Japanese American Internment Camp Soils Research Paper


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Japanese American Internment Camp Soils Research Paper

  1. 1. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013The Examination of Soils Used by Japanese Issei and Adolescent Nisei During andBefore the Japanese American Concentration Camps―One evacuee wrote, ―My next door neighbor is a soil chemist that leaves everymorning looking for less alkali and finding more‖ (Lillquist, 83). The soil in the JapaneseAmerican Concentration Camps was alkaline and saline due to the location of each campin desolate, barren, and arid climaticregions.Anti-Japanese sentiment began in the early 1900‘s on the West Coast with aninflux of Japanese immigrants to the coast. Discrimination against Japanese prevailedthroughout the 1900‘s as American white farmers saw Japanese agricultural success as athreat. Two months after Pearl Harbor President Franklin Roosevelt signed ExecutiveOrder 9006 on February 19, 1942 authorizing forcible removal of all Japanese Americansfrom the Pacific Coast. Japanese Americans were incarcerated in 10 concentration campslocated inland from the coastline. The decision to intern over 120,000 JapaneseAmericans was deemed a ‗military necessity‘ to prevent contact with Japan and therebyprevent any espionage or sabotage. However, ―no person of Japanese ancestry living inthe United States was ever charged with or convicted of espionage or sabotage‖(Historical, 2002).The War Relocation Authority (WRA) was assigned to look for areas with goodsoils for Japanese American Concentration Camps, but eight out of the ten concentrationcamps are included in the 8 Western Camps with desert soils. Despite the WRA officials‘claim to look for areas with good soil and after areas with desert soils were designated forconcentration camp land, the WRA hired Soil Conservation Service personnel to assist in―preparing recommendations relative to conservation practices‖ (WRA). The Soil
  2. 2. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Conservation Service personnel were supposed to interpret existing soil survey data,create additional soil survey data where information is not available, and classify lands.In this paper I will investigate the soil types/profiles ―within the eight western Japanese-American concentration camps in Arizona (Gila River and Poston), California (Manzanarand Tule Lake), Colorado (Amache), Idaho (Minidoka), Utah (Topaz), and Wyoming(Heart Mountain). All lay east of the Cascade-Sierra mountain ranges and all but Amacheand Heart Mountain lay west of the Rockies‖ (Lillquist, 98). Despite the WRA‘s SoilConservation Service personal‘s claim to assist in soil conservation practices, most of thesoil surveying and conservation efforts were achieved by Japanese Americans themselves.― ‗…Austin E. Anson, managing secretary of the Salinas Vegetable Grower-Shipper Association, told the Saturday Evening Post in 1942:‘ ‗We‘recharged with wanting to get rid of the Japs for selfish reasons. We do. It‘s aquestion of whether the white man lives on the Pacific coast or the brownmen. They came into this valley to work, and they stayed to take over… If allthe Japs were removed tomorrow, we‘d never miss them in two weeks,because the white farmers can take over and produce everything the Japgrows. And we do not want them back when the war ends, either‘ ‖(Cram101, 2012).Jealousy, pride and greed of West Coast American farmers in the 1900‘s resulted inselfish anti-Asian sentiment and eventually incarceration of over 120,000 JapaneseAmericans after the attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Anti-Asian sentimentwas initiated by influx of Chinese laborers in the mid-nineteenth century and intensifiedby Japanese-American populations increasing agricultural land control (Lillquist, 76).In the 1900‘s Japanese Issei, first generation Japanese living in America withoutcitizenship, became farmers after working their way up as immigrant agricultural laborers.Citizens were Japanese Nisei, second generation Japanese Americans born in the U.S.Sansei were third generation Japanese Americans born during or after World War II.In
  3. 3. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 20131909 Japanese farmers in California controlled around 150,000 acres of farmland and in1919 they controlled 450,000 acres. Although 450,000 acres represented only one percentof Californias agricultural land, its crops represented about 10 percent of the total valueof Californias harvest (Archaeologists return, 2011).In 1913 California passed the first alien land law forbidding those ineligible for U.S.citizenship from owning land or engaging in leases longer than three years‖ (Lillquist,2010). The Japanese Issei farmers‘ success in the 1900‘s was hindered, or it was thoughtto be as far as yield goes, in 1913 by the enactment of California‘s Alien Land Law.The Alien Land Law was an indirect means for California American farmers todiscriminate against Asians deemed ―aliens ineligible to citizenship‖ and to hinder themfrom future agricultural success. Although the Alien Land Law was effective at excludingJapanese Issei from American society, decreasing Japanese agricultural land ownershipby 44 percent between 1920 and 1925 and reducing Japanese-leased acreage by 75percent between 1920 and 1925, the Japanese Issei never lost their agricultural talents.The Japanese Issei adapted to and were resourceful with the landscape they wereprovided (Archaeologists return, 2011).Japanese Issei were branded as ‗aliens‘ and became a target of discrimination. Theywere forced to maintain and adapt their cultural agricultural practices using desert soilson the landscape they were ‗given‘ (not for ownership, but for lease outside the campsand government land in the camps). Desert soil is what forced them to sustain theirintuitive agricultural techniques.Issei Japanese American farmers utilized arid and semi-arid desert soil forgardening and agriculture before and during the Japanese American Concentration
  4. 4. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Camps. Japanese Issei, unable to gain citizenship, were given land that West CoastAmerican farmers did not want. They were subjected to use soil from barren wastelandnear airports for agriculture before the concentration camps (personal communication,Saburo Masada, Feb 20, 2013).After the attack at Pearl Harbor President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066.This order had the effect of ‗relocating‘ all persons of Japanese ancestry, even if it wasonly 1/16thancestry, both citizens and aliens, inland, and away from the West Coast(National Archives, 2012).Japanese were moved inland and away from the West Coast toprevent any communication with Japan, to effectively remove Japanese from gainingfurther agricultural success on coastal California farmers‘ land, and reduce futureJapanese agricultural success with inland, off of coast, desert soil.This research paper addresses the soil types/profiles ―within the eight westernJapanese-American concentration camps in Arizona (Gila River and Poston), California(Manzanar and Tule Lake), Colorado (Amache), Idaho (Minidoka), Utah (Topaz), andWyoming (Heart Mountain). All lay east of the Cascade-Sierra mountain ranges and allbut Amache and Heart Mountain lay west of the Rockies‖ (Lillquist, 98). The Amache,Colorado concentration camp will be a focus of this research paper due to availability ofagricultural soil study resources.
  5. 5. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Map 1. Western Exclusion Area et al. Sherwin, n.d.Before diving into the soil during the concentration camps it is important to notewho managed the soil and what was farmed on the soil (if anything) before the camps.―Western lands that became [concentration camps] were primarily managed byvarious governmental entities in early 1942. The US Bureau of Reclamationoversaw the Heart Mountain, Minidoka, and Tule Lake sites as parts of large,developing irrigation projects. The City of Los Angeles owned Manzanar as a pieceof its early twentieth-century land and water grab1in the Owens River Valley. Gila1California water wars in the early twentieth century created a political hotbed for water in Owens RiverValley, California- where Manzanar was located. “The California Water Wars were a series of conflictsbetween the city of Los Angeles, farmers and ranchers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California, andenvironmentalists.” Before the advent of the water wars, Shoshone-Paiute Indians who used irrigation togrow crops occupied Owens valley. The city of Los Angeles discovered in the early 1800’s that OwensValley had a large amount of runoff from the Sierra Nevada to create a gravity-fed aqueduct that woulddeliver the Owens water to Los Angeles. In 1863, the U.S. Army forcibly drove Shoshone-Paiute Indiansaway from Owens Valley during Owens Valley Indian War. Irrigation for the city of Los Angeles was toovaluable and the Shoshone-Paiute Indians reservation was moved down the street. The construction of theOwens Valley aqueduct was completed in 1913. As Los Angeles grew from the 1800’s to early 1900’s,there was demand for a greater water supply. Once the aqueduct was completed so much water wasdiverted from Owens River Valley, that “by 1926, Owens Lake at the bottom of Owens Valley wascompletely dry” (Wikipedia, 2013). The city of Los Angeles even went as far as using the Los Angeles
  6. 6. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013River resided on the Gila River Indian Reservation lands, whereas Poston lay on theColorado River Indian Reservation. Both were managed by the US Bureau ofIndian Affairs‖ (Lillquist, 77-78).The government ―paid‖ Native Americans to use their reservation land for JapaneseAmerican concentration camp building projects. The government‘s ―pay‖ to NativeAmericans in exchange for use of their reservation land to build Japanese Americanconcentration camps was the ―labor‖ of Japanese American Issei and adolescent Nisei.Japanese American Issei and Nisei would be laborers of Native American IrrigationProjects, and would build and aid the in designing reservation irrigation canals andditcheswith the U.S. government‘s irrigation project plan. Although Native Americanswere paid with Japanese American labor from the U.S. government for their reservationirrigation project, they were unaware of Japanese Americans‘ subjection to concentrationcamps and ultimately slave labor on their reservation. Land parcels at Amache and Topazwere privately owned (Lillquist, 78). Amache, Gila River, Manzanar, Topaz, and TuleLake had been previously farmed. Heart Mountain and Minidoka, lands owned by Bureauof Reclamation lands, and Poston, land owned by Colorado River Indian Reservationwere not previously farmed (Lillquist, 78).Confinement of Japanese Americans in Japanese American concentration campswas a government action taken as a precautionary measure during WWII. Discriminationand prejudice against Japanese as a minority target began far before WWII and at thebeginnings of Japanese immigration to North America (Stamper, homepage).In the firsthalf of the 20th century, there was anti-Japanese prejudice in California. The prejudiceAqueduct to not only oppose the Manzanar project, but to lead “residents of Los Angeles to believe that theevacuees might poison or contaminate the city’s water supply or sabotage the aqueduct if the Manzanarproject happens” (Unrau, 442-443).
