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  1. 1. CMC in Schools Erin Dunlap Communication & Technology
  2. 2. Personal Experience I’ve used the following technologies in class when I was young: – Powerpoint – Computers – Smartboard – Projectors – Television I am studying young American students because I know that college students have been studied more often. A reason that young students may not have been studied as much is because they are not as adapted to technology as much as older, college-aged students.
  3. 3. Research Question What is the impact of technology in the communication of and between younger students and teachers in the United States?
  4. 4. Why is CMC becoming increasingly popular in schools? “Medium is the Message” (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p.) • instructional technology and media changes ways of teaching • i.e. Denison’s website- assists students http://denison.edu/ Long distance collaboration is popular (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p.) • online courses and textbooks, Skype, email, electronic lectures (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p.) Communication with global audience (Fishman, 1999, p. 73) • students from all over can communicate through the Internet In communicating with a global audience, the concept of mobile learning emerges. According to Kharbach (n.d.), mobile learning happens when students can access learning materials on their cell phones on the go. This ability is key for students to be learning outside of the classroom, as well as to be communicating with their teachers.
  5. 5. Reasons for Bringing Technology Into Schools Teachers are implementing adaptive learning, or the use of technologies for students that adapt to their specific needs, in classrooms of younger students, and these are the reasons why… 1. Support thinking process – Problem solving skills, complex concepts 2. Stimulate motivation/self-esteem – in or out of class activities – ability to aptly use technology 3. Promote equity – unifies students, wide variety of technologies available
  6. 6. Reasons continued… 4. Prepare students for the future – technology needed in workforce, experience and skills 5. Support changes in school structures – technology may free up teacher instruction time 6. Explore technology capabilities – new technology is intriguing (faster laptops, iPads, etc.) Adaptive learning in schools is helping younger students understand how to use technology for the future.
  7. 7. In order to be a life-long learner, one must have an understanding of technology and how it works!
  8. 8. Impact of CMC on Students “Educational technologists have likened the impact of television and other electronic ways of presenting information to the impact of the printing press on learning” (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p.)
  9. 9. Impact continued… • Interactive environment compared to pen and paper (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p.) • Learning takes place at home and at school (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p.) • Greater technology use  more students familiar  increased desire to communicate through technology in school (Braak, 2001, p. 42) • Individual/collaborative learning opportunities (Siu Cheung, Tak- Wai, Griffin, Ulrich… 2014, p. 70) • Learning appears more attractive while using technology, motivates students Negative: May cause superficial discourse (Eyyam & Yaratan, 2014, p. 303)
  10. 10. Impact continued… • Online textbooks, educational websites, etc. help students learn (Olmstead, 2013, p. 30) • i.e. My Spanish online website: http://www.vhlcentral.com/home
  11. 11. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Learning • Synchronous- students and teachers online at the same time • Communication occurs at the same time (online lectures, discussions, etc.) • Asynchronous- information may be accessed at any time, teachers can be accessed at any time through email I argue that young students in the United States are currently using asynchronous learning because they can contact teachers online at any time during the day. This is causing a positive impact because it helps young students take control of their communication with their teachers.
  12. 12. Study on Students Taking Math (Eyyam & Yaratan, 2014, p. 34-39) • Private school in Cyprus • Seventh grade math students • Pretest and posttest given • Technology used: Powerpoint and laptops Conclusion • Positive influence on young students in Cyprus • Students had positive attitudes about studying math • Can translate to United States- Powerpoints and laptops are used here too
  13. 13. Impact of CMC on Teachers “Computers threaten the chalkboard” (Berge & Collins, 1995, n.p) • Teaching takes place at home and at school (work) • Technology updates/development need to be implemented in staff development (Olmstead, 2013, p. 37) • The United States has an immense amount of technology that can be used in classrooms, as long as teachers decide that they want to!
  14. 14. Virtual Classrooms • Virtual classrooms are online environments where synchronous communication between teachers and students takes place (Kharbach, n.d.) • Synchronous communication- easier for young students to contact teachers immediately • Young students do not use virtual classrooms yet- mostly used in college settings
  15. 15. Study on Teachers (Braak, 2001, p. 41-57) • Comparing CMC and non CMC users (800 teachers) • Factors: demographics, computer experience and attitudes, innovativeness, perceived medium attributes, observed organizational constraints Conclusion • Language teachers used more CMC • CMC only used in supportive tasks currently
  16. 16. Impact on Communication between Students and Teachers • Students can email teachers – Constant communication (both students and teachers benefit) • Teachers can update students on current class developments – Class website, email • Closer connections between students and teachers possible • Can cause an interpersonal divide between students and teachers (Bujega, 2005, p. 19) • Communication via email lessens FTF communication (Burnett & Marshall, 2003, p. 48)
  17. 17. Teacher and Student Online Communication I argue that Roger and Littlejohn present the best communication model that correlates to teacher and student interaction in and outside of classrooms via technology…
  18. 18. Rogers and Littlejohn Communication Categories Interpersonal Group Organizational Mass Sender One One One or more One, maintains control Receiver One Few, may take turns Large audience Mass audience Channel FTF or mediated FTF or mediated FTF or mediated Mediated Examples FTF, letters, telephone, email Lecture, discussion, listserv, IRC Corporate, networks, intranets TV, radio, books, Webportals (Burnett & Marshall, 2003, p. 49)
  19. 19. Analysis of Table • Interpersonal- teachers use this to talk to one student via email because there is one sender and one receiver • Group- used mostly in virtual classrooms, but young students do not really use virtual classrooms Conclusion Group communication takes place more so with older students in virtual classrooms, but because I am studying young American students, I think that interpersonal communication online is better and takes place more often though email mostly.
  20. 20. Conclusion • Impact of technology on young American students: + • Impact of technology on American teachers: both + and - • Impact of technology used to communicate between students and teachers: both + and - Technology WILL be constantly developing and it WILL be used in classrooms of young students because they need to learn how to use technology for the future.
  21. 21. Conclusion continued… Educational technology has been studied for a long time. Communication of and between teachers and students has also been studied forever. BUT… My topic specifically referenced communication technology’s impact on YOUNG AMERICAN students and their teachers. I conclude that there are both positive and negative impacts on young students in the United States because face-to-face communication is still important in schooling.
  22. 22. Further Reading: Other Links and Blogs! (other links are in previous slides) 1. Free Technology for Teachers by Richard Byrne- http://www.freetech4teachers.com/ (educational technology updates) 2. Ask a Tech Teacher by Jacqui Murray- http://askatechteacher.com/ (teachers can ask technology questions and express concerns) 3. Elementary Tech Teachers- http://elementarytechteachers.ning.com/ (elementary school teachers sharing plans, ideas, frustrations about educational technology) 4. Social Media for Teachers: Guides, Resources, and Ideas- http://www.edutopia.org/blog/social-media-resources-educators-matt- davis (how teachers are using SNS with their students in the classroom and beyond)