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Ethics and ux ux sofia nov 2018

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My opening keynote from UX Sofia, November 2018 on the ethical dilemmas facing user-experience designers.

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Ethics and ux ux sofia nov 2018

  1. 1. EthUX Seven deadly sins that keep us from building a better world Eric Reiss @elreiss UX Sofia November 9, 2018 Sofia, Bulgaria
  2. 2. Disclaimer Absolutely no attempt has been made to make this presentation politically correct. No animals were harmed during the production of this PowerPoint (even though I tried). Made entirely of recycled electrons.
  3. 3. Disclaimer #2 If you’ve heard this all before, my apologies. If you’ve ignored these issues, step up and take a stand.
  4. 4. Clive K. Lavery | “Being a Digital Do-gooder”| 27 September, 2016
  5. 5. Aral Balkan | “Design or Decoration?”| 27 September, 2017
  6. 6. Leyla Nasib and Jonna Ratanen| “Children’s Rights and Ethics in Design”| 17 April, 2018
  7. 7. What are “ethics”? What are “morals”?
  8. 8. “Morals” “Ethics” “The beliefs I have accepted.” “How I practice these beliefs.”
  9. 9. “Thou shalt not kill.”
  10. 10. Internal External
  11. 11. Johann and his iPhone
  12. 12. Johann and the lost letter
  13. 13. Johann, Albert, Clara (and Leo)
  14. 14. Clara
  15. 15. Clara 1983 - 2018
  16. 16. • It’s not just “1” and “0” • Or right and wrong • Or “yes” and “no” • Or “black” and “white” The world is grey and difficult. Learn to live with it. The world isn’t binary
  17. 17. “Do no evil” “Make money”
  18. 18. “Make money” “Do no evil”
  19. 19. “Make money” “Keep the government off our back”
  20. 20. Eric, stop bashing Google!
  21. 21. Sister Dorothy and the Vatican
  22. 22. Internal External
  23. 23. • Privacy • Security • Intellectual property rights plus • Diversity • Inclusion • Harassment Key ethical issues today
  24. 24. • Is this right? • Is this respectful? • Is this responsible? • Is this fair? • Is this legal? Questions we need to ask
  25. 25. Small compromises can add up to big problems!
  26. 26. 1. Manipulating the research 2. Faking the content 3. Promoting addiction 4. Dark patterns 5. Teamwork trauma 6. Offensive AI 7. UX theatre Seven deadly sins
  27. 27. Manipulating the research Lies, damned lies, and statistics
  28. 28. • Asking “loaded” questions • Manipulating the results • Hiding the results • Not actually doing the research Four problems
  29. 29. 1. Was the product information sufficient and relevant? 6/10 2. Was the transaction cost of the products appropriate? 1/10 3. Were you satisfied with the website experience? 5/10 Interpreting interrelated questions
  30. 30. • Asking “loaded” questions • Manipulating the results • Hiding the results • Not actually doing the research Four problems
  31. 31. • Asking “loaded” questions • Manipulating the results • Hiding the results • Not actually doing the research Four problems
  32. 32. • Asking “loaded” questions • Manipulating the results • Hiding the results • Not actually doing the research Four problems
  33. 33. District heating plants in Poland
  34. 34. “Return on Investment is based on historic data. It is a backward-looking metric that yields no insights into how to improve business results in the future.” www.maxi-pedia.com
  35. 35. • Examine the research sources • Ask relevant follow-up questions • Don’t trust client research. Verify it. • Watch out for personal or political agendas • Call bullshit when you see it (diplomatically) What you can do
  36. 36. • Being principled is challenging • There are consequences to your actions • Be gentle if you can • The greater the ethical violation, the harder you need to push • Sometimes, it’s good to get fired Some thoughts on “calling bullshit”
  37. 37. Faking the content Hits and bruises
  38. 38. • Fake testimonials • Fake photos • Misleading metadata • Fake referral sites • Clueless social-media managers What to look out for
  39. 39. Products Green Blue Red Specifications Specifications Specifications Applications Applications References Testimonials Applications References Testimonials References Testimonials
  40. 40. Danske Bank
  41. 41. • Ask yourself if the content is honest • Ask yourself if this is really in the user’s best interests • Ask yourself if this is in the business’s best interests • Don’t force content providers to publish information they cannot provide What you can do
  42. 42. Promoting addiction Digital drugs
  43. 43. • Bait-and-switch techniques – Online casinos • Peer pressure techniques – Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook • Ludomania disguised as entertainment What to look out for
  44. 44. “100 free spins…”
  45. 45. • There really is only one question you need to ask yourself: – Would I want my children to use this site or app? What you can doWhat you can do