  7. 7. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013was rooted in the wave of Japanese Issei immigrants and their agricultural success,especially with vegetable and fruit crops—most notably strawberries. ―Of 127,000Japanese Americans living in the continental United States at the time of the Pearl Harborattack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast.The Issei had agricultural success in Americaand particularly in California because their traditional culture embodied both respect forthe soil and hard work and many also came from rural agricultural settings in Japan(Lillquist, 2010). I hypothesize that because Japanese immigrants, later called Japanesenationals because they were ineligible to gain U.S. citizenship, came from the smallisland of Japan with limited resources; their work ethic rivaled that of American farmerswho had no lack of arable land or resources. Before Japanese immigrants arrived inAmerica they were already used to Japan‘s problematic agricultural system: the smallsize of the country provided small size of individual farms that required labor-intensivefarming (Campbell, 1995). WhiteAmerican farmers who resented Japanese-Americanfarmers for their agricultural successes were fans of Japanese incarceration, or what theyconsidered internment. They saw incarceration as a way to displace Japanese Americancompetitors from their agricultural land for success (Lillquist, 2010).After Executive Order 9066, the War Relocation Authorities (WRA) chose statesand plots of barren land within those states for building Japanese American concentrationcamps. The WRA was a United States government agency established to handle theforced relocation and detention of those with Japanese, German and Italian ancestorsduring World War II. The ‗intention‘ to search for ‗relocation camps‘ (a euphemism usedinstead of concentration camps) would provide work opportunities by ―‗hiring manyexperts who know the Wests resources thoroughly...‘ as they ‗combed the country from
  8. 8. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013the border of Military Area No. 1 to the Mississippi River.‘" The WRA officials lookedfor ―areas with good soil, dependable water supply, a good growing climate, andadequate transportation facilities.‖ The relocation area chosen was to provide ―workopportunities that included: public works, such as flood control, irrigation development,and soil conservation; agricultural production, such as cultivating and harvesting crops;and manufacturing, such as the production of clothing, ceramic, or wood items‖ (OregonState Archives, 2008). ―In spite of government claims of searching for places with"climates suitable for people," most of the camps were situated in barren, desolatelocations notable for wild temperature swings from day to night and from winter tosummer‖ (Oregon State Archives, 2008). WRA determined that Japanese Issei and Niseiwould be relocated to concentration camps in California, Utah, Arizona, Colorado,Arkansas, Wyoming, and Idaho. Unfortunately, all camps in all states but Arkansas areincluded in the western state Japanese American concentration camps that are occupiedby desert soils, also known as aridisols.The WRA created agricultural programs in all of the camps. ―The agriculturalaspect of the centers is not surprising given that most of the WRA‘s key administrators,including both directors, were former USDA employees. Evacuees were encouraged, butnot required, to work in the center agricultural programs‖(Lillquist, 77). Agriculturalprogram planners, Caucasian chiefs of agriculture, employed evacuees that were expertsin agriculture-related fields and, when available, used soil surveys to help identify primeagricultural areas (Lillquist, 2010).Regardless of Austin E. Hanson‘s view that the ―white farmers can take over andproduce everything the Jap grows‖ (quoted earlier in this paper), ―internment of Japanese
  9. 9. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Americans, who provided critical agricultural labor on the West Coast, created a laborshortage, which was exacerbated by the induction of many American laborers into theArmed Forces. The wartime labor shortage caused a mass immigration of Mexicanworkers in the United States to fill these jobs and many Japanese internees weretemporarily released from their camps—for instance, to harvest Western beet crops‖(Cram101, 2012).It is evident that Japanese Issei agricultural history was needed to implement andsustain agricultural programs in all Japanese American concentration camps, butespecially in the eight arid to semi-arid Japanese American concentration camps withdesert soils located in western United States. Soil orders of eight Western camps arecreated by latitude, precipitation, temperature, native vegetation and dominantlandforms. Areas located in the same relative latitude will share relatively sametemperature and native vegetation. Precipitation varies within the eight camps butall mean annual precipitation values lie in range from 38-84 inches. The meanannual precipitation range is typically of a temperate grassland biome located 35-55 degrees N + S latitude. The dominant landforms found at each of the EightWestern Camps describe the soil profile glaciations’ history.The eight western camps located continentally 150-750 miles inland following theWestern Exclusion area (refer to Map 1), share a broad range of latitude from 33-43degrees F and elevation from 300-4700 feet above sea level, which subjects them tovaried temperatures and growing season length in days. The eight western camps can beseparated into three different subgroups based on latitude, which in turn affects meanannual temperature, elevation, and length of growing season length in days. Tule Lake,
  10. 10. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Topaz, Minidoka, and Heart Mountain are considered a subgroup because they are morenortherly (have a higher latitude) with: lower mean annual temperatures (48-50 degreesF), higher elevation, and shorter growing season (80-133 days). Also, these four campsshare shrub/ steppe as their dominant native vegetation. Gila River and Poston areconsidered a subgroup because they are the more southerly (lower latitude) with: highermean annual temperatures (69-72 degrees F), lower elevation, and longer growing season(247-297 days). Gila River‘s and Poston‘s dominant share desert plants as their dominantvegetation: plants with spines (tiny leaves) that deal with drought. Amache and Manzanarare considered a subgroup because they are mid- latitude camps between the two formersubgroups with: mid- annual mean temperatures (54-59 degrees F), mid-elevation, andmid-length of growing season (162-210 days). Amache‘s and share steppe/shrub as theirdominant native vegetation.Table 1. Physical Geography of 8 Western Japanese American concentration camps. et al.Lillquist, 80.
  11. 11. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013As you can see although the subgroups are separated based on latitude, meanannual temperature, elevation and length of growing season/number of growing degreedays, the dominant soils in each of the camps does not follow a distinct pattern. Inaddition, the dominant landforms of each of the camps are varied and do not follow thethree concentration camp subgroups out of the eight western concentration camps‘ total.Although the dominant landforms do not follow the pattern of subgroups they can add tothe description of soil orders based on glaciations‘ history and along with other subgroupgeographical characteristics.From the time of California‘s Alien Land Law enactment in 1913, (which not wasnot only California farmer‘s indirect means to discriminate against the Japanese farmersbecause of their agricultural success in the 1900‘s, but also was a means to subjectJapanese farmers to barren and arid lands near Californian airports for crop production tothe time), to the time of Executive Order 9066, (which forcibly removed all JapaneseIssei, who could not gain citizenship in America and all Japanese Americans (Nisei andKibei), inward and away from the West Exclusion area), Japanese Americans have beenforced to farm on arid lands with low precipitation and desert soils. The inland locations,off the of the Californian coast, of the eight Western Japanese American ConcentrationCamps, ―ensured that [the concentration camps] received low precipitation, ranging fromapproximately four inches/year at Poston to fourteen inches/year at Amache (see Table 1)‖(Lillquist, 79). Although water is the most important factor for crop production on aridlands with desert soils, water was insufficient in all eight inland concentration camplocations.
  12. 12. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Desert soils are soils that have almost no water available for soil formation(pedogenesis) or growth of plants (even mesophytic plants, which are adapted to dryenvironments) for long periods of time (Verheye, 1). Desert soils, or ―arid and semi-aridsoils are mainly found in African (Sahara, Namibian and Kalahari deserts), the MiddleEast (Arabian Desert, Iran, Afghanistan, Rajasthan, etc), North and South American(Mohave Desert, Chile, etc. and Australia‖ (Verheye, 1). Although Manzanar, Poston,and Gila River are part of the formerly mentioned Mohave Desert, North Americanregion, all eight western concentration camps are located in areas with desert soils.Japanese Issei were forced to exploit the land they were given—forced to exploit desert(arid/semi-arid) soils for crop production.The WRA officials hired Soil Conservation Service personnel to initiate soilconservation efforts for desert soils of Japanese American Concentration Camps. WRAofficials were in ‗search‘ of land with good soils to house 120,000 Japanese Americansafter Executive Order 9066 was ordered, but evidently this search led them to desert soilsof all eight western concentration camps. The WRA claimed their Soil ConservationService personal were technicians who were qualified to undertake concentration campsoil conservation efforts (War Relocation Authority, Administrator). The SoilConservation Service personnel was implemented to interpret existing soil survey data,create new soil survey data where existing data was not available, classify landsaccording to use capability, and recommend conservation practices needed to insureproper land use (War Relocation Authority, Administrator). The WRA did not chooseland with good soil to begin with. It seems that the WRA‘s hiring of Soil ConservationService personnel was more work and government spending than necessary.
