Food Security & Home-Scale Permaculture (For Health & Wellbeing)


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Food Security & Home-Scale Permaculture for Health & wellbeing (Salutogenesis)

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Food Security & Home-Scale Permaculture (For Health & Wellbeing)

  1. 1. Food Security & Home-scale Permaculture (Salutogenesis:- Creating Health & Wellbeing) <ul><li>Permaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Square-Foot-Gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Share-Cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Localization </li></ul><ul><li>Permablitz </li></ul>
  2. 2. Quotable Quotes …… <ul><li>There’s a direct connection between the health of the soil, the health of the plants, the health of the animals, and you as eater. </li></ul><ul><li>Your health is inseparable from the health of whole food chain that you’re a part of. </li></ul><ul><li>Your health is not bordered by your own skin, and that you must take a broader view of it if you’re really concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>An Eater’s Manifesto: “Eat Food. Not Too Much. Mostly Plants.” </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental crisis is a crisis of character. It's really about how we live. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Food Security & Permaculture <ul><li>Food Security covers the following areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety: pesticide-free, Non-Genetic Modified etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Availability: food-mile concept etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability: soil fertility and ecology etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing & Storage & Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permaculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution for Food Security issues stated above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioregional & Home-scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment Designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permablitz </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Industrial Agriculture <ul><li>Heavy reliance on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides etc. These are all petroleum-based products. High energy usage and many costs externalized / subsidized. It is not really “low-cost and cheap”. </li></ul><ul><li>These are slowly but surely destroying the soil and the ecological environment (including our own bodies). </li></ul><ul><li>Largely mono-cultures (and genetically modified), thus reducing bio-diversities which are against the natural order. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal husbandry has its own load of problems, including the emission of GHG that causes global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Resultant cross-border trades and the associated food-mile issues and income disparity etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Soil …. Not Oil <ul><li>Modern agriculture has consumed an alarming amount of our native top soils. These top soils were built over millions of years and are not easily regained. The only foreseeable strategy for the future is to stop this reckless erosion and degradation of natural soils, and to actively build soils to ensure a viable ecological base from which we can grow our food. </li></ul><ul><li>Building soil involves a process of allowing carbon and nitrogen sources to decompose in-situ over time. Along with many forms of life including mycelium, worms, insects, nematodes, root systems, bacteria and others, carbon and nitrogen are converted into soil. This process occurs naturally in the forest: leaves and other plant matter (carbon) fall to the forest floor. Other organisms such as mycelium (mushrooms) and deposits made from various life forms (nitrogen) mix together and decompose, transforming into the new life-giving soil which begins the growth process again. The great soil deposits of the world were created over millennia of healthy ecological systems cycling through its many life forms. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Soil ….. Not Oil ….. <ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci once said, &quot;We know more about the movement of the celestial bodies than the soil underfoot.” </li></ul><ul><li>In today's high-tech society, most people keep soil out of mind and out of context—yet what could be more important?  All living things originate from the soil, and eventually return to it.  All great civilizations, including the Egyptians, Greeks, Mayans and Romans, depended upon an adequate supply of fertile soil.  These civilizations also declined when soil resources became thin due to erosion and bad management. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organic Farming & Permaculture <ul><li>Organic farming practices will eventually replace Industrial Agriculture, if Mother Earth is to continue providing our needs. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many forms of organic farming practices, and vary both in extend and depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture could well be the ideal choice, as the practice is more than mere “permanent agriculture”. It is also “permanent culture” that covers environment designs and other cultural aspects. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Permaculture <ul><li>The permaculture concept originated in Australia in the 1970s (Bill Mollison and David Holmgren) to promote agro-ecological design theory, and has since grown to include a collection of ethics and principles that influence the wider designing of human systems that work in harmony with natural ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is a design science, based on observation, that integrates all human activities into a whole system based on natural patterning and ecology. In a word, Permaculture=Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is a philosophy of agricultural land-use that calls for combining plants, animals, and structures in such a way as to maximize the number of uses for the land while increasing its self-sufficiency and minimizing maintenance by focusing on the use of perennial plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is a design system based upon observing how ecosystems (or any systems) interact. Its purpose is the formation of sustainable habitats (whether human, agricultural, cultural, financial, governmental, etc.). Permaculture principles are based upon core values or ethics (Earthcare, Peoplecare, Fairshare). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Permaculture ….. <ul><li>A system for sustainable design of human culture that focuses on both ecological mindfulness and the provision of basic human needs in an environmentally sustainable way. </li></ul><ul><li>Some specific elements addressing sustainable societies include natural building, small-scale agriculture, sustainable resource use, and the use of appropriate technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is not energy- or capital-intensive, rather it is information-intensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is about &quot;...saving the planet and living to be a hundred, while throwing very impressive dinner parties and organising other creatures to do most of the work.“…. Linda Woodrow </li></ul>
