC
Education Full Text
Hand Search
Written Communication
Journal of Adolescent and Adult Educati...
Data Sources
Mean
s
Search Terms # of Hits
# of
Usable
Hits
Why Eliminated?
DatabaseSearchof
EducationFullText
“Writing + ...
Data Sources Cont.
Mean
s
Focused Key Terms Year # of Articles
HandSearchof
“WrittenCommunication”
Writing instruction+tec...
Framework for Article
Examination
Tenets of Writing to Learn
Writing is a social act; talk is part of the process
Writing is a process; there are many writi...
Tenets of Technology Use
to Support Learning
Classroom instruction and information management
can be strengthened through ...
Instructional Results
Technology
Use to
Support
Writing
Blogs
Movie
making
Share
d
writing
Interactive
feedback
Wiki
Webpage
design
Organizing
i...
Instructional Results
3 Main Themes
Technology can improve writing and overall
student expertise
Technology can support wr...
Instructional Results
Technology can improve writing and overall student
expertise
Unmediated Primary Source Examination (...
Instructional Results
Multimedia Support of Writing Through Social
Interaction
Social construction of learning through com...
Instructional Results
Crossing Boundaries
When students cross borders to collaborate, they
pool their expertise and knowle...
Assessment Results
Assessment Results
Technology is infused in special education writing
assessment and embedded within instruction (Rao,
Dow...
Technology Infused with varying populations
“Computers, and their multimedia functions in particular,
allow students to ac...
Technology as a Motivator
“Provides immediate scoring and diagnostic feedback …
that motivates them to continue writing on...
Efficient Means for
Feedback
“Automated writing evaluation (AWE) software has been
promoted as a way to remove the bottlen...
Implications and
Significance
Significance for Classroom
Teachers
Technology can be used to support a variety of
writing activities, but must be well su...
Significance Researchers
and Policy Makers
For researchers
More systematic study is needed in multiple
contexts. Majority ...
Comments
Mublanke@usf.edu
erinmargarel@usf.edu
jschneid@usf.edu
References
Applebee, A. N., & Langer, J. A. (2011). A snapshot of writing instruction in
middle schools and high schools. ...
References
Harris, F. (2002). “There was a great collision in the stock market”: middle school students, online primary
so...
References
Montelongo, J. A., & Herter, R. J. (2010). Using Technology to Support Expository Reading
and Writing in Scienc...
References
Schillinger, T. (2011). Blurring Boundaries: Two Groups of Girls Collaborate on a Wiki.
Journal Of Adolescent &...
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Secondary writing instruction and assessment since nclb a review of the literature as it relates to technology (1)

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  • Matt
  • ERIN New literacies, writing, motivation,
  • Erin
  • MATT
  • MATT
  • MATT
  • Erin
  • Throughout this project, we viewed writing based on the tenets designed by Graves. These tenets guided our reading and understanding of writing as a process and activity. Inauthentic writing: writing a check or creating a to-do list
  • Matt: PRO-technology vs ANTI-technology.Antitechnology is merely the resistance of a given type of technology. You cannot resist all technology. Even a pencil is a form of technology.
  • Different ways technology was used to facilitate secondary writing instruction.
  • Themes emergedand defined by the researchers. These themes were not listed in any article.
  • Because TEXTBOOK readings often misrepresent or contradict historical events, the PRIMARY sources can support a more AUTHENTIC understanding of the text Analytic writing is supported through the use of authentic, historical ARTIFACTS. Harris (2002) looked at a group of 53 academically gifted 8th grade students and their use of historical photographs for a creative writing social studies assignment Conclusions: Students were able to successfully navigate online archives with guidance. Students enjoyed creative writing, but required more modeling from the teacher.
  • Computers and their mutlimedia functions in particular, allow students to access and interact with information in visual, textual, and aural ways. Students who are stronger with one mode of processing information than another can start with their area of strength and move from there. By the time students reach the secondary level, and especially high school, their beliefs about their writing abilities are deeply engrained. Providing opportunities to write through the use of multimedia allows students to be successful and feel confident
  • 3rd space= a productive hybrid cultural space where a complex intersection of different funds of knowledge can meet in a contact zone where culture, class, and language collide and where writing and talk can illuminate similar concerns. The 3rd space can allow students to push boundaries in their writing as well as personal identity and social norms. Reading and writing about shared texts can support authentic exchanges in this 3rd space
  • MATT
  • ERIN
  • MATT
  • Secondary writing instruction and assessment since nclb a review of the literature as it relates to technology (1)

    1. 1. Secondary Writing Instruction and Assessment Since NCLB: A Review of the Literature as it Relates to Technology Matthew U. Blankenship, M.Ed. Erin E. Margarella , M.Ed., M.A. Jenifer J. Schneider, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Why technology is important; a case study of relevance…Twitter in the Classroom
    3. 3. Objectives Determine how technology has influenced writing instruction in the secondary classroom since the implementation of NCLB in 2002. Determine how technology has influenced writing assessment in the secondary classroom since the implementation of NCLB in 2002.