  13. 13. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Although the WRA hired Soil Conservation Service personnel that weresupposedly qualified to initiate and implement soil conservation efforts for their ‗mistake‘of not finding land with good soil, does not mean they were qualified, and even if theywere qualified does not mean they did their job effectively. Japanese soil chemists werehired by the WRA to help agricultural program coordinators at each camp. Was thisbecause Japanese were more knowledgeable than the Soil Conservation Servicepersonnel hired bye the WRA to make up for their initial mistake of not finding areaswith good soils? ―Heart Mountain‘s evacuee assistant farm superintendent stated, ‗I hadthe privilege of raising crops with about 500 of the finest farmers in America, includingexperts in soil analysis and seed growing‖ (Lillquist, 86). Regardless of if the SoilConservation Service personnel did their job or not, desert soils provided to Japanesefarmers in eight Western Japanese American concentration camps needed far moreconservation and restoration than any other soil type for agricultural production.Soil orders of the eight western concentration camps were combinations or arid(aridisols), youthful (entisols and inceptisols, or grasslands (mollisols) (Lillquist 82).These soil orders all exhibit alkaline and saline characteristics because of aridity, or thedryness. Although Japanese were experienced West Coast gardeners and farmers afteradapting to wasteland American farmers did not want and before Executive Order 9066,―few evacuees had agricultural experience in [concentration camp] environments.‖Internees who had agrarian backgrounds came from humid, temperate regions of theWest Coast and ―were typically not familiar with agriculture in arid settings.‖ Gila Riverand Heart Mountain benefitted internees with agricultural backgrounds that came fromrural populations. In contrast, fewer internees at Manzanar, Minidoka and Topaz had
  14. 14. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013agricultural backgrounds because they came from urban populations. One interneestarting farming at Minidoka said, ―And I started farming in front of my place and I hadto get books to farm. I didn‘t know nothing‖ (Lillquist, 86).This was a way for white American farmers on the West Coast to keep theprogress and success of Japanese under their subjection. In fact, there were agriculturalfairs held within concentration camps where white American farmers, particularly thoseon the West Coast who discriminated against Japanese, would converse with interneesand gain insight for improvement of their agricultural practice. Lillquist states that bothagricultural operations within the concentration camps and local operators benefittedfrom interactions between internees and local farmers, but I theorize that white Americanfarmers in attendance at these agricultural fairs could withhold whatever information foragricultural success they wanted to and gain new information they wanted to just thesame (Lillquist, 87).The examination of soils used by Japanese Issei during and before the JapaneseAmerican concentration camps topic was chosen because of my interest in plantbiotechnology. I took a plant biotechnology college course and learned how people insemi-arid regions utilized their soils for agriculture. They selected crops based on thenature of the soil and the landscape. I am interested in how people utilize land and soilthat is not ideal for agriculture. Several third world countries struggle with drought, pestsand desert soils, yet they manage to yield crops. Although this may not be large enoughfor all of their people, there is yield. Like modern third-world country small-scale farmers,the Japanese Issei found a way to make desert soils agriculturally productive in the1900‘s. The Japanese Issei found a way to produce agricultural yield on the desert soils of
  15. 15. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013California before the concentration camps and on desert soils in the concentration camps.They also managed to produce enough yield to feed their communities and all of thepeople in the camps.Figure 1. Soil Profile et al. HarwoodSoil Profiles: various layers called horizons characterize different soil types. Thepicture above is a visual aid for description of standard soil profiles- the picturerepresents an area of the soils dug out with the face of the soil is sticking out. Typicalsoils are made up of an O,A, E, B, C, and R layers or horizons. Collectively A & E areconsidered eluvial zone, whereas B,C and R are alluvial zone. Soils are distinct based ontheir depth, particle contents and particle size of each horizon.
  16. 16. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Horizon or layer Horizon Common Name DescriptionO Organic layerSurface layer dominated bypresence of large O-matter ororganic matter in differentstages of decay. Leaf litter isnot O-matter because it hasnot yet begun to decay.Nothing is considered O-matter until it is decayingA Top soilDecayed O-matter, but moredecayed than O-horizon soil=―humus‖, minerals;biologically active= bacteria,worms (earthworms andnematodes), fungi, plant rootsE EluviatedLeached = Water washedminerals/ O-content down intoit. Often sandy. Considered apoor region where whatremoves through quickly andO-matter is not retainedB Sub soilConsists of mineral layers:clay, iron, Aluminum oxideand other minerals that haveleached out of E horizon, orperhaps were present in parentmaterial.C Parent materialSoil affected by soil formingprocesses. (E.g.) In Minnesotaparent material is glacial tilland loess (silt-sized sediment= 0.002- 0.05 mm, which isformed by the accumulation ofwind-blown dust (Aeolianactivity).RHard Bedrock, which is notsoilConsists not of soil, butaffected by soil formingprocesses. Bedrock. (E.g.) inMinnesota bedrock is typicallychewed up and cobbly.
  17. 17. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Figure 2. Soil Horizons et al Soil‘s Lecture
  18. 18. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Soil texture is determined by the particle size and by mineral content and not theamount of O- matter or organic matter it contains. Soil particles are ‗mineral‘, hard rockyits and pieces that are not organic matter. There are 3 constituents at each extreme of thesoil particle pyramid= sand/silt/clay.Soils Texture (particle size) et al. Soils Lecture.Clay Separate, % on the left side and with the direction of the arrow pointingupward (toward the tip of the triangle) indicates where percent of sand decreases andpercent of clay increases. Sand Separate, % on the bottom and where the arrow ispointing towards sand indicates where percent of sand increases and percent of siltdecreases. Silt Separate, % on the right side and with the direction of the arrow pointingdownward toward silt indicates where silt increases and clay decreases. 100% clay at thevery tip of the triangle is classified by a particle size <0.002 mm. Clay overlaps and pilesup in sheets, which are impermeable to water. Clay hangs onto water not allowing waterto reach the A horizon where plant roots are; therefore, depleting plant roots from their
  19. 19. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013water source. When clay is dry it shrinks and cracks, and when wet it expands and swells.Clays with higher shrink and swell potential result in poorer drainage (University ofHawaii at Manoa, 2007-2013). As clay content of a soil profile increases the morereactive the soil surface is, or the more there are overlapping sheets formed, which causesproblems because there is no draining and/or the soil surface will be dry and cracked.100% silt at the bottom right of the triangle has a particle size from 0.002-0.05mm. 100%sand at the bottom left of the triangle has a particle size between 0.05-2mm. Sand doesnot hold onto water and if in a soil type lends to O-matter leeching out (taking nutrientsaway from the plant rooting zone). Gravel is > 2mm and is usually in the R (hardbedrock) horizon. Loamy particle sized soil located on the bottom center half of thetriangle is the idea agricultural soil. Loamy soil is not directly in the center of the trianglebecause it does not contain equal parts of all 3 main soil particle constituents-sand/silt/clay. Loamy soil has lower clay content with (50/50) silt and sand and 20% clay.Typical soil profiles of the eight western Japanese concentration camps includemollisols, aridisols, inceptisols and entisols. Soil consists of horizons near the Earth‘ssurface which differentiates from it‘s underlying hard bedrock parent material because itis altered by interactions over time between: climate, occupancy before and duringconcentration camps, relief or slope of the profile, and interactions with organisms,interactions chemicals, wind erosion, water erosion (things not of the soils originalnature).The following suborders or each of the main eight western Japanese concentrationcamp soil orders: mollisols, inceptisols, entisols and aridisols, were found using mapsfrom Windwolf, 2007 defining mollisol, inceptisol, entisol and aridisol, dominant
  20. 20. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013suborders in the United States, respectively, and comparing location of soil suborders to amap of concentration camp location. I hypothesized concentration camp soil subordersbased on soil profiles at the time when Japanese first came to concentration camps andbefore Japanese used the soil. I hypothesized that:Dominant mollisol suborder at both Tule Lake and Manzanar was xerollsDominant inceptisol suborder atboth Tule Lake and Manzanar was xereptsDominant entisol suborders at Tule Lake, Manzanar, Heart Mountain, Amache,Topaz, Poston and Gila River, are a combination of orthents, psamments andfluevents.Dominant aridisol suborders at Gila River, Topaz, Minidoka, Heart Mountain andAmache were a combination of Argids, Calcids, Cambids and Durids.Mollisols are seen at Manzanar and Tule Lake. This is peculiar considering thesetwo concentration camps are at different latitudes, which usually do not describe similarsoil profiles. In fact Tule Lake and Manzanar share all three of their soil types: Entisols,Inceptisols, and Mollisols. This could be because certain dominant landforms werepresent in each of these places such as an alluvial fan at Manzanar and lake basin/tuffcone at Tule Lake. Therecould possibly bedifferent glacial forms here.Mollisols are the soils that form under grasslands and found more or less in themid latitude range (N and S, 35-55 deg.) Manzanar falls in the mid-latitude range, butTule Lake does not. Mollisols are common to Minnesota and occur in the prairie biome.There main horizons are A, B, and C. The defining character for mollisols is theirincredibly deep A horizon, usually 60 to 80 mm.Their A-horizon is usually thick and darkbecause it is humus (decaying O-matter) –rich. Roots of herbaceous perennials such as
