Action Design NYC April 2014 - Gretchen Chapman

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Gretchen Chapman's presentation to Action Design NYC in April 2014 on the psychology of judgment and decision making applied to technology.

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Action Design NYC April 2014 - Gretchen Chapman

  1. 1. Judgment & Decision Making + Technology . Behavior Change Gretchen Chapman Department of Psychology School of Arts & Sciences, Rutgers University
  2. 2. 2 Modes of Decision Making With your mind: Deliberative With your gut: Intuitive
  3. 3. System 1 System 2 Fast Parallel Automatic Effortless Associative Slow-learning Emotional Slow Serial Controlled Effortful Rule-governed Flexible Neutral
  4. 4. Psychology of Decision Making • Normative Models: Rational or normative models of decision making – e.g. economic theory • Descriptive Models: How people actually make decisions – e.g., behavioral economics • Decision biases = systematic differences between the two
  5. 5. Framing Effects Imagine that the U.S. is preparing for outbreak of an unusual disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume that the exact scientific estimates of the consequences of the program are as follows: • Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39, 341-350.
  6. 6. Gain Frame If Program A is adopted, 200 people will be saved. (72%) If Program B is adopted, there is a one- third probability that 600 people will be saved and a two-thirds probability that no people will be saved. (28%)
  7. 7. Loss Frame If Program A’ is adopted, 400 people will die. (22%) If Program B’ is adopted, there is a one- third probability that nobody will die and a two-thirds probability that 600 people will die. (78%)
  8. 8. Perception is driven by change (or comparison)
  9. 9. Can we use technology to harness decision psychology to encourage good behavior? be healthy
  10. 10. Pedometers • Encourage walking • Track progress • Provide feedback Research Question • Is feedback more motivating when it is compared to a reference point? Chapman, Colby, Convery, & Coups (in prep) Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
  11. 11. 2 weeks of active phase with open pedometer 1 week of baseline with sealed pedometer Random assignment to a personal goal Baseline average + 10% Baseline average + 50% Baseline average + 100% Study 1 (goal magnitude)
  12. 12. Walking Goals Study (N=145)
  13. 13. 6956 7664 6687 8308 8862 10220 7651 11483 13373 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Low (n=49) Medium (n=49) High (n=50) LSMeanStepsPerDay Experimental Goal Condition Baseline Period Intervention Period Goal
  14. 14. 2 weeks of active phase with open pedometer 1 week of baseline with sealed pedometer Random assignment to condition Control Social Comparison Study 2 (social comparison)
  15. 15. Social Comparison Study (N=64) Control Group • Daily web log • Personal feedback only • Twice weekly reminder emails Social Comparison Group • Daily web log • Personal feedback + social comparison¥ • Twice weekly social comparison emails Web log compliance: 75% 88%* ¥(Today’s steps – baseline average) as a percentile relative to performance by Study 1 participants.
  16. 16. 6556 73547388 8508 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Control (n=31) Social Comparison (n=33) LSMeanStepsPerDay Experimental Condition Baseline Period Intervention Period
  17. 17. 2 weeks of active phase with open pedometer 1 week of baseline with sealed pedometer Random assignment to condition Count Up •Pedometer starts at 0 •Counts up to goal Count Down •Pedometer starts at goal •Counts down to zero The Study That Never Was (counting up or down)
  18. 18. Counting Up vs. Down • The up/down pedometers were not accurate • Participants (N=14) complained • Study discontinued
  19. 19. Walking Study • People walk more with a goal • Higher goals are better • Social comparisons act like a goal • Results are in line with theories of reference points
  20. 20. The power of social norms
  21. 21. Prosocial Motivation
  22. 22. Protect yourself from the flu. If you aren’t vaccinated, your children or other household members could spread the flu to you. Don't let someone else's sneeze infect you! Getting a seasonal flu vaccine is the most effective way to prevent the flu. Also, eligible Vitality™ members can earn Vitality Points™ for prevention activities, including the flu shot.* What are you waiting for? Now is the time to get this year’s flu vaccine! Getting your seasonal flu vaccine with Vitality has never been easier.
  23. 23. Protect your children from the flu. If you aren’t vaccinated, you could spread the flu to your children or other household members. Make sure you don’t spread the flu to your child! Getting a seasonal flu vaccine is the most effective way to prevent the flu. Also, eligible Vitality™ members can earn Vitality Points™ for prevention activities, including the flu shot.* What are you waiting for? Now is the time to get this year’s flu vaccine! Getting your seasonal flu vaccine with Vitality has never been easier.
  24. 24. Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases Grant & Hoffman, 2011
  25. 25. Conclusions • Technology provides, information, feedback, & prompts • Psychological principles can be harnessed to make those more effective – Reference points – Social comparisons & social norms – Prosocial motives? • We need field experiments to find out if these interventions really work
  26. 26. Thank you Gretchen Chapman Department of Psychology School of Arts & Sciences Rutgers University gretchen.chapman@rutgers.edu

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