    4. 4. Methods Database search ERIC Education Full Text Hand Search Written Communication Journal of Adolescent and Adult Education Delimitations: Only student writing and technology Only studies conducted in the US Only middle and high school students Search cut off 2002 NCLB- March 2012 Research in Peer Reviewed Journals
    5. 5. Data Sources Mean s Search Terms # of Hits # of Usable Hits Why Eliminated? DatabaseSearchof EducationFullText “Writing + assessment + technology + secondary” 1 1 N/A “Writing + assessment + technology + high school” 4 0 1 repeat, other three focused on behavior “Writing + assessment + technology + middle school” 0 0 N/A “Writing + Instruction+ technology + secondary” 11 7 Countries outside of US, elementary studies “Writing + Instruction+ technology + high school” 13 8 Repeat studies, countries outside of US “Writing + instruction+ technology + middle school” 10 5 Repeat articles DatabasesearchofERIC “Writing + assessment + technology + secondary” 24 11 Outside of US, secondary research questions, teacher writing, professional development. “Writing + assessment + technology + high school” 10 1 1 repeat, outside US, college students, in service teachers “Writing + assessment + technology + middle school” 3 2 Teacher focused “Writing + Instruction+ technology + secondary” 19 4 Outside US, Teacher focus, elementary “Writing + Instruction+ technology + high school” 1 0 Pre-service teachers
    6. 6. Data Sources Cont. Mean s Focused Key Terms Year # of Articles HandSearchof “WrittenCommunication” Writing instruction+technology + secondary OR high school OR middle school 20-02 – 2006 0 2007 1 2008 4 2009 0 2010 2 2011 – 2012 0 Writing + assessment+ technology + secondary OR high school OR middle school 2002 – 2012 0* * Going to revisit for closer look 46 total articles reviewed
    7. 7. Framework for Article Examination
    8. 8. Tenets of Writing to Learn Writing is a social act; talk is part of the process Writing is a process; there are many writing processes We get better at writing by writing To invest in writing, students need choice, response, and time Clear, logical writing reflects clear, logical thinking. Because students think in all content areas, it follows that students should write in all content areas Writing is communication; the ability to communicate is essential Fluency must be developed before clarity; clarity (control) must be developed before accuracy and correctness (precision). Writers need to get it down before they worry about getting it right. (Graves, 1994)
    9. 9. Tenets of Technology Use to Support Learning Classroom instruction and information management can be strengthened through the efficient use of technology Technology can support student learning The information explosion requires that appropriate changes in curriculum and instructional delivery take place Students need to know how to access and select from the avalanche of information to help them solve problems Technology can and should facilitate the rethinking and the restructuring of what takes place in the classroom (Nicolini, 2007)
    10. 10. Instructional Results
    11. 11. Technology Use to Support Writing Blogs Movie making Share d writing Interactive feedback Wiki Webpage design Organizing ideas Promote pos self esteem Multimedi a projects Information and Communica tion Technology Connecting students from various backgrounds Digital book talks
    12. 12. Instructional Results 3 Main Themes Technology can improve writing and overall student expertise Technology can support writing through social interaction and increase levels of motivation Technology can promote a deeper level of understanding and discourse within and among students
    13. 13. Instructional Results Technology can improve writing and overall student expertise Unmediated Primary Source Examination (Harris, 2002) Access has traditionally been very limited Helps support, but not rely on the textbook Analytic writing is supported (Fasulo, Girardet, &Pontecorvo, 1998) Expert vs. Novice paradigm (Wineburg, 1991) “Teachers can help create environments where students can be researchers and creators of products for reports, becoming experts in certain subjects” (Wissick, 1996).