  21. 21. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013grasses typically contribute to A-horizon O-matter. Grasses contribute to A-horizon O-layer because they are monocots, which means they have fibrous rooting and in turn a―high turnover rate.‖ Grasses ―high turnover rate‖ means the biomass of the grass lendsmore to the A horizon O-layer because it can be cut off and harvested twice in one season.The thick and dense (dark color) O layer of the A-horizon is formed by a continuum ofhigh-turnover rate grasses or herbaceous perennials because they die down each year andcontribute to humus-rich soil. For example bluegrass, a herbaceous perennial, with afibrous rooting system that is 10-15 feet deep willcontribute to the O-layer 10-15 feetdeep when the roots die. Then, when the plants die over winter it‘s biomass leaves a bedof O-matter of the soil surface. Layers of O-matter accumulate on top of each other andreturn Nitrogen back to the soil.Further examination of native vegetation at Manzanar and Tule Lake is requiredto determine if there is more grasses at Manzanar and Tule Lake compared to otherconcentration camps.Mollisols B horizon is characterized by clay leeching out from the upper A-horizon and Calcium coming out from parent surface or C horizon; therefore, Mollisols Bhorizon is made up of clay and calcium. Mollisols C horizon or parent material is bedrockwith limestone of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
  22. 22. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Mollisols et al Martinez, 2006.MollisolsA-horizon is characterized as a ‗mollic epipedon‘. The A horizon, mollicepipedon, is thick (>18-25 cm), dark and dominated by base-forming cations such asCalcium, Ca (+2), and Magnesium, Mg (+2) (Harris, 2004 and Martinez, 2006). .It‘s B-horizon may be characterized by Bk, which means we should see an illuvial (B,C, and Rhorizons) accumulation of carbonates (carbon and oxygen concentration should be high)either leeching from the A-horizon or a formed E-horizon, and/or alteration of the C-horizon parent material (Hendricks, 1982)Also, the soil may show evidence of clayilluviation (B,C, R horizons), which may be exposed at the surface because of erosion,and have exchangeable sodium, Na (+2), along with magnesium and calcium (Martinez,2006).Mollisols ―are among some of the most important and productive agriculturalsoils in the world‖; hence mollisols are rich in Minnesota and Iowa(middle latitudes thatare extensive in prairie regions such as the Great Plains of the US), because of it‘s ‗loamytexture‘- soil with (50%/50%) silt and sand and 20% clay- the soil is not sandy, nothingbut clay is leeched out, which is good because clay can retain water and withhold water
  23. 23. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013from plant roots in the A horizon, and it has humus (O- matter with nutrients) rich A-horizon (Martinez, 2006).Mollisols loamy texture indicates Manzanar and Tule Lake had the best agricultural soilsat least in some areas of the concentration camp plots.Xerolls aretemperate Mollisols, meaning they are found in regions withMediterranean climate- warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters(Windwolf, 2007). Mediterranean climates prevail in California where Tule Lake andManzanar are. Summers in Tule Lake and Manzanar can closely resemble summers inarid and semiarid climates, such as Poston and Gila River. However, high temperatures atTule Lake and Manzanar during summers are usually not as high as those seen in Topazand Minidoka because of Tule Lake and Manzanar‘s close proximity to a large body ofwater. Because Tule Lake and Manzanar are considered a part of Mediterranean climatetheir dominant soils are not aridisols.Manzanar and Tule Lake dominant landforms arealluvial fan and lake basin/tuff cone respectively (Lillquist, 80). Their dominantlandforms explain why xerolls are their main suborder of mollisols. ―Xerolls in the USformed mainly in late-Pleistocene loess‖, which is Aeolian sediment or sediment formedby the accumulation of wind-blown silt; therefore xerolls-mollisol suborder, typicallyhavea soil particle size of 20- 50 micrometers and Aeolian loess has a loamy soil profile(50/50 sand and silt, and 20% or less clay) that is loosely cemented by calcium carbonate(Windwolf, 2007).Xerolls formed in late Pleistocene loess have Tertiary (layers older) lakesediments, older crystalline rocks and alluvium as common parent materials or C-horizonmaterials. Alluviumis loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil
  24. 24. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redepositedon land (Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia). Alluvium is typically made up of finerparticles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. Alluvium parent materialor C-horizon material of soils at Manzanar and Tule Lake gave way to more movementof ground water to the plant-rooting zone because of its loose, unconsolidated characterand its variance in particle size range. Manzanar‘s dominant landform is alluvial fanbecause it is at a mid-elevation, at the base of a mountain that lends to Manzanar alluvialC-horizon soil profile.Its dominant landform lake basin/ tuff cone describes Xeroll, Mollisol suborder,soil at Tule Lake. Tuff cones are a form of Maars, shallow, flat-floored craters forming ahole-in-the-ground, and occur in the western United States. Tuff cones have a tall craterfloor at or above original ground level (Topinka, 2006). Tule Lake Maars or tuff conesthat derived xeroll soil at Tule Lake concentration camp can be traced back toCalifornia‘s Ubehebe Craters, which include over a dozen maar volcanoes on the northside of Tin Mountain. The Ubehebe Crater deposits overlie lakebeds of Lake Rogers(hence noted in Lillquist‘s data that Tule Lake dominant landforms were lake basin/tuffcone) (Topinka, 2006). Craters that overlie Lake Rogers give an explanation of whyxerolls have tertiary lake sediments in their C-horizon, parent material.
  25. 25. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Tip Mountain et al Ron Wolf, 2012.From examining soils at either Manzanar or Tule Lake, I hypothesize that soilsshould be thick, and dark containing calcium, magnesium, carbonates, exchangeablesodium, and limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) in its C-horizon. Soil particle size is20- 50 micrometers and soils have a loamy soil profile (50/50 sand and silt, and 20% orless clay) that is loosely cemented by calcium carbonate. The fact Mollisols loamytexture indicates Manzanar and Tule Lake have the best agricultural soils at least in someareas of the concentration camp plots.The former fact about Tule Lake is supported byLillquist in that Tule Lakes organic-rich drained wetlands, or substantial O-horizon or A-horizon rich in O-matter that was established by Japanese land drainage Tule lake as apart in Tule Lakes agricultural project, gave Tule Lake good agricultural soil. On theother hand, Japanese incarcerated at Manzanar could not establish a substantial O-layerfor agriculture because of Manzanar‘s City of Lost Angeles aqueduct water supply.―Manzanar authorities frowned upon soil amendments because the City of Los Angelesdid not want to contaminate the Los Angeles aqueduct‖ (Lillquist, 83).
  26. 26. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Although access of irrigation hindered Manzanar and aided Tule Lake, both soil atManzanar and Tule Lake was more suited for agriculture because of it‘s soil alluviumparent material or C-horizon material that is loose, unconsolidated and varies in particlesize which allows movement of ground water to reach the plant rooting zone more thanother soil types.Inceptisols occur at only Manzanar and Tule Lake, just as Mollisols do.Inceptisols are soils that do not exhibit significant differentiation among horizons or thereis minimal horizon development. They form quickly through alteration of the C-horizon(parent material). Inceptisols have no accumulation of clays, iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al) ororganic matter (no O horizon) (Windwolf, 2007).Inceptisols are common to mountainousareas because they have resistant parent materials (parent materials are resistant toweathering, which inhibits soil development or horizon differentiation). Both Tule Lakeand Manzanar are surrounded by mountain ranges.Inceptisols et al Martinez, 2006.Inceptisols have either ochric or umbric epipedons. Ochric means ‗pale‘, andorchric epipedons classify soils that are thin, light colored or pale and have low organic
  27. 27. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013matter- it‘s A horizon should be thin (Harris, 2004). On the other hand, umbric epipedonsare more thick (>18-25 cm) and dark like a mollic epipedons of mollisols, but have lessbase saturation or less base-forming cations such as Calcium, Ca (+2), and Magnesium,Mg (+2). Its subsurface horizons-below A-horizon, show more advanced weatheringwithout accumulation of silicate (Si), clays, iron (Fe), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), andorganic-matter. Specifically, inceptisol Bw horizon is characterized by iron andaluminum oxides that give darker, stronger or redder colors (Hendricks, 1982).Xerepts aretemperate Inceptisols with very dry summers and moist winters;therefore they are found in Mediterranean climates like that of Manzanar and Tule Lake.Xerepts are more or less freely drained meaning they are well-drained soils or oxygenrich soils. Oxygen rich soils as demonstrated by Inceptisol Bw characteristic show red orbrown colors caused by oxidation-interaction between oxygen molecules (WikipediaFoundation, Soil color, 2013). Xerepts are most common in the states of California(where Tule Lake and Manzanar are), Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Utah.Again, Manzanar and Tule Lake dominant landforms are alluvial fan and lakebasin/tuff cone respectively. Native vegetation at Manzanar was shrub/steppe and TuleLake is steppe/forest. Their dominant landforms and native vegetation explain whyXerepts at both Tule Lake and Manzanar are their main suborder of inceptisols. Xereptswere formed mostly from Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, young alluvial fan deposits(Holocene and late Pleistocene) that are characterized by poorlyconsolidated and verypoorly sorted sand, gravel, cobble and boulder deposits (Davis, 1988).Xerepts forming from young alluvial fan deposits corresponds to Manzanar‘s alluvial fandominant landformproviding evidence that xerepts are a possible soil inceptisol soil
  28. 28. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013suborder at Manzanar. Further evidence correlates native vegetation of Manzanar andTule Lake with xerept soils. Xerept soils occur where predominant vegetation types areconiferous forests shrubs, grass, and widely spaced trees. Manzanar with shrub/steppe(vast semiarid grass-covered plain) native vegetation and Tule Lake with steppe/forestnative vegetation correspond to predominant vegetation types of Xerept soils (Windwolf,2007).I conclude Inceptisol soils at Tule Lake and Manzanar can be classified undersuborder Xerepts. I hypothesize that the Xerepts will be more of an ochric epipedonthanan umbric epipedon, because orchric is more common than umbric and inceptisolsdemonstrate more advanced weathering without accumulation of O-matter. The soil A-horizon will be thin (lacking in O-matter and possibly < 18 cm) and pale. The soil shouldshow more advanced weathering without accumulation of silicate (Si), clays, iron (Fe),aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and organic-matter. The soil should give darker,stronger,brown and red colors because it contains iron and aluminum oxides and is well-drained soil.Entisols are found at Amache, Gila River, Heart Mountain, Manzanar, Poston,Topaz and Tule Lake; therefore, only excluding Minidoka, which only has aridisol as itsdominant soil--- maybe because it‘s dominant landform differs from all other campsbeing a Volcanic Plain.Entisols are soils of a more recent origin; therefore, soil is far lessdeveloped with loose, unconsolidated parent material and no real horizon except an A-horizon.
