Drosophilla

1,769 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,769
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
52
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • transcription factor involved in many aspects of multicellular developmentTranscription factors are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expressionsometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA
  • Engrailed is a segmentation gene expressed in a series of stripes throughout embryonic development.the segment polarity genes : involved in interactions between the cells of adjacent parasegments---- fundamental unit of drosophila development- made up of proportions of two adj. segments along body of embryoThe Engrailed protein is a transcription factor that is expressed in one row of cells at the edge of each parasegment.
  • Engrailed gene of Drosophila creates border between hind brain and mid brain… guides axons and nuerons where they need to go
  • RED? = high consensus regions (same across all species)BLUE? = low consensus regions (same among some, but not all, species)Black = neutral (variable between species)Top of picture notes the enzymatic portion of seq… w/ higher consensus and bottom of picture = structural part… w/ lower consensus??? Talk about diff. between structural and enzymatic???
  • Fly is the most remote.. 95% consensus between western clawed Frog and zebrafish
  • Seq. of amino acidsBlue = high consensus regions (same across all species)--- Dr. Toma said the Brown or red here is the high consensus… was this right?Brown = low consensus regions (same among some, but not all, species)Black = neutral (variable between species)Diff between structural and enzymatic portion of protein: BLUe part is structural= low consensus and brown = high consensus… High consensus = enzymatic portion of protein… more accurate than the DNA sequence b/c protein is actually doing a specific job? There are many codons for just one amino acid… !
  • Note the percentages… Nematode is the most remote. 82% related to house mouse and human…. Talk about percentarges.Say! But note … the purple sea urchin and Western clawed frog are not more closely related to human than then the norway rat… Therefore can’t just look at one protein (Engrailed Protein) from Engrailed Gene to tell us phylogeny.
  • Drosophilla

    1. 1. Engrailed Gene Drosophila melanogaster
    2. 2. Background Kim, C. (Artist). (2008). Transcription Factor. Duke University Howard Hughes Undergraduate Programs. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://howardhughes.trinity.duke.edu
    3. 3. Arthropod Embryological Development • Engrailed acts as a segment-polarity gene in early embryological development of Drosophila • It defines polarity along the anterior-posterior axis – Creates 14 parasegments • Defines anterior-posterior boundary within each parasegment – Engrailed is found in the posterior region of each parasegment • Has a role in brain development – Defines mid-/hindbrain border – Guides neuronal axons
    4. 4. Segment Polarity Gene • Engrailed gene is a segment polarity gene • Engrailed Protein Schmidt, J. W. (Artist). (2004). Fig. 6 Pair rule. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila_embryogenesis#Additional_se gmentation_genes Schmidt, J. W. (Artist). (2004). Figure 7. Reciprocal signaling between Wingless and Hedgehog producing cells. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Drosophila_embryogenesis#Additional_segmentation_genes
    5. 5. Anterior-Posterior Axis Patterning in Drosophila • One of the main types of genes involved is segmentation genes, including engrailed • Embryological stripes are the result of 14 segments with engrailed expressed in the posterior region of each segment
    6. 6. Function • Brain Development • Axon guidance • First known for its role in arthropod embryological development (2001-2002). MedEdCenter. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://www.edoctoronline.com
    7. 7. Nucleotide Sequence Analysis Figure 1. Engrailed Gene DNA Sequence Analysis Comparison Among Fly, Norway Rat, Zebrafish, and Western Clawed Frog. Florence Corpet. (2013). MultiAlin result page. In MultiAlin. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://multalin.toulouse.inra.fr/multalin/cgi-bin/multalin.pl
    8. 8. DNA Phylogeny Figure 2. Phylogenetic Tree of Engrailed Gene. (2013). Evry, France; Réseau National des. Génopoles. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://phylogeny.fr
    9. 9. Protein Sequence Analysis Figure 3. Engrailed Gene’s Protein Sequence Analysis Comparison of Fly, House Mouse, Human, Norway Rat, Zebrafish, Western Clawed Frog, Purple Sea-Urchin, Nematode, and Domestic Chicken. Florence Corpet. (2013). MultiAlin result page. In MultiAlin. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://multalin.toulouse.inra.fr/multalin/cgi-bin/multalin.pl
    10. 10. Protein Sequence Phylogeny Figure 4. Phylogenetic Tree of Engrailed Gene’s Protein. (2013). Evry, France; Réseau National des. Génopoles. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://phylogeny.fr
    11. 11. Research • Kornberg et al. examined homozygous engrailed mutants and heterozygous (mosaic cell) mutants – Homozygous died with fused, abnormal segments – Mosaic cell suffer abnormalities in the posterior segments • Hidalgo examined processes regulated by engrailed during morphogenesis of the fly wing – Found that engrailed has more than just a patterning function
    12. 12. Bibliography • • • • • • • • Brody, Thomas B. "Interactive Fly, Drosophila." Interactive Fly, Drosophila. Society for Developmental Biology, 5 Dec. 1997. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. Thomas Kornberg, Inga Sidén, Patrick O'Farrell, Michael Simon, The engrailed locus of drosophila: In situ localization of transcripts reveals compartment-specific expression, Cell, Volume 40, Issue 1, January 1985, Pages 45-53, ISSN 0092-8674, 10.1016/00928674(85)90307-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0092867485903071) (2013). Evry, France; Réseau National des. Génopoles. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://phylogeny.fr Florence Corpet. (2013). MultiAlin result page. In MultiAlin. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://multalin.toulouse.inra.fr/multalin/cgi-bin/multalin.pl Kim, C. (Artist). (2008). Transcription Factor. Duke University Howard Hughes Undergraduate Programs. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://howardhughes.trinity.duke.edu Schmidt, J. W. (Artist). (2004). Fig. 6 Pair rule. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from Schmidt, J. W. (Artist). (2004). Figure 7. Reciprocal signaling between Wingless and Hedgehog producing cells. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila_embryogenesis#Additional_segmentation_genes (2001-2002). MedEdCenter. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://www.edoctoronline.com

    ×