    14. 14. Instructional Results Multimedia Support of Writing Through Social Interaction Social construction of learning through community and collaboration (Vygotsky, 1962, Graves, 1994) Students gain a sense of independence and remain motivated to engage in the writing process as they work in a multimedia environment (Faux, 2005) Multimedia  pictures, sound, and text Aural interaction (Rao, Dowrick, Yuen, 2009)
    15. 15. Instructional Results Crossing Boundaries When students cross borders to collaborate, they pool their expertise and knowledge, generating new knowledge and developing more complex understandings of their topic of study (Moje et al, 2004) Strengthening social connections 3rd Space (Bhabaha, 2004) Transdiscplinarity Bringing “out-of-school” literacy into school (Tarasiuk, 2010)
    16. 16. Assessment Results
    17. 17. Assessment Results Technology is infused in special education writing assessment and embedded within instruction (Rao, Dowrick, Yuen &Boisvery, 2009; Lee, 2008). Technology is found to be a motivator for students to complete work and improve work (Dikli, 2006; Gibbons, 2010; Kinzer, 2010; Wolsey & Grisham, 2007). Technology can provide efficient means to provide feedback to students (Grimes &Warschauer, 2010; Horkay, Bennett, Allen, Kaplan & Yan, 2006; Krucli, 2004; Landauer, Lochbaum& Dooley, 2008).
    18. 18. Technology Infused with varying populations “Computers, and their multimedia functions in particular, allow students to access and interact with information … with their area of strength” (Rao, Dowrick, Yuen &Boisvery, 2009, p. 29). “As stated in the teacher interviews, teams in general learned to write with more clarity and meaning” as measured by a rubric (Rao, Dowrick, Yuen &Boisvery, 2009, p. 36). Greater learning occurs when technology infused with directed vocabulary instruction through extended writing, as much as a 90% increase (Lee, 2008) “Two teachers noted in interviews that it is easier to see benefits with students at the lower end of the grade spectrum (ELL and special education students) than with honors students (Grimes &Warschauer, 2010, pg. 24)
    19. 19. Technology as a Motivator “Provides immediate scoring and diagnostic feedback … that motivates them to continue writing on the topic to improve” (Dikli, 2006, p. 18). Assessments can incorporate a real audience to increase motivation through technology (Gibbons, 2010). In addition, technology affords the opportunity to “post their best work because it would be read by so many people across the World Wide Web and not just a few people in their classroom (Gibbons, 2010, pg. 37). “It also appears that online activities are highly motivating and compete favorably with required work assigned by schools” (Kinzer, 2010, pg. 54). However, Kinzer (2010) warns of overuse in the classroom will eliminate the motivating assessment effect.
    20. 20. Efficient Means for Feedback “Automated writing evaluation (AWE) software has been promoted as a way to remove the bottleneck” and partially succeeds at accomplishing this goal (Grimes &Warschauer, 2010, pg. 4). “Auto text function gives [the teacher] the ability to prewrite my most frequently used feedback comments and then copy and save them for future use” (Krucli, 2004, pg. 48). Also offers quick and timely delivery of information to students (Krucli, 2004). “Advances in assessment technologies are affording teachers and students new ways to efficiently assess and track achievement” (Landauer, Lochbaum& Dooley, 2008, pg. 44).
    21. 21. Implications and Significance
    22. 22. Significance for Classroom Teachers Technology can be used to support a variety of writing activities, but must be well supported by the teacher (Harris, 2002) Technology use for instruction must serve a clear purpose for learning (Inman, 2006, Jeffs, Morrison, Messenheimer, Rizza, and Banister, 2003) Social construction of new knowledge. Peers and teachers work as coaches in the ZPD.
    23. 23. Significance Researchers and Policy Makers For researchers More systematic study is needed in multiple contexts. Majority of the assessment research is qualitative in nature except when looking at computerized programs and human comparisons. For policy makers More money is needed to supply schools and teachers with appropriate technology and sustained professional development.
    24. 24. Comments Mublanke@usf.edu erinmargarel@usf.edu jschneid@usf.edu
    25. 25. References Applebee, A. N., & Langer, J. A. (2011). A snapshot of writing instruction in middle schools and high schools. English Journal, 100(6), 14-27. Barbetta, P. M., & Spears-Bunton, L. A. (2007). Learning to Write: Technology for Students with Disabilities in Secondary Inclusive Classrooms. English Journal, 96(4), 86-93. Cramer, S. R., & Smith, A. (2002). Technology's impact on student writing at the middle school level. Journal Of Instructional Psychology, 29(1), 3-14. Dikli, S. (2006). An overview of automated scoring of essays. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 5(1), 1-36. Gibbons, S. (2010). Collaborating like never before: Reading and writing through a wiki. English Journal, 99(5), 35-39. Grimes, D., &Warschauer, M. (2008). Learning with Laptops: A Multi-Method Case Study. Journal Of Educational Computing Research, 38(3), 305-332. Grimes, D., &Warschauer, M. (2010). Utility in a fallible tool: A multi-site case study of automate. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 8(6), 1- 42.