  29. 29. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Entisols et al Martinez, 2006.Entisols are weakly developed mineral soils without subsurface horizons (withminimal or disturbed A horizon- where the plant rooting zone is and without a significantB horizon). Ap horizon denotes an A horizon that is disturbed and not ideal foragriculture because there is a loss of well decomposed O-matter (Hendricks, 1982).Mostlikely has an ochric epipedon thin, light colored or pale and has low organic matter (it‘sA horizon should be thin-Ap).May have an agric horizon directly beneath Ap horizon thathas formed under cultivation with amounts of silt, clay and humus O-matter. JapaneseAmerican concentration camp entisol soils with an agric horizon would only be present ifconcentration camp land was previously used- already cultivated: Amache, Gila River,Heart Mountain, Manzanar,Topaz and Tule Lake- only excluding Poston. In addition, thelatter camps may also have more of an Ap horizon (even less well decomposed O-matter)that Poston because previous plowing would cause more disturbance.The exact type varies significantly depending on location. Entisols oflarge rivervalleys and shore deposits provide good cropland because they are highly productivesoils on recent alluvium (loose, unconsolidated soil or sediments made up of variableparticle sizes: many C horizons, C1, 2, and 3 with smaller silt and clay and/or larger sand
  30. 30. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013and gravel) that provide adequate room for ground water movement to plant rootingzone- hence ‗highly productive‘. Entisols found in steep, rocky settings form infertilesoils on barren sands, or shallow soils on bedrock (Windwolf, 2007and Martinez, 2006)Suborders of Entisols:Tule Lake and Manzanar- Orthents of PsammentsHeart Mountain- Orthents and FlueventsAmache- Orthents and FlueventsTopaz- Orthents, Psamments, FlueventsPoston and Gila River - Orthents and Fluevents―Orthents arecommon Entisols that dont meet criteria of other suborders‖ (Windwolf,2007). Orthents occur in any climate and under any vegetation and primarily found onrecent erosional surfaces.Psamments are very sandy Entisols. There are typically varioussized sand particles within all horizons of psamments. Psamments are ―characterized bypoorly graded (well sorted) sands on shifting or stabilized sand dunes‖ (Windwolf, 2007).Fluevents are alluvial Entisols commonly found on floodplains. Fluevents are brownishto reddish soils that formed in recent water-deposited sediments, such as flood plains,fans, and deltas of rivers. Amache‘s floodplain dominant landform and Topaz lake basindominant landform describes why fluevents may be the main entisol suborder. Layers ofstratified clay characterize Fluevents with more organic carbon than other layers(Windwolf, 2007).Could Psamments Manzanar‘s entisol suborder because of Manzanar‘s proximity toDeath Valley?
  31. 31. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Death Valley et al. Michael Melford, n.d.Gila River and Poston with similar latitudes were initially grouped together ashaving similar soil types. Therefore, both with fluevents provide evidence that locationswith similar latitudes have similar soil profiles. In addition Gila River‘s and Poston‘sdominant landforms of pediment/alluvial fan and floodplain and native desert vegetationaids in fluevents as their main suborder.Heart Mountain - Orthents and Fluevents—Pediment/TerracesAmache - Orthents and Fluevents—Interfluve/FloodplainTopaz- Orthents, Psamments, Fluevents—Alluvial Fan/Lake BasinIn conclusion, I hypothesize that Japanese Americans incarcerated atAmache, GilaRiver, Heart Mountain, Manzanar, Topaz and Tule Lake concentration camps withentisols that have been previously farmed (excluding Poston) would have worse soil foragriculture. Manzanar has suborder psamments because of its proximity to Death Valleysand dunes. It is curious to me why suborder fluevents would not be found at Manzanarbecause of its alluvial fan dominant landform, but maybe there is just more wind and soilerosion in this location.Aridisols are dominant soil types at Gila River, Topaz, Minidoka, Heart Mountain,
  32. 32. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013and Amache.Tule Lake, Poston and Manzanar do not have aridisols as a dominant soiltype. It is curious why Manzanar and Tule Lake, concentration camps with mollisols andinceptisols, do not have aridisols. Although Manzanar and Tule Lake also have entisolsas a dominant soil type, it can be hypothesized that entisols are not the determining factorinhibiting Manzanar and Tule Lake from having aridisols because other concentrationcamps, such as Gila River, share both entisols and aridisols as their dominant soil type.I hypothesize that because Manzanar and Tule Lake have a Mediterranean Climate,aridisols will not occur there even if entisols are found there. Aridisols are not typicallyfound in places where annual temperatures range dramatically from very cold to very hot(Windwolf, 2007). Aridisols are characterized by being dry most of the year because inthese soils, there is not enoughadequate soil moisture for plant growth. ―Aridisolsdominate the deserts and xeric shrublands‖ like that of Gila River, Topaz, Minidoka,Heart Mountain, and Amache. Aridisols have a very poor concentration of organic matter.Imperfect leaching in aridisol results in one or more subsurface soil horizons tohavedeposits of suspended or dissolved minerals; such as clays, calcium carbonate, silica,salts, and/or gypsum accumulations. Aridisols are very susceptible to salinization becausethey are known for accumulating salts in topsoil and subsoil horizons (Windwolf, 2007)Gila River- Argids, Calcids, Cambids and Durids.Topaz- Mostly Calcids and some ArgidsMinidoka-Argids, Calcids, Cambids, DuridsHeart Mountain - Argids with a very small chance of CalcidsAmache- Mainly Argids and some Cambids and/or CalcidsArgids arearidisols with clay accumulation. Calcids arearidisols with calciumcarbonate in the parent materials or was added as dust or both. Precipitation is inadequate
  33. 33. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013to leach or move the carbonates to great depths. These soils are extensive in the westernUSA and other arid regions of the world. Cambids are a common Aridisol in the USAand have a weakly developed B-horizon.Aridisols with a weakly developed B-horizonindicate lack of horizon development in Aridisols overall- lack of proper nutrients forplant growth. Durids are soils that are mostly found on slopes in the Western part of theUSA, particularly in Nevada.Durids have calcium carbonate accumulations arecharacterized by duripan, a subsurface hardpan that is cemented by illuvial silica, whichis a barrier to both plant roots and water.Aridisols et al Martinez, 2006.Aridisols B layers Bt, Btk and Bkm classify different deposits of suspended ordissolved minerals after imperfect leeching (or drainage of minerals to lower layers fromthe A-horizon).
  34. 34. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Map 2. Aridisols dominant suborders in the United States et al. Windwolf, 2007.The complexity of mollisols, inceptisols, entisols and aridisols soil profiles andtheir various suborders was problematic for Japanese Americans in the 8 Westernconcentration camps. Map 2 demonstrates the various aridisol suborders and their denseconcentration in Western United States. I do not believe that it is coincidence aridisolsare concentrated just inland of the West Coast where Japanese Americans were forciblyincarcerated.Overall, aridisols that are common to many concentration camps lack in severalessential plant nutrients. The sevenmajor nutrient elements or macronutrients needed by
  35. 35. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013plants and provided by soils are: calcium, potassium, magnesium, nitrogen, sulfur,phosphorus, and iron. In addition, the seven minor nutrient elements or micronutrientsneeded by plants and provided by soils are: boron, copper, chlorine, manganese,molybdenum, nickel and zinc. Together, the 14 nutrients are known as the essential plantnutrients and a plant cannot complete its lifecycle (flower and set seed) if its soil does notprovide it with these essentials nutrients. How do the minerals go from the soil to theplant roots? The 14 essential elements or nutrients must dissolve in soil water beforeplants can take them up.If a soil is deficient of even one plant nutrient, plant growth willbe retarded and crop yield will diminish. When soils are poor in mineral nutrients, theplant develops a more extensive root system. However, shoot system growth thatproduces the crop is compromised by root system growth (Chrispeels and Sadava, 2003).Soil order composition is dependent on the low precipitation; warm growingseasons, windy conditions, high evaporation rates and overall negative moisture balancesof all eight western concentration camps because of their inland location.The eightWestern Japanese American concentration camps‘ soil orders and theirrespective suborders all exhibit alkaline and saline characteristics because ofaridity.Alkalinity of concentration camp soil is expressed by its concentration ofhydrogen ions (H+) dissolved in the soil water. Alkaline or basic, and the opposite ofacidic, soil are expressed by a pH of 9 with 100 times few hydrogen ions than a neutralpH of 7. Alkaline soil is not suitable for plant growth because fewer H+ ions disturb soilweathering and nutrient availability (Chrispeels and Sadava, 2003).Did the Japanese American farmers know that sulfur was the most effectiveelement to acidify alkaline soil or make it neutral for plant growth? Or, did they know if
  36. 36. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013and when they used acidic fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate that they wouldneutralize excess alkalinity?Regardless of what Japanese Americans knew of did notknow about alkaline soils, they would have had to figure it out to plant in camps becausemost Japanese were not used to arid soils before incarceration.Poor soil fertility at all eight Western Japanese American concentration campsrequired irrigation for agricultural production because precipitation is scarce in aridclimates. Irrigation of land increases soils susceptibility to salinization, or theaccumulation of salts in topsoil because all groundwater and river water containsdissolved salts, but rainwater does not. Although irrigation can cause soil salinization,salinization occurs in arid regions where mean annual evapotranspiration (evaporationfrom the soil plus transpiration by the plants or water in the for of gas given off by soiland plants) exceeds that of precipitation. I hypothesize that salts were more likely toaccumulate in concentration camp soil because there was not enough rain to carry orleech salts out of topsoil. Dissolved salts in saline soils are mostly comprised of Na+ andCl- ions, but sulfates and carbonates may be present. I hypothesize that salinization fromgroundwater was also problematic in concentration camps because of their proximitywith coast areas where the intrusion of seawater below ground level can carry salts intotopsoil (Chrispeels and Sadava, 2003).Some concentration camp soils were too alkaline and saline for any farmproductivity. There seemed to be a consensus among Japanese American internees thatthe soils they were given were beyond restoration. ―One evacuee wrote, ‗My next doorneighbor is a soil chemist that leaves every morning looking for less alkali and findingmore‘‖ (Lillquist, 83).