  46. 46. Dark patterns Asterisks and after-risks
  47. 47. • Sites that trick you to: – Opt in to something you do not want – Buy something you do not want • Sites that require information they are not entitled to: – Telephone number – Personal details (e.g. gender) What to look out for
  48. 48. • People do not read very carefully • People will often accept that they have been tricked because it takes too long to put things right again Some sad facts
  49. 49. • Bait-and-switch • Disguised ads • Forced continuity • Friend spam • Hidden costs • Misdirection • Price comparison prevention • Private Zuckering • Roach motel • Sneak into basket • Trick questions Some patterns to watch out for
  50. 50. https://darkpatterns.org/
  51. 51. Frequently bought together…
  52. 52. Scarcity Social validation Fear of loss
  53. 53. Sneaky terms and conditions
  54. 54. An exception to the rule
  55. 55. • Make sure the behaviour of your design is not misleading people • Do not trick or cheat people • Keep the user’s needs in focus What you can do
  56. 56. Teamwork trauma Design thinking or design terror?
  57. 57. • Designs that are “flavour of the month” – WordPress – Flat design • Colleagues who do not meet their obligations • Clients and employers who are asking you to bend your personal code of ethics What to look out for
  58. 58. The Czech brothel project
  59. 59. Clive K. Lavery | “Being a Digital Do-gooder”| 27 September, 2016
  60. 60. Clive K. Lavery | “Being a Digital Do-gooder”| 27 September, 2016
  61. 61. • If you are a manager, give your team members and opportunity to opt out • If you are a team member, let your manager know if the projects makes you uncomfortable • Respect any NDAs you have signed • If you make a promise, keep it! What you can do
  62. 62. Offensive AI Tay, Siri, Alexa, and Bixby
  63. 63. • Validate your assumptions • Test your prototypes, apps, and existing sites with real users • Mine the existing data for genuine insights • Check for cultural bias – Racist, religious, and sexist discrimination • Train your algorithm with unbiased data • Monitor your AI bot regularly What you can do
  64. 64. UX theatre Brainstorming and bullshit
  65. 65. https://twitter.com/i/moments/955234060 951048192
  66. 66. • So-called UX projects where no one has actually ever talked to a user • Fake personas • Projects where assumptions are given the same weight as actual research • Team members who exhibit strong cognitive bias • Civil servants and mediocre managers who just want an impressive report, but do not actually want to improve UX What to look out for
  67. 67. The Copenhagen Letter Taking a moral stand
  68. 68. Highland Park High School Math Club 1969
  69. 69. "There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home." Ken Olsen Founder, Digital Equipment Corp. 1977
  70. 70. TRS-80 1977
  71. 71. Apple II 1977
  72. 72. IBM PC 1981
  73. 73. Apple Macintosh 1984
  74. 74. "There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home." Ken Olsen Founder, Digital Equipment Corp. 1977 But that was then…
  75. 75. With power comes responsibility…
  76. 76. The Copenhagen Letter
  77. 77. The Copenhagen Letter Today, over 4,400 people have signed. These aren’t merely Facebook likes. These signatures represent a commitment.
  78. 78. https://copenhagenletter.org/ Join us!
  79. 79. A few parting comments about “tribalism”
  80. 80. commons.wikimedia.org
  81. 81. “In fascism, the idea is that we’re not individual human beings who have thoughts and reflect before we speak, the idea is that we are tribes. And the politics begin with deciding who the enemy is.” Timothy Snyder Historian, Author “The Road to Unfreedom”
  82. 82. “Lock her up!” “Build the wall!” “Fake news!”
  83. 83. “Mobile first!” “Build the app!” “Sprint! Sprint! Sprint! Sprint!”
  84. 84. Tribes exclude. Communities welcome. We live in dangerous times. We can make a difference. We designers must remain inclusive!
  85. 85. Bonus material
  86. 86. We didn’t invent this discipline Give credit where credit is due
  87. 87. 50-year-old wearable
  88. 88. 90-year-old A/B test
  89. 89. 150-year-old infographic
  90. 90. 170-year-old sitemap
  91. 91. 220-year-old SEO project
  92. 92. 250-year-old knowledge map
  93. 93. 300-year-old taxonomy
  94. 94. A 400-year-old content inventory
  95. 95. 650-year-old personas
  96. 96. 5000-year-old wireframe
  97. 97. 15000-year-old storyboard
  98. 98. Gestural interfaces - 1935
  99. 99. • You are unique! • You hold incredible power! • You can change the world! Some of you will…and thank goodness for that! A few parting words
  100. 100. благодаря!
  101. 101. The FatDUX Group ApS Strandøre 15 2100 Copenhagen Denmark Office: (+45) 39 29 07 07 Mobil: (+45) 20 12 88 44 Twitter: @elreiss er@fatdux.com www.fatdux.com Eric Reiss can (usually) be found at:

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