  10. 10. Permaculture …… <ul><li>Permaculture goes beyond realising that conventional agriculture is the most destructive thing humans are doing on the planet: it offers an achievable alternative in the form of sustainable small scale local food production systems.  Part of this vision is massively decreasing the distance between where food is produced and consumed (the food-mile concept). </li></ul><ul><li>As a design process, permaculture has three phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Design, where a design or pattern is made that seamlessly integrates a landscape with the wants, needs and abilities of the people living there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Design implementation, where the design becomes a reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Follow up and system evolution, where we learn from our successes and mistakes, and we let the system demonstrate its own evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food is just one part of the permaculture equation. Permaculture equally addresses and integrates water, energy, waste, shelter, community, local economy, governance and all other aspects of sustainable living. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Permaculture Zones <ul><li>The term ‘Zones’ in Permaculture are simply labels for areas that are grouped together reflecting specific activities and characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>The zones are used to make sustainable design easy and ensure that each area is efficient, low maintenance, produces good results and integrates smoothly with other zones. </li></ul><ul><li>The zones are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 0 - Where you live, or where you spend most of your time in relation to the place of your Permaculture Project (ie. it could be your office or shop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 1 - Vegetable Patch and close plantings to your house (or office or shop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 2 - The “Food Forest” or Orchard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 3 - The Farming Area (whether it be crops or animals - often for commercial use) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 4 - Harvest Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 5 - Natural Forests or Conservation Areas </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Permaculture Guilds & Stacks <ul><li>In addition to zones, other patterns / relationships are very important in Permaculture, such as guilds and stacks, as illustrated here. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Permablitz <ul><li>A permablitz is a contraction of permaculture and blitz , where a blitz simply means a focused application of energy or a concentrated effort to get something done.  </li></ul><ul><li>Permablitz: An informal gathering involving a day on which a group of at least two people come together to achieve the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create or add to edible gardens where someone lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>share skills related to permaculture and sustainable living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build community networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have fun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once a design is in hand, a permablitz is a day where volunteers come together to help make that design a reality.  </li></ul><ul><li>Permablitz volunteers help with events corresponding to the three phases of design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) pre-blitz design visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) permablitzes proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) post-blitz follow up visits </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Re-Localization <ul><li>Very closely related to Permaculture is Relocalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Relocalization is a strategy to build societies based on the local production of food , energy and goods , and the local development of currency , governance and culture . The main goals of Relocalization are to increase community energy security, to strengthen local economies, and to dramatically improve environmental conditions and social equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The Relocalization Network supports local groups in developing community activities and programs that can be implemented locally and as working models for other communities seeking to increase their resilience. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Relocalization …… <ul><li>Eat Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying locally-grown food and patronizing locally-owned restaurants and groceries supports local farms, strengthens local food supply chains, and decreases greenhouse gas emissions due to transportation of food grown outside the region. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grow Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the capacity of people to grow more of their own food promotes better nutrition, economic resilience in the face of rising food prices, and increased appreciation for nature and ecology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buy Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting locally-owned businesses benefits the locals by keeping more of the money spent here circulating through the local economy, encouraging new independent businesses, and helping to retain the unique character of the community. Local businesses have strong community ties and are more accountable for their environmental and employment practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving energy and supporting development of renewable energy sources reduces reliance on imported fossil fuels, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, and buffers people against rising energy prices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased use of mass transit, ridesharing, and human-powered transportation also reduces reliance on imported fossil fuels, reduces pollution, and buffers people against rising energy prices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting local arts, entertainment, recreation, and regional tourism reduces our reliance on imported, mass-produced entertainment and unnecessary travel </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Home-Scale Permaculture <ul><li>In suburban contexts, permaculture design focuses on the relative location in space and time of things like herb gardens, vegetable gardens, chicken houses, paths, ponds and fruit trees.  </li></ul><ul><li>In this respect, Home-Scale Permaculture is much more than Organic Gardening, Square Foot Gardening etc, which can, however, be component parts of the big Permaculture picture. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Square Foot Gardening
  18. 19. Features & Benefits <ul><li>Square Foot Garden (Other equivalent: Keyhole / Lasagne Gardens etc) </li></ul><ul><li>It is simple, fits in a small space and produces big results while costs little. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Real Organic Food in Urban Neighborhood (GROFUN) </li></ul><ul><li>No Digging, No Tilling, No Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Small Space, Big Results, Little Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing & Exchanging (Share-Cropping) </li></ul><ul><li>Service Network (Gardener For Hire) </li></ul><ul><li>Horticulture Therapy & Aromatherapy </li></ul>
  19. 20. Quotable Quotes ….. <ul><li>Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads ….. Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>You can solve the problems of the world in a garden …… Geoff Lawton </li></ul><ul><li>“ More grows in a garden than what the gardener plants” ….. Old Spanish Proverb </li></ul>
  20. 21. Business Savvies vs. Values Savvies <ul><li>Business Savvies vs. Systems Savvies </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Savvies vs. Sustainability Savvies </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability Savvies vs. Ecosystems Savvies </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems Savvies vs. Holism Savvies </li></ul><ul><li>Holism Savvies vs. Theology Savvies </li></ul>
  21. 22. Happiness & Sense of Coherence <ul><li>Hedonistic (Pleasure / Pleasant Life ) </li></ul><ul><li>Desire (Engagement / Good Life ) </li></ul><ul><li>Objective Meaning ( Meaningful Life ) </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Happiness : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Three combined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salutogenesis / Sense of Coherence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manageability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. So, what are we selling?
