DevelopingAssessmentInstruments An Introduction
What is an Assessment Instrument ? An “assessment” is not just a test, but a range of items used to gauge a learner’s abilities and progress as well as quality of instruction in addition to evaluating the instructional mediums used
What is Criterion-Referenced Assessment? Criterion (or the plural version of criteria) is defined as: Criterion Example – • a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based Learners will • a characterizing mark or trait answer 85% of quiz Criterion-referenced assessments, also known as objective questions reference assessments, focus on measuring performance items correctly to associated with learner performance and instructional integrity. demonstrate mastery of Benchmarks, or specific levels of reference, are used to gauge the lesson change in performance, attitudes, and other measurable items. Remember to be clear when defining objectives and criteriahttp://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/criterion
Types of Criterion-Referenced TestsFour types of Criterion-Referenced Tests Used in Instructional Design Process Entry Skills Test Pretest Practice or Posttest Rehearsal Test Presented to Presented to Presented following learners before learners before Presented during the instructional instruction is instruction is the instructional provided provided Used to assess all Used to facilitate objectives and skills Assesses Gauge learner learner from the prerequisite skills mastery of material participation during instructional and help instructor instructionLearners may have to cater course Help to evaluate harder time material to meet Help to gauge instructionallearning material if needs of most learning and effectiveness and skills are lacking learners understanding learner knowledge (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009)
Test Design Finding the best testing format to measure different areas/types of learningVerbal Information DomainHOW - Learners demonstrate understanding by remembering or not remembering informationWHAT – Direct objective-style test items such as short-answer, alternative response, matching, andmultiple-choice itemsIntellectual Skills DomainHOW – More difficult and complex to create – gauging knowledge of multi-faceted conceptsWHAT – Objective-style test items, creation of a project/product, or performance/presentation (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009)
Test Design Continued Finding the best testing format to measure different areas/types of learningAttitudinal DomainHOW – Also more difficult and complex instruments to create – focusing on learner preferencesand attitudesWHAT – Direct learner statement, observation, or similar inference…Psychomotor DomainHOW – Typically require the learner to demonstrate steps to show understanding of a universalconceptWHAT – Rubric, checklist, rating scale, or direct demonstrations… (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009)
Types of Test Item CriterionFour types of Test Item Criteria Used within the Instructional Design ProcessGoal-Centered Learner-Centered Context-Centered Assessment-CenteredFocusing on the Focusing on the Focusing on the Focusing on all aspects objectives of differentiated environment in of the assessment the needs of learners which learning design and creation instructional occurs as well as where direct application (i.e. performance) ultimately occurs (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009)
Important NoteIt is important to promote learners to evaluatethemselves – quality of work and performance“Self-evaluation and self-refinement are two of the main goals of all instructionsince they can lead to independent learning.” (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009)
Assessment Self-Reflection Think about how you have used assessments in the past to either gauge your personal knowledge andskill levels or to analyze the aptitudes of your learners Do you feel the assessments helped you to gain abetter understanding of your knowledge and that of your learners? If so, why, and if not, why not?
ReferencesImages • http://www.sxc.hu • http://shootingellie.blogspot.comContent • http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/criterion • Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2009). The systematic design of instruction. (7th ed., pp. 130-163). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.