  37. 37. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Further research will have to be done about salinity of irrigation water used ateach concentration camp. The table below by Lillquist, 2010, does not give adequateinformation to examine proper salinity of the 8 Western Japanese Americanconcentration camp water supply.SC represents specific conductivity, a measure of thesalinity hazard in irrigation water. Higher numbers mean greater hazard. SAR representssodium absorption ratio, a measure of the sodium hazard in irrigation water. Highernumbers mean greater hazard (Lillquist, 80). As you can see there are several questionmarks where either data collected is inaccurate or data has not been collected at all.All soil types can experience desertification (inability to grow crops on land) afterland degradation revolving around poor agricultural practices and/or poor landmanagement: overuse of pesticides/herbicides, soil erosion, deforestation, intensivecropping as a result of overpopulation, decline in organic matter and biological activity ofsoil and soil salinity or alkalinity increased by irrigation. Land degradation leads to adownward slope towards desertification. However, aridisolsexposed to greater soiltemperature extremesare very susceptible to desertification even without land degradation.Usually, desertification begins with prolonged loss of vegetative cover resulting in acrusted soil surface (think about all of the vegetative cover cleared at Manzanar just tobuild the camps!). The crusted soil surface then causes a downward slope todesertification: decreased infiltration and increased runoff, reduced soil-water (essential
  38. 38. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013plant nutrients) for plant growth, decreased plant production, decreased organic inputs tosoil, greater soil temperature extremes, reduced fertility and soil organic matter, andultimately deteriorated soil structure leading up to future soil erosion (decreased nutrientand water-holding capacity).I do not know the philosophy behind the WRA‘s choice of Manzanar as a place toincarcerate Japanese Americans.Manzanar is such a remote location with soil conditionsnot at all suitable for agriculture. Though it was a sure way to hinder Japaneseagricultural success.Adequate water supply was necessary for agricultural production on concentrationcamp soils. All camps except for Amache, because of its former private land ownership,had sufficient water available. Although water supply as a quantity was a necessity,water irrigation quality was problematic for soil. For example, was the quality of soil atGila River affected by it‘s primary irrigation method of using ―waste water from asewage treatment plant.‖ Lillquist states that muddy irrigation water from summerthunderstorms at Gila River was ―detrimental to new plantings,‖ which means plantessential nutrients were depleted. Manzanar irrigation salinity and sodium hazard levelswere not provided in the table above. Irrigation at Manzanar with use of the Los Angelesaqueduct provided soil with minimal salinity andsodium absorption ratios. Irrigationwater used for the other seven Western Japanese American concentration camps ―hadmedium to high sodium absorption ratios because of arid conditions thus resulting inmedium to high salinity and sodium hazards for crops‖ (Lillquist, 81). Concentrationcamp soil had to be drained and flushed of salts before farm production, but ―drainagewas often restricted because of the low gradient nature of the lands‖ (Lillquist, 83).
  39. 39. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013ManzanarTwo different studies demonstrate soil types at Manzanar Lillquist, 2010 andUnrau, 1996. Lillquist‘s study of Manzanar‘s dominant soil types as entisols, inceptisolsdominant soil types is supported by Harlan D. Unrau, 1996, but not mollisols.Unrau‘sarticleindicates,―soil at Manzanar was of a light sandy type, lacking in sufficientnitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid‖ (HPO4) (Unrau, 442). Potash describes salts thatcontain potassium in water-soluble form. According to Unrau Manzanar‘s soil is lackingin potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials such as potassium chloride(KCl). Unrau‘s article supports Lillquist‘s demonstration that Manzanar does not havearidisols as a dominant soil type. Both Lillquist and Unrausee Manzanar‘s average annualprecipitation amounting to only 4.5 inches to 4.6 inches. Annual precipitation of 4.5-4.6inches is probably too much precipitation for Manzanar to have aridisols as its dominantsoil type; however, its light sandy type lacking in minerals is evidence that its inceptisol,entisol soil types are bordering aridisols with low enough annual precipitation to be closeto aridisols minimal precipitation. Manzanar‘s ―arid climate and sandy soil conditions‖was problematic for Japanese American agricultural production. Both articles supportthat Manzanar was part of a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot, dry summers andmild to cool, wet winters. Manzanar ―at an elevation of approximately 4,000 feet,‖ hastemperatures ―that range from 10 degrees below zero during some winters to highs ofmore than 100 degrees above zero nearly every summer‖ (Unrau, 442). Lillquist notesManzanar‘s mean annual temperature is 59 degrees, which agrees with highs above 100degrees and lows 10 degrees below zero (Lillquist, 80).
  40. 40. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013High temperatures at Manzanar during summers are usually not as high as thoseseen in in areas with aridisols as their dominant soil type; therefore because Manzanar isconsidered a part of Mediterranean climate and its close proximity to a large body ofwater it‘s dominant soil type is not aridisols.Lillquist states ―parts or all of Amache and Manzanar had been previously farmed,while Unrau clarifies that Manzanar ―farm field acreages were established on wastelandsthat had not been farmed for about 15 years‖ (Lillquist, 78, Unrau, 442).―Soils requiredclearing, drainage and fertilizers to produce crops‖(Lillquist).―Supplemental fertilizersand irrigation were necessary to produce crops.Having stood idle for such a lengthyperiod, the fields were ‗covered with brush and badly hummocked with dunes caused byhard winds‖ (Unrau, 442). Needless to say, both Lillquist and Unrau note that JapaneseAmericans incarcerated at Manzanar had to invest much time and labor to reform the landfor eventual agricultural production--- just to live off the land, their main source ofproduce. ―The primary goal of the WRA agricultural program was to grown food fordirect consumption by the evacuee residents of each center‖ (Lillquist 79). It isimpeccable how much clearing was actually accomplished to ready the land for anyagriculture. On my study away trip to Manzanar‘s 44thannual pilgrimage, I wasbombarded with sagebrush in every direction when I walked through land owned by theNational Park Service that used to be Manzanar. In addition, more than sagebrush had tobe cleared, for when I traveled up to see the aqueduct used by internees there were pilesof huge and endless boulders. I cannot begin to comprehend all the sagebrush that had tobe cleared and boulders movedat Manzanar before barracks were built, posts were woundwith barbed wire and plots of supposed farm acreage were established.
  41. 41. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Based on information collected at the Manzanar Interpretive Center, ExecutiveOrder 9066 was issued February 19th, 1942 and Manzanar was built in March 1942. AfterExecutive Order 9066 it took only approximately 40 days to clear land at Manzanar andbuild all barracks (National Park Service).It is evident that even with the amount ofsagebrush to be cleared and boulders moved, let alone some 40 barracks to be built thatthe government was willing to do anything to get the land cleared and incarcerate 11,000Japanese Americans. I question why the American government would choose a land thatwas so labor intensive to clear for the sole purpose of incarceration Japanese Americans?It is because Manzanar is a remote destination where internees could only travel so far ontrain and then were bused the remainder of the way. The American government knewexactly what they were doing when they chose Manzanar, for sagebrush and boulderswere of no concern as long as Manzanar was a place of isolation.Figure 3. Prairie Soils and Desert Soils Profile et al. Railback
  42. 42. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013This picture gives a visual aid of comparison/contrast between mollisols andaridisols. Mollisols are typically considered soils of the prairie; therefore, soils that formunder grasslands and have an incredibly deep A-horizon layer versus Aridisols, whichhardly have an A layer at all. None of the camps with Mollisols have aridisols. But,Manzanar has entisols, inceptisols that are close to aridisols. This is a lighter sandy typelacking in mineralsand a thinner A-horizon, but not as extreme as aridisols.I hypothesize that because Manzanar‘sMediterranean-type climate with very drysummers and strong winds from inland desert regions affect the nature of the soil surface.I hypothesize because Manzanar is located at the base of a mountain and is at midelevation, ―elevation of approximately 4000 feet‖ it receives less rainfall and moisturefrom the ocean than other higher elevation areas (Unrau, 442). Land at Manzanar was―badly hummocked with dunes caused by hard winds.‖ Manzanar desert winds were of―high velocity and blew much of the time from early March until lat June‖ (Unrau, 442).Late 19thcentury Japanese immigrant chrysanthemum farmers in San Mateo County,located in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, provide further evidence of windyconditions at Manzanar. Japanese immigrants to America developed a method to preventchrysanthemum buds from being damaged in wind or bleached by the sun by placingcheesecloth hoods over chrysanthemums (Fukami, 1994). The Manzanar area continuesto demonstrate direct evidence of windy conditions and probable soil degradation due towind erosion by its current windmill farm landmarks. On my study away experience toManzanar, I witnessed a windmill farm (thousands of windmills) close to the MohaveDesert. Although no windmill was in sync with another, each windmill wascontinuallypropelled at high velocity by gusts of high velocity wind.