    26. 26. References Harris, F. (2002). “There was a great collision in the stock market”: middle school students, online primary sources, and historical sense making {computer file}. School Library Media Research, 5 Hetzroni, O. E., &Shrieber, B. (2004). Word Processing as an Assistive Technology Tool for Enhancing Academic Outcomes of Students with Writing Disabilities in the General Classroom. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 37(2), 143-154. Horkay, N., Bennett, R. E., Allen, N., Kaplan, B., & Yan, F. (2006). Does it matter if I take my writing test on compus? An empirical study of mode effects in NAEP. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 5(2), XXXX-XXXX. Inman, J. A. (2006). Technologies and the Secondary School Writing Center. Clearing House, 80(2), 74-76. inzer, C. K. (2010). Considering literacy and policy in the context of digital environments. Language Arts, 88(1), 51-61. Krucli, T. E. (2004). Making assessment matter: Using the computer to create interactive feedback. English Journal, 94(1), 47-52. andauer, T., Lochbaum, K., & Dooley, S. (2008). A new formative assessment technology for reading and writing. Theory Into Practice, 48(1), 44-52. doi: 10.1080/00405840802577593 Lee, S. (2008). Beyond reading and proficiency assessment: The rational cloze procedure as stimulus for integrated reading, writing, and vocabulary instruction and teacher–student interaction in ESL. System, 36(4), 642-660. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2008.04.002
    27. 27. References Montelongo, J. A., & Herter, R. J. (2010). Using Technology to Support Expository Reading and Writing in Science Classes. Science Activities, 47(3), 89-102. Nicolini, M. B. (2006). Making Thinking Visible: Writing in the Center. Clearing House, 80(2), 66-69. Olson, M. R., &Truxaw, M. P. (2009). Preservice Science and Mathematics Teachers and Discursive Metaknowledge of Text. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(5), 422- 431. Pederson, P. V. (2007). What is measured is treasured: The impact of the no child left behind act on nonassessed subjects. The Clearing House, 80(6), 287-291. doi: 10.3200/TCHS.80.6.287-291 Peng, H., Fitzgerald, G., &Ko Park, M. (2006). Producing Multimedia Stories with ESL Children: A Partnership Approach. Journal Of Educational Multimedia And Hypermedia, 15(3), 261-284. Perry, B., &Smithmier, M. (2005). Peer Editing with Technology: Using the Computer to Create Interactive Feedback. English Journal, 94(6), 23-24. Powers, R. A., Craviotto, C., &Grassl, R. M. (2010). Impact of proof validation on proof writing in abstract algebra. International Journal Of Mathematical Education In Science And Technology, 41(4), 501-514. Rao, K., Dowrick, P. W., Yuen, J. W., &Boisvery, P. C. (2009). Writing in a multimedia environment: Pilot outcomes for high school student in special education. Journal of Special Education Technology, 24(1), 27-38.
    28. 28. References Schillinger, T. (2011). Blurring Boundaries: Two Groups of Girls Collaborate on a Wiki. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(6), 403-413. Seely Flint, A., &TroppLaman, T. (2012). Where Poems Hide: Finding Reflective, Critical Spaces Inside Writing Workshop. Theory Into Practice, 51(1), 12-19. Strassman, B. K., &D'Amore, M. (2002). The write technology. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(6), 28-31. Tarasiuk, T. J. (2010). Combining Traditional and Contemporary Texts: Moving My English Class to the Computer Lab. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(7), 543-552. Weber, D., &Smithmier, M. (2008). Death of the 3″ x 5″ Note Cards. English Journal, 98(2), 37-39. Witte, S. (2007). “That's online writing, not boring school writing”: Writing with blogs and the Talkback Project. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51(2), 92-96. Wilson, E. K., Wright, V. H., Inman, C. T., &Matherson, L. H. (2011). Retooling the Social Studies Classroom for the Current Generation. The Social Studies (Washington, D.C.), 102(2), 65-72. Wolsey, T. D., & Grisham, D. L. (2007). Adolescents and the new literacies: Writing engagement. Action in Teacher Education, 29(2), 29-38.

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