  23. 24. So, what are we selling …? <ul><li>In the market economy, there can be recognized five types of economic offering as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We like to classify ourselves as the last category, even though the SOHOLUTION approach certainly contains the other elements as well. </li></ul><ul><li>You can definitely recognize the relevant components as you explore deeper and participate actively in the full range of offerings. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Appendix: Biochar
  25. 26. Biochar <ul><li>Bio char is a modern equivalent of Terra Preta, a rich soil found in South America. The soil found there was heavily amended with charred organic materials and has been found to greatly enhance plant growth. Bio char is created by pyrolysis. This process takes place in an oxygen deprived system (limited oxygen), thus resulting in char rather than ashes (as in normal burning process). </li></ul>
  26. 27. Biochar ….. <ul><li>The following benefits occur with additions of biochar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed methane emission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced nitrous oxide emission (estimate 50%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced fertilizer requirement (estimate 10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced leaching of nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored carbon in a long term stable sink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces soil acidity: raises soil pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces aluminum toxicity </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Biochar ….. <ul><ul><li>Increased soil aggregation due to increased fungal hyphae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved soil water handling characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased soil levels of available Ca, Mg, P, and K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased soil microbial respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased soil microbial biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased cation exchange capacity </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Biochar (Biological Charcoal) <ul><li>Biochar: A Soil Amendment that Combats Global Warming and Improves Agricultural Sustainability and Environmental Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Biochar production processes can utilize most urban, agricultural or forestry biomass residues, including wood chips, corn stover, rice or peanut hulls, tree bark, paper mill sludge, animal manure, and recycled organics, for instance. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Biochar …. <ul><li>Biochar and bioenergy co-production from urban, agricultural and forestry biomass can help combat global climate change by displacing fossil fuel use, by sequestering carbon in stable soil carbon pools, and by dramatically reducing emissions of nitrous oxides, a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. [1] , [2] As a soil amendment, biochar helps to improve the Earth’s soil resource by increasing crop yields and productivity, by reducing soil acidity, and by reducing the need for some chemical and fertilizer inputs. [3] , [4] Water quality is improved by the use of biochar as a soil amendment, because biochar aids in soil retention of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant and crop utilization, [5] , [6] reducing leaching and run-off to ground and surface waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Biochar production and utilization systems differ from most biomass energy systems because the technology is carbon-negative : it removes net carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and stores it in stable soil carbon “sinks”. [7] Other biomass energy systems are at best carbon-neutral, resulting in no net changes to atmospheric carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Biochar …. <ul><li>[1] Yanai et al., 2007, Effects of charcoal addition on N2O emissions from soil resulting from rewetting air-dried soil in short-term laboratory experiments, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , 53:181-188. </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Rondon, M., Ramirez, J.A., and Lehmann, J.: 2005, Charcoal additions reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, in Proceedings of the 3rd USDA Symposium on Greenhouse Gases and Carbon Sequestration , Baltimore, USA, March 21-24, 2005, p. 208. </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Glaser, B., Lehmann, J. and Zech, W., 2002, Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal --- a review, Biology and Fertility of Soils , 35: 219-230. </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Lehmann, J. and Rondon, M., 2006, Biochar soil management on highly weathered soils in the humid tropics. In Uphoff N (ed.), Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems , CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 517-530. </li></ul><ul><li>[5] Lehmann, J., et al., 2003, Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments, Plant and Soil , 249: 343-357. </li></ul><ul><li>[6] Steiner, C., et al., Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil, Plant and Soil , 291: 275-290. </li></ul><ul><li>[7] Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M., 2006, Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11:403-427 </li></ul>
  31. 33. Acknowledgement & Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 34. Contact: <ul><li>Blog: </li></ul><ul><li>Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile: +6012-213-4968 </li></ul>