  43. 43. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Death valley soil is direct evidence of wind velocity and its erosion that affectssoil. Death valley is located about 100 miles from Manzanar and is comprised ofsanddunes or accumulations of windblown sand. ―For dunes to exist at Death Valley, theremust be a source of sand, prevailing winds to move the sand, and a place for the sand tocollect. The eroded canyons and washes provide plenty of sand, the wind seems to alwaysblow (especially in the springtime)‖ (Death Valley National Park, n.d.).Death Valleysand dunes represent generations of wind erosion that represents possible wind erosionand therefore soil degradation from wind erosion at Manzanar based on its proximitywith Death Valley.Death Valley et al Death Valley National Park, n.d.Evidence of high wind velocity at Manzanar that is present today is probably thecause for soil degradation. Wind action at Manzanar probably refers to 4 major processesthat adversely affected soil formation before Japanese Issei arrived in 1942: deflation,abrasion and erosion, transport and accumulation. I hypothesize that the wind velocity at
  44. 44. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Manzanar removed and displaced soil particles over time, thereby creating physicallyweathered and shallow soils. Wind deflation removes ―mainly fine and medium sizedparticles-clay and silt first,‖ and then ―coarser sand afterwards, leaving ―behind a desertpavement‖ for Japanese Issei to deal with. Dust storms of Manzanar are evidence of dust-loaded wind that has erosive properties harsh enough to physically disintegrate rocksurfaces, and further erode soil surfaces. Chemical composition of Manzanar soils waspossibly compromised by wind transport. Wind blows different sized particles variabledistances based on particle size. ―The finest particles composed of fine silt and clay arecarried over much larger distances‖ than sand grains (Verheye, 6). Sand grains travel atrelatively shorter distances and land where initial dust, silt and clay have been removedby wind deflation. They change soil compositions wind-blown particles by landing andaccumulating in ―deflation zones.‖ Sand grains will land and ―settle in more or lesscontinuous layers‖ where they ―either become progressively mixed with underlying soillayers, or accumulate in dune formations‖ (Verheye, 7).Overall, not only did the government subject Japanese Americans at Manzanar toareas that required intensive clearing of native shrub steppe and desert scrub vegetation(much like other camps), but also to land degraded by wind. Japanese Americans atManzanar had to combat not only the adverse soil conditions degraded by wind, but alsodust storms created by the wind and sandy alkaline soils that infiltrated their lungs andbarracks.Before the camps, Japanese Americans were forced to adapt to soils and climatesbefore the camps. Their inability to lease land taught them to labor on soils of Americanfarmers and when they were allowed to lease land they had to adapt to land without
  45. 45. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013suitable soil conditions. Japanese Issei were subjected barren land near airports beforeExecutive Order 9066(personal communication, Saburo Masada, Feb 20, 2013).Even ifthe soils near the airports were not desert soils, Japanese Issei have been adapting towastelands for years before they were incarcerated.The American government‘s evacuation and incarceration of Japanese farmersfrom the West Coast caused a major labor shortage in the United States. Before Japanesefarmers were forcibly removed from the West Coast they were successful tomato, celery,pepper, and notably strawberry farmers. ―Japanese farmers were responsible for 40percent of all vegetables grown in the state, including nearly 100 percent of all tomatoes,celery, strawberries and peppers.‖ The American government was warned wheninternment began in 1942 by Japanese Nobumitsu Takahashi, agricultural coordinator forthe Japanese-American Citizens League, that removal of Japanese would disrupt theCalifornia vegetable industry because Japanese truck farmers produced crops valued at40 million dollars annually (Hanson, G. (2011).Japanese Americans were adapting their agricultural practices and restoring soil tocounter extreme sun and wind conditions long before incarceration. Their practicesbefore the camps were not abandoned once in the camps. Japanese in the Samateo Valley,California were placed cheesecloth over chrysanthemums to protect them from extremewind and bleaching from the sun (Fukami, 1994). Japanese Americans of Samateo Valley,California restoration efforts when faced with adverse soil temperature conditions beforeconcentration camps is paralleled with restoration efforts in concentration camps.―HeartMountain evacuees attempted to protect tender transplants from late spring cold as wellas wind with ‗hot caps‘ placed over individual plants (Lillquist, 82).
  46. 46. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013The question then is how exactly did they respond once in the camps using―knowledge‖ gained before and or rather adaptation to soils they were forcibly given inthe concentration camps. ―Evacuee knowledge and interest in agriculture proved a keyfactor‖ in making agricultural programs successful at each camp (Lillquist, 86). It seemsthat although evacuees may have not dealt with arid soils before incarceration, theymanaged to restore soil fertility with intuitive thinking.At Manzanar, fast growing barleywas planted in attempt to provide wind protection to agricultural crops (Lillquist, 82).The native vegetation of eight Western Japanese American concentration campswasshrub steppe and desert scrub, which offered minimal O-matter. Most of the campshad no substantial O-horizon and their A-horizon was thin and lacking in O-matter.Without organic matter soil has a loss of nitrogen, which needs to be replenished beforeplant growth (Lillquist, 83). Japanese Americans raised shrubs at center nurseries asornamental crops to beautify the harsh camp environments (Lillquist, 92). JapaneseAmericans, may have never realized that not only did shrubs beautify the land, but alsogave nitrogen back to the soil- shrubs replenished soils source of nitrogen. Legume-richcover crops, such as nitrogen-fixing alfalfaGila River benefitted from nitrogen-fixingalfalfa (a cover crop with high biomass to give organic matter back to the soil) that waspreviously planted prior to Japanese incarceration (Lillquist, 83). Agricultural programsat all the camps except Manzanar, because of fear of contaminating the LA aqueduct,―managed to use livestock-manure, legume-rich cover crops, crop rotation andcommercial fertilizer,‖ to enhance soils O-matter and return nitrogen back to the soils(Lillquist, 83).
  47. 47. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013I hypothesize that Japanese American evacuee farmers had success withagricultural camp programs in arid climates and soils because of their labor-intensiveagrarian backgrounds and farming methods and their intuitiveness to find ways ofreplenishing nutrients to soils.Heart Mountain‘s evacuee assistant farm supervisorstatedthat Japanese American evacuees left ―one of the few enduring legacies of therelocation experience---the knowledge how to grow things inthat part of the country‖(Lillquist 97,98). Now, farmers today in the Sahel and Sahara regions of Africa, the mostarid regions, are attempting to use the methods of Japanese Americans for agriculturalproductivity, the alteration of planting crops between rows of legumes to give Nitrogenback to arid soil.A study done at Amacheprovides evidence that Japanese Americans appliedfertilizers, but further investigation is required to determine if other camps used fertilizersas well. Erika Marin-Spiotta and Emily Eggleston part of the department of geographyand University of Wisconsin-Madison conducted a study to ―compare soil characteristicsof internment camp gardens to uncultivated soil inside and outside of the Camp Amacheboundary‖ (Marin-Spiotta and Eggleston, 10). They notably uncovered that in the gardensoils concentrations of Phosphorous (P), Potassium (K), and Nitrogen (N) in the forms ofNH4 and NO3, ―were notably higher beginning at the buried garden surface than atsimilar depths in non-garden locations.‖ They hypothesized that garden soils wereaffected by ―horticultural practices of internees‖. They also noted variable differences ingarden site soil profile Na concentrations, which they concluded to be ―attributable toplant and fertilizer inputs and possibly ―interaction between the soil and addition water‖need for plant growth in arid climates (Marin-Spiotta and Eggleston, 11). Could soils
  48. 48. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013with high sodium, Na, in the camps be an example of salinized soils from water used forplant irrigation that was high in salts? Furthermore, pH data in garden sites shows apattern that is different from control sites. Further research will have to be completed todetermine what the pattern of pH measurements means and if pH measurements are adirect result of internees‘ use of fertilizer. Did internees indeed restore their concentrationcamp soils alkaline pH to a more neutral pH with fertilizer applications?If the Japanese did use fertilizer in the camps, how did they know much inorganic(Nitrogen-based) fertilizer to use? There are two extremes to consider when applyingfertilizer: nutrient limiting and nutrient toxicity/ Nitrogen toxicity. Nitrogen fertilizer isthe number one limiting nutrient for a plant to grow. If application of N-fertilizer is notenough or too much plant growth is compromised. I cannot imagine if fertilizer wasindeed applied at Amache that the U.S. government would supply in abundance, but theneven if they did not have the opportunity to over apply because of lack of resources howdid they make sure nutrient release was not spotty or nutrient limiting?Regardless of what conditions Japanese Issei were provided when they were firstimmigrants unable to gain American citizenship and then incarcerated for their Japaneseancestry, they adapted. Japanese rather thrived and did not just survive, with the barrenwasteland, degraded soil without adequate organic matter and high velocity winds thatcaused further soil degradations from wind erosion. ―Despite equipment limitations,Manzanar evacuees raised 1.6 tons of vegetables in 1942 with one rented tractor and tenmules‖ (Lillquist, 84).Lillquist mentions equipment limitations, but in addition to lack ofmechanization, Japanese Americans had limitations of arable land, water supply andquality, and agricultural soil. Japanese Americans had many factors against their
  49. 49. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013agricultural success, yet they managed to feed their peoples and create successfulagricultural programs within the camps. The Japanese culture refused to be defeated inthe adverse conditions given by the U.S. government and WRA. They refused to abandontheir integrity or agricultural practices in the camps.コミュニティ, or Komyuniti, means community in Japanese. From the time thatJapanese first arrived in America to their time of incarceration and their reintegration intoAmerican society after the concentration camps, Japanese Americans held on to thecommunity of it‘s people, Komyuniti. Before the concentration camps, JapaneseAmericans in Samateo Valley, neighboring Japanese farmers worked together to placecheesecloth hoods over chrysanthemums. It was a ―community affair,‖ one JapaneseAmerican farmer said. ―Without our neighbors it would have taken 2 or 3 days, but withneighbors 4 hours‖ (Fukami, 1994). Chrysanthemums were saved from wind damage, sunbleaching and death, because of community. Within the camps,the Japanese Americansdid not abandon Komyuniti;instead they practiced community even more.Community is what allowed Japanese Americans to not be robbed of a sense ofagency in the camps. They maintained their garden practices on any soil they weregranted in the camps, just as they had done before the camps. For the JapaneseAmericans it had always been what they had been ―given‖ in America. For Japaneseimmigrants with the English as a language barrier, gardening and agriculture was theironly means of work. Therefore, soils were a basic necessity for the Japanese immigrantpopulation. It seems they were robbed of good loamy textured agricultural soils from thetime the first Japanese immigrants arrived in the 1900s and continually robbed in theconcentration camps. Although Japanese Americans had no choice but to adapt to soils
  50. 50. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013in the camps, adaptation for Japanese in America had began far before the concentrationcamps. Komyuniti banded Japanese whether in Japan of America and lack of good soilwould not change that.I believe that even if the Japanese Americans were given a solid clay bed that heldall of the water, a concrete slab or a mound of gravel as soil for agriculture, they wouldhave found a way to adapt. Japanese Americans have proven to be resilient when itcomes to agriculture and gardening, which were their only means of income whenJapanese immigrants first came to America.Further research topics:How concentration camp soil profileswere affected with segregation of Japanesein 1943? After the loyalty questionnaire was given in early 1943, ―disloyal‖evacuees were transferred to Tule Lake and ―loyal‖ evacuees were transferred toMache, Gila River, heart Mountain, Minidoka, and Topaz. Lillquist states that―loyal evacuees from Tule Lake enhanced Minidoka‘s agricultural programs upontheir arrive in fall 1943‖ (Lillquist, 85). How did soil at Minidoka change after1943?Contemporary investigation of soil types found in Canadian Japaneseconcentration camps?Also interesting to understand at which camps the farmers were more experiencedwith agriculture? Why was it that Lillquist mentioned Gila River and HeartMountain with the greatest population coming from rural areas with agriculturalbackgrounds (Lillquist, 86)?As I mentioned before hypothesizing about Isseiexperience in Japan before the concentration camps influenced their success withlabor-intensive agriculture in the concentration camps. Were agriculturalprograms more successful at Gila River and Heart Mountain because most of theirinternees were already accustomed to agriculture on small individual farms of asmall Island, Japan?Why were Topaz and Amache the two camps that produced the greatest diversityof feed crops (Lillquist, 92)? Was it the soil profiles?I would continue my research on Wayulee project at Manzanar.What were theexact root cuttings Japanese Americans used to propagate Wayulee? What didthey use to combat the soil conditions and make the main rubber besides that ofthe rubber used for latex today? Wayulee project is major evidence of whatJapanese Americans left behind for generations of all peoples to come, whileserving American troops who incarcerated them.Why does Gila River have aridisols and Poston does not?
  51. 51. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Look at the salinity of Lake Rogers? Has the soil at Tule Lake and maybeManzanar been exposed to groundwater that is high in salt content? Would the Laaqueduct really be contaminated if Japanese at Manzanar were allowed to draintheir soils properly? Or, was this just a tactic to hinder Japanese agriculturalsuccess within the camps- wasn‘t the incarceration of Japanese enough to stopJapanese agricultural success outside of the camps… white American farmerswere already free to outcompete Japanese in concentration camps?Works CitedArchaeologists return to World War II Japanese American internment camp (2011,December). In Popular Archaeology. Retrieved March 17, 2013, fromhttp://popular-archaeology.com/issue/december-2011/article/archaeologists-return-to-world-war-ii-japanese-american-internment-campCampbell, M. (1995, November). Japanese agriculture and California opportunities.In University of California Cooperative Extension: UC Small Farm Program.Retrieved May 2, 2013, fromhttp://sfp.ucdavis.edu/pubs/SFNews/archives/95112/Cram101 Textbook Reviews. (2012). E-study guide for: Contemporary AsianAmerican experience by Timothy P Fong. N.p.: Author. Retrieved April 8, 2013Chrispeels, M. J., & Sadava, D. E. (2011). Plants, genes, and crop biotechnology(Second ed.). Sudbury, MA: ASPB Education Foundation.Davis, J. F. (1988). Division of mines and geology. U.S. Geological Survey NationalCooperative Geologic Mapping Program, STATEMAP. Retrieved May 3, 2013,from ftp://ftp.consrv.ca.gov/pub/dmg/rgmp/Prelim_geo_pdf/pala.pdfDeath Valley National Park (n.d.). In National Park Service, CA, NV. Retrieved May 3,2013, from http://www.nps.gov/deva/naturescience/sand-dunes.htmFukami, D. (Director). (1994). Crysanthemums and Salt [video]. Los Angeles, California:Hirisaki National Resource Center. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from DOI:NRC.2000.191.7Hanson, G. (2011). Japanese Internment .The Virtual Museum of the City of SanFrancisco. Retrieved May 4, 1998, fromhttp://www.sfmuseum.org/hist9/harvest.htmlHarris, W. (2004). Classification of soils. In Environmental Pedology. Retrieved May 3,2013, from http://soillab.ifas.ufl.eduHarwood, R. (2011). Soil Profile. Physical geography 101: Soil profile. Retrieved May 4,2013, fromhttp://facweb.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/geog101/study/soildevl.htmHendricks, M. Plate 15. Horizons that could occur in a soil profile. 1982. University ofArizona Library. Web. 3 May 2013.<http://southwest.library.arizona.edu/azso/back.1_div.10.html>.Historical overview (2002). In JACL: Curriculum and Resource Guide. Retrieved May 2,2013, from http://www.jacl.org/edu/JAHistory.pdf―Interpretive Center- Manzanar, National Historic Site, California.‖ Manzanar. Chart.
  52. 52. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013N.p.: Interpretive Center- Manzanar, National Historic S, 2004. Print.Lillquist, K. (2010). Farming the desert: Agriculture in the World War II–eraJapanese-American relocation centers. The Agricultural History Society, 74-98. Doi: 10.3098/ah.2010.84.1.74Marin-Spiotta, E., & Eggleston, E. (2011, June 30). Camp Amache soil chemistryreport. Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 10-16.Retrieved April 8, 2013Martinez, J. J. (2006). Soil taxonomy. In Soil Classification. Retrieved May 3, 2013,from http://www.juanjosemartinez.com.mx/mollisols.htmlMasada, Marion, and Saburo Masada. Personal communication. 20 Feb. 2013.Verheye, W. Soils of arid and semi-arid areas. Land Use, and Land Cover andSoil Sciences, VII, 1-7.Melford, Micheal. Death Valley National Park, in California and Nevada. NationalGeographic Society. Web. 3 May 2013.<http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/national-parks/death-valley-national-park/>.National Archives. (2012). Teaching with documents: Documents and photographsrelated to Japanese relocation during World War II. In National Archives.Retrieved April 8, 2013, fromhttp://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation/Oregon State Archives. (2008). Not exactly paradise: Japanese American internmentcamps. In Life on the home front/ Oregon responds to World War II. RetrievedMarch 17, 2013, fromhttp://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/exhibits/ww2/threat/camps.htmRailback, B. Four Soil Profiles. University of Georgia Geology Department. RetrievedMay 4, 2013, from http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/GeologicalDiagrams2.htmlSherwin, R. (n.d.). Map of Western Exclusion Area. In Arizona’s WWII JapaneseRelocation Camps. Retrieved May 3, 2013, fromhttp://www.wyomingstories.com/History/ArizonasWWIIJapaneseRelocationCamps.htmStamper, J. (n.d.). What was it like for Japanese Americans living in America after PearlHarbor?. In Japanese American Internment. Retrieved April 13, 2013, fromhttp://japanese-american-internment-tas.weebly.com/Soils Lecture (n.d.). In Lecture Notes, Monday April 7. Retrieved May 3, 2013, fromhttp://spot.pcc.edu/~kleonard/G202/Lecture4.htmlTopinka, L. (2006). Description Maars and tuff cones . In USGS Science Changing forthe World. Retrieved May 3, 2013, fromhttp://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/Maars/description_maars.htmlUniversity of Hawaii at Manoa. (2007-2013). Soil mineralogy. In Soil NutrientManagement for Maui County. Retrieved May 2, 2013, fromhttp://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/a_factor_mineralogy.aspxUnrau, H. D. (1996). The evacuation and relocation of persons of Japanese ancestryduring WWII. A historical study of Manzanar war relocation center. HistoricResource Study/Special History Study, 1.War Relocation Authority, Administrator., & Soil Conservation Service, Chief. Draft offield agreement between The Soil Conservation Service, U.S.D.A. and The War
  53. 53. Erika MagnussonHonors 401W Seminar4 May 2013Relocation Authority, O.B.M..Wikipedia Foundation. (2013, April). Soil color. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.Retrieved May 3, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_colorWikipedia Foundation. (2013, March 11). California water wars. In Wikipedia, the FreeEncyclopedia. Retrieved April 26, 2013, fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owens_ValleyWindwolf.org. (2007, April). Feet on the ground: ...Soil. In Windwolf. Retrieved May 2,2013, from http://sci.windwolf.org/soil/orders2.htmWolf, R. (2013, March 12). Tin Mountain Landslide/ Death Valley. Photograph.Retrieved May 3, 2013, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/rwolf/6861222828/